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United States Department of Energy national laboratories

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Title: United States Department of Energy national laboratories  
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Subject: United States Department of Energy, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy national laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Under Secretary of Energy for Science
Collection: Energy Research Institutes, Laboratories in the United States, Nuclear History of the United States, Nuclear Weapons Program of the United States, Research Institutes in the United States, Science and Technology in the United States, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of Energy Facilities, United States Department of Energy National Laboratories
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United States Department of Energy national laboratories

The official seal of the U.S. Department of Energy.

The United States Department of Energy national laboratories and technology centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of advancing science and technology to fulfill the DOE mission. Sixteen of the seventeen DOE national laboratories are federally funded research and development centers administered, managed, operated and staffed by private-sector organizations under management and operatings (M&O) contract with DOE.

Contents

  • History 1
  • List of DOE National Laboratories and Technology Centers 2
    • National Laboratories 2.1
    • Technology Centers 2.2
  • List of scientific user facilities 3
  • Further reading 4
  • See also 5
  • External links 6

History

The system of centralized national laboratories grew out of the massive scientific endeavors of MIT engineer Vannevar Bush.

During the second world war, centralized sites such as the Radiation Laboratory at MIT and Ernest O. Lawrence's laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley allowed for a large number of expert scientists to collaborate towards defined goals as never before, and with virtually unlimited government resources at their disposal.

In the course of the war, the Allied nuclear effort, the Manhattan Project, created several secret sites for the purpose of bomb research and material development, including a laboratory in the desert of New Mexico directed by Robert Oppenheimer (Los Alamos), and sites at Hanford, Washington and Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Hanford and Oak Ridge were administered by private companies, and Los Alamos was administered by a public university (the University of California). Additional success was had at the University of Chicago in reactor research, leading to the creation of Argonne National Laboratory outside Chicago, and at other academic institutions spread across the country.

After the war and its scientific successes, the newly created Atomic Energy Commission took over the future of the wartime laboratories, extending their lives indefinitely (they were originally thought of as temporary creations). Funding and infrastructure were secured to sponsor other "national laboratories" for both classified and basic research, especially in physics. Each national laboratory would generally be centered around one or many expensive machines (such as particle accelerators or nuclear reactors).

Most national laboratories maintained staffs of local researchers as well as allowing for visiting researchers to use their equipment, though priority to local or visiting researchers often varied from lab to lab. With their centralization of resources (both monetary and intellectual), the national labs serve as an exemplar for Big Science.

Elements of both competition and cooperation were encouraged in the laboratories. Often two laboratories with similar missions were created (such as Lawrence Livermore which was designed to compete with Los Alamos) with the hope that competition over funding would create a culture of high quality work. Laboratories which did not have overlapping missions would cooperate with each other (for example, Lawrence Livermore would cooperate with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, which itself was often in competition with Brookhaven National Laboratory).

The national laboratory system, administered first by the Atomic Energy Commission, then the Energy Research and Development Administration, and currently the Department of Energy, is one of the largest (if not the largest) scientific research systems in the world. The DOE provides more than 40% of the total national funding for physics, chemistry, materials science, and other areas of the physical sciences. Many are locally managed by private companies, while others are managed by academic universities, and as a system they form one of the overarching and far-reaching components in what is known as the "iron triangle" of military, academia, and industry.

List of DOE National Laboratories and Technology Centers

National Laboratories

Map of the 17 DOE National Laboratories in 2010.

The United States Department of Energy currently operates seventeen national laboratories:

at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1910)
at Morgantown, West Virginia (1946)
at Sugar Land, Texas (2000)
at Fairbanks, Alaska (2001)
at Albany, Oregon (2005)

Technology Centers

* GOCO (Government-owned, Contractor-operated)
** GOGO (Government-owned, Government-operated)

List of scientific user facilities

Further reading

  • Westwick, Peter J. The National Labs: Science in an American System, 1947–1974. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003, ISBN 9780674009486.

See also

External links

  • DOE.gov: Department of Energy National Laboratories website
  • Science.energy.gov: U.S. Department of Energy; Ten-Year Plans for the Office of Science's National Laboratories
  • DOE.gov: DOE Budget Page, with link to National Laboratories budgets

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