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Taxonomy (general)

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Title: Taxonomy (general)  
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Subject: Ontology, Gellish English dictionary, Categorization, Knowledge management software, Semantic spectrum
Collection: Classification Systems, Hierarchy, Nomenclature, Ontology, Scientific Nomenclature, Taxonomy
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Taxonomy (general)

Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification. The word is also used as a

  • Atran, S. (1993) Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Towards an Anthropology of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10-ISBN 0-521-43871-3; 13-ISBN 978-0-521-43871-3
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  • *Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", Folklore, XCV(1984), no. 1, 100-104.
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  • Härlin, M.; Sundberg, P. (1998). "Taxonomy and Philosophy of Names". Biology and Philosophy 13 (2): 233–244.  
  • Lamberts, K.; Shanks, D.R. (1997). Knowledge, Concepts, and Categories. Psychology Press.  


  1. ^ "Taxonony"
  2. ^ Zirn, Cäcilia, Vivi Nastase and Michael Strube. 2008. "Distinguishing Between Instances and Classes in the WorldHeritage Taxonomy" (video lecture). 5th Annual European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2008).
  3. ^ S. Ponzetto and M. Strube. 2007. "Deriving a large scale taxonomy from WorldHeritage". Proc. of the 22nd Conference on the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, pp. 1440-1445.
  4. ^ S. Ponzetto, R. Navigli. 2009. "Large-Scale Taxonomy Mapping for Restructuring and Integrating WorldHeritage". Proc. of the 21st International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 2009), Pasadena, California, pp. 2083-2088.
  5. ^ Jackson, Joab. "Taxonomy’s not just design, it’s an art," Government Computer News (Washington, D.C.). September 2, 2004.
  6. ^ Suryanto, Hendra and Paul Compton. "Learning classification taxonomies from a classification knowledge based system." University of Karlsruhe; "Defining 'Taxonomy'," Straights Knowledge website.
  7. ^ Grossi, Davide, Frank Dignum and John-Jules Charles Meyer. (2005). pp. 33-51Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems,"Contextual Taxonomies" in .
  8. ^ Kenneth Boulding, Elias Khalil (2002). Evolution, Order and Complexity. Routledge.   p. 9
  9. ^ Ronald J. Brachman; What IS-A is and isn't. An Analysis of Taxonomic Links in Semantic Networks. IEEE Computer, 16 (10); October 1983.


See also

Two of the predominant types of relationships in knowledge-representation systems are predication and the universally quantified conditional. Predication relationships express the notion that an individual entity is an example of a certain type (for example, John is a bachelor), while universally quantified conditionals express the notion that a type is a subtype of another type (for example, A dog is a mammal, which means the same as All dogs are mammals).[9]

Is-a and has-a relationships

In the seventeenth century the German mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz, following the work of the thirteenth-century Majorcan philosopher Ramon Llull on his Ars generalis ultima, a system for procedurally generating concepts by combining a fixed set of ideas, sought to develop an alphabet of human thought. Leibniz intended his characteristica universalis to be an "algebra" capable of expressing all conceptual thought. The concept of creating such a "universal language" was frequently examined in the seventeenth century, also notably by the English philosopher John Wilkins in his work An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language (1668), from which the classification scheme in Roget's Thesaurus ultimately derives.



By contrast, in the context of legal terminology, an open-ended contextual taxonomy is employed—a taxonomy holding only with respect to a specific context. In scenarios taken from the legal domain, a formal account of the open-texture of legal terms is modeled, which suggests varying notions of the "core" and "penumbra" of the meanings of a concept. The progress of reasoning proceeds from the specific to the more general.[7]

Mathematically, a hierarchical taxonomy is a tree structure of classifications for a given set of objects. It is also named Containment hierarchy. At the top of this structure is a single classification, the root node, that applies to all objects. Nodes below this root are more specific classifications that apply to subsets of the total set of classified objects. The progress of reasoning proceeds from the general to the more specific.

In an even wider sense, the term taxonomy could also be applied to relationship schemes other than parent-child hierarchies, such as Knowledge Management, taxonomies are considered narrower than ontologies since ontologies apply a larger variety of relation types.[6]

WorldHeritage categories illustrate a taxonomy[2] and a full taxonomy of WorldHeritage categories can be extracted by automatic means.[3] Recently, it has been shown that a manually-constructed taxonomy, such as that of computational lexicons like WordNet, can be used to improve and restructure the WorldHeritage category taxonomy.[4]



  • Applications 1
  • History 2
  • Is-a and has-a relationships 3
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
  • References 6

Many taxonomies have a hierarchical structure, but this is not a requirement. Taxonomy uses taxonomic units, known as taxa (singular taxon).

which is dealing with the classification of parts of a whole. meronomy In a wider, more general sense, it may refer to a classification of things or concepts, as well as to the principles underlying such a classification. Taxonomy is different from [1]

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