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Stanislovas Rapalionis

Stanislovas Rapalionis (also known as Latin: Stanislaus Rapagel(l)anus, Stanislaus Lituanus, or Polish: Stanisław Rafajowicz) (1485[1]–1545) was Lithuanian professor of theology in Königsberg Albertina University, founder of the first Lithuanian language school in Vilnius, and the first translator of the Bible into Lithuanian, although this translation has not survived.[2]


Rapalionis was a Lithuanian noble born near Eišiškės.[3] After becoming a student of Martin Luther, he was persecuted for his Lutheran beliefs by Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Sigismund Augustus and was forced to leave Grand Duchy of Lithuania while seeking protection in Königsberg.[4] He received his doctoral thesis in Wittenberg with a scholarship sponsored by Albert, Duke of Prussia.

Rapalionis was the first professor of theology at the Königsberg seminary, the predecessor of the Albertina University, where he was invited by Duke Albert to work on a translation of the Bible into Polish.[5] Some source claims that he was an advocate of the Protestant Reformation in Poland as well.[6] Stanislovas Rapalionis also quickly grew famous for his lectures.[2] The lectures of Rapalionis were attended by prominent members of the Prussian establishment, including Albert.[7]

After Stanislovas Rapalionis died in Königsberg, Albert ordered his body entombed in Königsberg Cathedral. The inscription "Here lies a great man, the pride of the Lithuanian nation." was inscribed on his tomb.[7]


  1. ^ Exact date of birth is known, alternative date could be 1500. Mažosios Lietuvos enciklopedija. Vol. 4 p. 46
  2. ^ a b Slavėnas, M. G. (1997). "The Protestant minority churches in Lithuania 1919-1940".  
  3. ^ Augustinas Janulaitis, Bronius Dundulis. Praeitis, Vol.3; 1990 p.218
  4. ^ Europe 1450 to 1789: Popular culture to Switzerland. 2004, p/158
  5. ^ David A. Frick (1989). Polish Sacred Philology in the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation: Chapters in the History of the Controversies (1551-1632). University of California Press. pp. 14–.  
  6. ^ Karin Maag (1997). The Reformation in Eastern and Central Europe. Scolar Press.  
  7. ^ a b Zinkevičius, Zigmas (1993). Rytų Lietuva praeityje ir dabar. Vilnius:  


  • Bense, Gertrud: "Zum regionalen und personalen Umfeld des früheren preußisch-litauischen Schrifttums". In: Annaberger Annalen 4 (1996), Seite 55-67 [2] (German)
  • Eugenija Ulčinaitė, Juozas Tumelis. Stanislovas Rapolionis. -Vilnius, 1986. (Lithuanian)

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