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Revenge-class battleship

Class overview
Name: Revenge class
Operators: Royal Navy and (one ship as "war loan", 1944–45) Soviet Navy
Preceded by: [[
Succeeded by:
  • [[ (planned)
  • [[ (actual)
In commission: 1916–1949
Planned: 8
Completed: 5
Cancelled: 3 (2 re-ordered to different design)
Lost: 1
General characteristics
Type: Battleship
Displacement:
  • 29,150 tons standard
  • 33,500 tons full load
Length: 624 ft (190 m)
Beam: 88.5 ft (27.0 m)
Draught: 28.6 ft (8.7 m)
Propulsion:
  • Steam turbines, 4 shafts
  • 24 boilers
  • 26,500 shp (20 MW)
Speed: 21 knots (39 km/h)
Range: 5,000 nmi (9,000 km) at 12 knots (22 km/h)
Complement: 997–1,150
Armament:
Armour:
  • Belt: 13 in (330 mm) amidships; 4–6 in (102–152 mm) ends
  • Deck: up to 5 in (127 mm)
  • Turrets: 13 in (330 mm) faces; 5 in (127 mm) sides; 5 in (127 mm) roof
  • Barbettes: up to 10 in (254 mm)
  • Citadel: 11 in (279 mm)

The Revenge-class battleships (listed as Royal Sovereign class in several editions of Jane's Fighting Ships, as with the 1919[1] and 1931 editions, and sometimes also known as the "R" class) were five battleships of the Royal Navy, ordered as World War I loomed, and launched in 1914–1916. There were originally to have been eight of the class, but two were later redesigned, becoming the [[s, while the other, which was to have been named HMS Resistance, was cancelled.

Contents

  • Design 1
    • Propulsion 1.1
    • Armour protection 1.2
    • Armament 1.3
    • Seakeeping 1.4
    • Accommodation 1.5
  • Service 2
  • Ships in class 3

Design

The ships of the class were slower and smaller than the preceding [[s. Despite sometimes being referred to as the "Royal Sovereign class", official documents from World War I clearly state that the class was known as the Revenge class; the confusion apparently even extended to the Grand Fleet's commander, Admiral of the Fleet Jellicoe, as they are mentioned in both fashions in his voluminous The Grand Fleet 1914–1916: Its Creation, Development and Work---as the Revenge class in some places[2] as well as the Royal Sovereign class in others.[3] The ships have also been referred to on occasion as the "R" class.

Propulsion

They were designed to be able to use coal and oil as fuel sources. This was partially due to fears over the total reliance of the Queen Elizabeth class on oil as their fuel source, which was a first for a British class of dreadnought battleships. At that time, oil could only be obtained from overseas sources, while high-quality coal was readily available in the British Isles, and there seemed to be a possibility that oil supplies might not be able to be maintained during wartime, thus placing crippling restrictions on the usefulness of the five Queen Elizabeths. The unusual design of the Revenge class was a response to these concerns. They were also designed to be cheaper than the Queen Elizabeths. This was achieved by reducing their size and using lower power engines—their slim single funnel design makes them easy to distinguish from the Queen Elizabeths, which had twin funnels (or thick trunked funnels after being rebuilt during the interwar years).

Armour protection

The armour was very different from that of the Queen Elizabeths: the armoured deck was raised much higher in the ship, and the side armour was much more extensive at its full thickness of 13 inches (330 mm). This scheme was chosen since, at the time the Revenges were being designed, it was still believed that any major fleet-to-fleet engagement would take place at relatively close ranges such that the principal danger would be direct fire striking the sides of the ship, rather than plunging fire striking the deck. Additionally, this change in the armour layout was a cost-saving measure. The Queen Elizabeths had plates that tapered at the top and bottom of the armour belt, and tapered armour was extremely expensive to produce. Overall, it was probably an effective armouring scheme which was made obsolescent by developments in naval gunnery and tactics that, unfortunately, occurred almost immediately after the ships entered service and that, ultimately, did not lend itself to the upgrades necessitated by World War II-era weapons.

Anti-torpedo bulges were included; these provided superb protection against attacks by torpedo for their time, but due to the increasing power of torpedo warheads, proved to be deficient[4] for Royal Oak when she was torpedoed at Scapa Flow in 1939.

Armament

In accordance with contemporary practice, the Revenges were fitted with 6 inch secondary batteries. The heavier guns were intended to combat the larger classes of destroyers entering service but in practice proved to be somewhat too heavy to be of practical use against light craft. Additionally, their low positioning made them largely unworkable in heavy seas—a flaw shared with the similarly equipped [[ and Queen Elizabeth-class battleships.

Seakeeping

The major flaw in the class was the deliberately reduced stability to give the ships a slow rolling motion to make gunnery easier. This made it almost impossible to update them. In addition, it was not economically possible to fit more powerful machinery later in their lives.

Accommodation

Due to their smaller size, at 624 ft (190 m) conditions were decidedly more cramped for the crew of a Revenge-class battleship compared to the Queen Elizabeths.

Service

3-view drawing of HMS Revenge as she was in 1916, with Sopwith 1½ Strutter and Sopwith Pup aircraft fore and aft, respectively.

Only two ships of the class, Revenge and Royal Oak, were ready in time for the Battle of Jutland on 31 May 1916. During the engagement neither ship suffered damage or casualties.

Unlike Queen Elizabeths, the Revenges were not given major reconstructions between the two World Wars. In fact, apart from some minor upgrades, they remained very much unchanged until the Second World War began. Partly this was because of the expense involved in giving them a thorough modernization; what money the Royal Navy received for this purpose was better spent on the Queen Elizabeths which, because of their higher speed and better adaptability, had retained better fighting value. Moreover, the Revenges were scheduled to be replaced by the new [[ capital ships as they came into service. However, the coming of the Second World War resulted in the cancellation of the Lions, leaving the Revenges to remain in service despite their limited value in the face of advances in naval technology.

The Revenge class were in general reduced to subsidiary roles during World War II. Churchill wrote that the Revenge class were a source of constant anxiety, and that he saw the Admiralty keep them as many thousands of miles away from the enemy as possible. Two joined the hunt for the battleship Bismarck, but mainly they escorted convoys and performed shore bombardment (including the Normandy landings). However, they were valuable as second-class battleships, performing these duties and freeing up front-line ships. The scrapping of the Revenge class and other battleships after the wars end reflected the status of the aircraft carrier as the new queen of the seas.

The Revenge class brought to a close the tale of Royal Navy World War I battleship construction. For subsequent British capital ships, see [[s that fought in World War I, HMS Hood which was laid down during World War I, the [[s laid down in 1922, the [[ battleships built during World War II, and the world's last battleship, HMS Vanguard. For other battleships that were acquired as "war purchases", see HMS Erin, HMS Canada, and HMS Agincourt.

Ships in class

Ships of the Revenge class
Name Pennant Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
Revenge
(ex-Renown)
06 Vickers-Armstrong 22 December 1913 29 May 1915 1 February 1916 Broken up at Inverkeithing, 1948
Resolution 09 Palmers 29 November 1913 14 January 1915 30 December 1916 Broken up at Faslane, 1949
Royal Oak 08 HM Dockyard, Devonport 15 January 1914 17 November 1914 1 May 1916 Sunk at Scapa Flow, October 1939
Royal Sovereign 05 HM Dockyard, Portsmouth 29 April 1915 18 April 1916 Transferred to Soviet Navy as Arkhangelsk 1944-1949
Broken up at Inverkeithing, 1949
Ramillies 07 W. Beardmore 12 November 1913 12 June 1916 1 September 1917 Broken up at Troon, 1949
Resistance N/A HM Dockyard, Devonport N/A Cancelled, August 1914
Renown N/A Redesigned as [[
Repulse N/A Redesigned as [[
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