World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


i/How_to_Talk_Minnesotan" id="whe_lnki_616" title="How to Talk Minnesotan">How to Talk Minnesotan lampoon and celebrate Minnesotan culture, speech and mannerisms.

The Minnesota State Fair, advertised as The Great Minnesota Get-Together, is an icon of state culture. In a state of 5.4 million people, there were over 1.8 million visitors to the fair in 2014, breaking the previous record set in 2009.[90] The fair covers the variety of Minnesotan life, including fine art, science, agriculture, food preparation, 4-H displays, music, the midway, and corporate merchandising. It is known for its displays of seed art, butter sculptures of dairy princesses, the birthing barn, and the "fattest pig" competition. One can also find dozens of varieties of food on a stick, such as Pronto Pups, cheese curds, and deep-fried candy bars. On a smaller scale, many of these attractions are offered at numerous county fairs.

Other large annual festivals include the Saint Paul Winter Carnival, the Minnesota Renaissance Festival, Minneapolis's Aquatennial and Mill City Music Festival, Moondance Jam in Walker, Sonshine Christian music festival in Willmar, the Judy Garland Festival in Grand Rapids, Eelpout Festival on Leech Lake, and WE Fest in Detroit Lakes.


The Mayo Clinic in Rochester.

Minnesotans have low rates of premature death, infant mortality, cardiovascular disease, and occupational fatalities,[91][92] long life expectancies,[93] and high rates of health insurance and regular exercise.[91][94][95] These and other measures have led two groups to rank Minnesota as the healthiest state in the nation, but in one of these rankings Minnesota descended from first to sixth in the nation between 2005 and 2009 because of low levels of public-health funding and the prevalence of binge drinking.[91][96]

On October 1, 2007 Minnesota became the 17th state to enact a statewide smoking ban in restaurants and bars, the Freedom to Breathe Act.[97]

Medical care is provided by a comprehensive network of hospitals and clinics headed by two institutions with international reputations. The University of Minnesota Medical School is a high-rated teaching institution that has made a number of breakthroughs in treatment, and its research activities contribute significantly to the state's growing biotechnology industry.[98] The Mayo Clinic, a world-renowned medical practice, is based in Rochester was founded by William Worrall Mayo an immigrant from England.[99][100] Mayo and the University are partners in the Minnesota Partnership for Biotechnology and Medical Genomics, a state-funded program that conducts research into cancer, Alzheimer's disease, heart health, obesity, and other areas.[101]


The Richardsonian Romanesque Pillsbury Hall (1889) is one of the oldest buildings on the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus.

One of the Minnesota Legislature's first acts when it opened in 1858 was the creation of a

  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
  • Minnesota travel guide from Wikivoyage
Tourism and recreation
  • Minnesota State Demographic Center
  • State Facts from USDA
  • Minnesota State Highway Map
  • Minnesota at Open Street Map
Maps and Demographics
  • State of Minnesota Official site
  • Indian Affairs Council, State of Minnesota
  • Prairie Island Indian Community
  • Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community
  • Lower Sioux Indian Community
  • The Upper Sioux Community Pejuhutazizi Oyate
  • Minnesota Chippewa Tribe
  • Bois Forte Band of Chippewa
  • Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa
  • Grand Portage Band of Lake Superior Chippewa
  • Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe
  • Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe
  • White Earth Indian Reservation Tribal Council
  • Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians
  • Minnesota Historical Society
  • Minnesota Place Names
Culture and history

External links

  1. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012" ( 
  2. ^ Tony Pierce, Special to CNBC (September 26, 2013). "The 10 richest states in America". CNBC. Retrieved October 28, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States".  
  4. ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  5. ^ a b "Mnisota" Dakota Dictionary Online. 2010. (September 7, 2013).
  6. ^ "Mnisota" Dakota Dictionary Online. 2010. (September 7, 2013).
  7. ^ a b "Minnesota State". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved April 26, 2008. 
  8. ^ "Minnehaha Creek". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved April 26, 2008. 
  9. ^ "Just the Facts". Minnesota North Star (official state government site).  Retrieved on July 4, 2009.
  10. ^ "Facts and figures". 2007. Retrieved April 9, 2008. 
  11. ^ "Land and Water Area of States, 2008". Information Please. 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ojakangas, Richard W.; Charles L. Matsch (1982). Minnesota's Geology. Illus. Dan Breedy. Minneapolis, Minnesota:  
  13. ^ "Geologic Time: Age of the Earth". United States Geological Survey. October 9, 1997. Retrieved April 9, 2008. 
  14. ^ a b c d Breining, Greg (December 2005). Compass American Guides: Minnesota, 3rd Edition (3rd ed.).  
  15. ^ "Natural history - Minnesota's geology". Minnesota DNR. 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2008. 
  16. ^ "Table Showing Minnesota Earthquakes". University of Minnesota, Morris. Archived from the original on March 27, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2008. 
  17. ^ "118 km (73 mi) SW of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada". Topographic map. U.S.G.S via July 1, 1964. Retrieved April 13, 2010. 
  18. ^ "Continental Divides in North Dakota and North America". National Atlas. October 2, 2007. Retrieved April 9, 2008. 
  19. ^ a b c d "Lakes, rivers & wetlands". MN Facts. Minnesota DNR. 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2008. 
  20. ^ Seeley, Mark W. (2006). Minnesota Weather Almanac.  
  21. ^ Ecological Provinces, Ecological Classification System, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (1999). Retrieved on May 3, 2008.
  22. ^ Heinselman, Miron (1996). The Boundary Waters Wilderness Ecosystem. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.  
  23. ^ Bewer, Tim (2004). Moon Handbooks Minnesota (First ed.). Avalon Travel Publishing.  
  24. ^ "Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition (NA0415)". Terrestrial Ecoregions.   (archived from original June 11, 2008).
  25. ^ Bison disappeared in the mid 19th century; the last bison was reported in southwest Minnesota in 1879. Moyle, J. B. (1965). Big Game in Minnesota, Technical Bulletin, no. 9. Minnesota Department of Conservation, Division of Game and Fish, Section of Research and Planning. p. 172.  As referenced in Anfinson, Scott F. (1997). Southwestern Minnesota Archaeology. St. Paul, Minnesota:  
  26. ^ Gray Wolf Factsheet, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (January 2007). Retrieved on May 3, 2008.
  27. ^ Population report
  28. ^ "Minnesota climate extremes". University of Minnesota. Retrieved May 3, 2008. 
  29. ^ a b c "Climate of Minnesota" (PDF). National Weather Service Forecast Office. Archived from the original on May 28, 2008. Retrieved May 3, 2008. 
  30. ^ "104 Years of Twin Cities Dew Point Temperature Records: 1902–2006". Minnesota Climatology Office. March 7, 2006. Retrieved April 6, 2008. 
  31. ^ "Itasca State Park". Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved May 3, 2008. 
  32. ^ "Places To Go". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 3, 2008. 
  33. ^ "TimePieces". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved September 19, 2006. 
  34. ^ a b c d Lass, William E. (1998) [1977]. Minnesota: A History (2nd ed.). New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.  
  35. ^ a b c d Gilman, Rhoda R. (July 1, 1991). The Story of Minnesota's Past. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society Press.  
  36. ^ "Historic Fort Snelling". Minnesota Historical Society Press. Retrieved July 6, 2006. 
  37. ^ "Welcome to the City of Crystal, MN -- City History". Retrieved October 28, 2014. 
  38. ^ New England in the Life of the World: A Record of Adventure and Achievement By Howard Allen Bridgman page 112
  39. ^ A Collection of Confusible Phrases By Yuri Dolgopolov page 309
  40. ^ Minnesota: A History of the State By Theodore Christian Blegen page 202-203
  41. ^ Sketches of Minnesota, the New England of the West. With incidents of travel in that territory during the summer of 1849. With a map by E. S. SEYMOUR page xii
  42. ^ Northern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota's Past By Dave Kenney, Hillary Wackman, Nancy O'Brien Wagner page 94
  43. ^ Kunnen-Jones, Marianne (August 21, 2002). "Anniversary Volume Gives New Voice To Pioneer Accounts of Sioux Uprising". University of Cincinnati. Retrieved June 6, 2007. 
  44. ^ Steil, Mark and Tim Post. Hundreds of settlers killed in attacks. Minnesota Public Radio. September 26, 2002.
  45. ^ Hazen, Theodore R. "New Process Milling of 1850–70". Pond Lily Mill Restorations. Retrieved May 11, 2007. 
  46. ^ Danbom, David B. (Spring 2003). "Flour Power: The Significance of Flour Milling at the Falls". Minnesota History 58 (5): 271–285. 
  47. ^ "Engineering Research Associates Records 1946–1959". Hagley Museum and Library. Retrieved November 26, 2006. 
  48. ^ "Table 20. Large Metropolitan Statistical Areas—Population: 1990 to 2010" (PDF). Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  49. ^ a b "Population Estimates". Minnesota Demographic Center. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  50. ^ a b "Environmental Information Report, App. D Socioeconomic Information" (PDF). Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. May 30, 2003. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  51. ^ "statecenters". U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Retrieved November 21, 2006. 
  52. ^ Fact Sheet, 2011 American Census Bureau Estimates, Retrieved on March 18, 2010.
  53. ^ Population Division, Laura K. Yax. "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Retrieved October 28, 2014. 
  54. ^ Population of Minnesota: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts
  55. ^ Center for New Media and Promotions(C2PO). "2010 Census Data". Retrieved October 28, 2014. 
  56. ^ "Minnesota - Race and Hispanic Origin: 1850 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  57. ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot".  
  58. ^ "Minnesota QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Retrieved November 26, 2006. 
  59. ^ Minnesota Selected Social Characteristics in the United States, 2008 American Community Survey 1–year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, 2008. Retrieved March 19, 2010.
  60. ^ Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2005-2007, Minnesota, U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on July 4, 2009.
  61. ^ "Religious Composition of Minnesota". Maps, U.S. Religious Landscape Survey.  
  62. ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report". Retrieved December 16, 2013. 
  63. ^ "American Religious Identification Survey". Exhibit 15. The Graduate Center, City University of New York. Retrieved November 24, 2006. 
  64. ^ Gilman, Rhonda R. (1989). The Story of Minnesota's Past. Saint Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society Press. p. 99.  
  65. ^ "Mosques and Islamic schools in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota - your guide to mosques & Islamic schools". Retrieved October 28, 2014. 
  66. ^ "Environmental Information Report, App. D Socioeconomic Information" (PDF).  
  67. ^ "Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State". US: Bureau of Economic Analysis. October 26, 2006. Retrieved November 13, 2006. 
  68. ^ "States". Fortune 500. CNN Money. 2006. Retrieved March 25, 2009. 
  69. ^ Forbes (2008). "Largest US Private Cos". Retrieved January 25, 2009. 
  70. ^ "Our Brands". Carlson Companies. Archived from the original on October 24, 2007. Retrieved January 5, 2010. 
  71. ^ "State Personal Income 2008" (PDF). US: Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved July 4, 2009. 
  72. ^ "United States and States – R2001. Median Household Income". US: Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved August 5, 2007. 
  73. ^ "Minnesota adds 10,300 jobs in May; jobless rate lowest in 7 years". Retrieved October 28, 2014. 
  74. ^ Coleman, Nick (March 24, 2008). "Capella Tower sports a cap, but it can't topple the IDS". Star Tribune. Retrieved November 19, 2009. 
  75. ^ "Minnesota – DP-3. Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000". US: Census Bureau. Retrieved November 26, 2006. 
  76. ^ "Census of Agriculture, Minnesota State Profile" (PDF). US: Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on October 1, 2006. Retrieved December 3, 2006. 
  77. ^ a b "Wealth of Resources". Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development. Retrieved November 26, 2006. 
  78. ^ "The Co-Op Advantage". Minnesota Monthly (Greenspring). August 2008. Retrieved February 10, 2012. 
  79. ^ "Hawaii to meet E10 mandate with imported ethanol". Ethanol Producer Magazine. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  80. ^ "The complete list of Minnesota E85 fuel Sites". Minnesota Department of Commerce. Archived from the original on November 24, 2006. Retrieved November 26, 2006. 
  81. ^ "Wind Energy Projects Throughout the United States of America". The American Wind Energy Association. Archived from the original on April 6, 2007. Retrieved May 7, 2007. 
  82. ^ "Minnesota Income Tax Rates and Brackets: Income Tax Rates for 2013". MN: Department of Revenue. Retrieved August 28, 2013. 
  83. ^ a b "Minnesota's State and Local Tax Burden 1977-2008". The Tax Foundation. Retrieved June 6, 2010. 
  84. ^ a b "Sales and Use Tax Instruction Book" (PDF). MN: Department of Revenue. July 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2010. 
  85. ^ "Local Sales Tax and Use" (PDF). MN: Department of Revenue. Archived from the original on October 9, 2006. Retrieved November 26, 2006. 
  86. ^ "Gopher Express". Coffman Info Desk. Regents of the University of Minnesota. October 12, 2006. Retrieved May 6, 2007. 
  87. ^ Royce, Graydon Royce (April 1, 2006). "New Guthrie casts a huge shadow over theater scene". Minneapolis Star-Tribune via Archived from the original on May 18, 2006. Retrieved May 6, 2007. 
  88. ^ "How to fringe". Fresh Art Delivered Daily. Minnesota Fringe Festival. 2006. Archived from the original on November 14, 2006. Retrieved November 22, 2006. 
  89. ^ "MN Original". MN Original. TPT. Retrieved July 2014. 
  90. ^ "Minnesota State Fair". Minnesota State Fair. Retrieved September 10, 2009. 
  91. ^ a b c "America's Health Rankings 2009". United Health Foundation. 2009. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  92. ^ "Statemaster Health Statistics - Death Rate per 100,000". Statemaster. Retrieved August 16, 2006. 
  93. ^ "Explore Minnesota Living" (PDF). Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development. Retrieved August 16, 2006. 
  94. ^ "The Percentage of People Without Health Insurance Coverage by State Using 2- and 3-year Averages: 2003 to 2005" (PDF). Health Insurance Coverage: 2005. U.S. Census Bureau, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division. August 29, 2006. Archived from the original on October 6, 2006. Retrieved November 24, 2006. 
  95. ^ "Statemaster Health Statistics Physical Exercise by State". Statemaster. 2002. Retrieved August 16, 2006. 
  96. ^ "Health Statistics Health Index by state". Statemaster. Retrieved August 16, 2006. 
  97. ^ "Put 'Em Out: Minnesota Smoking Ban Kicks In Monday". WCCO. September 30, 2007. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved December 3, 2012. 
  98. ^ "University of Minnesota Medical Milestones". University of Minnesota Medical School. 2002. Retrieved August 14, 2006. 
  99. ^
  100. ^
  101. ^ "Minnesota Partnership for Biotechnology and Medical Genomics". University of Minnesota Medical School. 2002. Retrieved August 14, 2006. 
  102. ^ Table 228: Educational Attainment by State, U.S. Bureau of the Census, showing Minnesota with a 91% high school graduation rate in 2006, the second-highest in the nation. Retrieved October 12, 1020.
  103. ^ "Smartest State Award". Morgan Quitno Press. Retrieved July 24, 2006. 
  104. ^ "High school diploma or higher, by percentage by state". 2004. Retrieved August 16, 2006. 
  105. ^ "Status of Girls in Minnesota" (PDF). Women's Foundation of Minnesota and the Institute for Women's Policy Research. April 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2008. 
  106. ^ "Minnesota's Class of 2007 leads the nation in ACT scores". Multimedia Holdings Corporation. 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007. 
  107. ^ Hallman, Charles (March 14, 2007). "School vouchers: Who stands to gain at what cost?". Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder. 
  108. ^ "Charter Schools". Minnesota Department of Education. 2007. Archived from the original on February 22, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2007. 
  109. ^ "Best Colleges 2009: Liberal Arts Rankings". 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2009. 
  110. ^ Minnesota Department of Transportation (PDF). 2007–2008 Official Highway Map (Map). Retrieved April 7, 2008.
  111. ^ "Transportation amendment update". Minnesota Department of Transportation. 2006. Archived from the original on June 26, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  112. ^ Minnesota Department of Transportation (2007) (PDF). Minnesota Rail System (Map). Retrieved April 7, 2007.
  113. ^ "Minnesota Ports and Waterways".  
  114. ^ "Airports with Scheduled Air Service". Commercial Service Airports. Minnesota Department of Transportation. 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  115. ^ "Route Map". Mesaba Airlines. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  116. ^ "Amtrak Train and Bus Stations in the Midwest". Amtrak. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  117. ^ "Minnesota Government". State of Minnesota. Retrieved October 20, 2006. 
  118. ^ 2011 House Profile Minnesota House of Representatives. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
  119. ^ "Minnesota Supreme Court" (doc). Court Information Office, State of Minnesota. Retrieved October 19, 2006. 
  120. ^ Davey, Monica; Hulse, Carl (June 30, 2009). "After 8 Months, Franken Wins Senate Seat in Minnesota".  
  121. ^ Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections
  122. ^ Leigh Pomeroy (2007). "Populism Is Alive and Well in Southern Minnesota". Minnesota Monitor. Archived from the original on October 8, 2007. Retrieved August 4, 2008. 
  123. ^ Grayson, Katharine (September 18, 2006). "Study: Minnesota tops nation in voter turnout". Minneapolis St. Paul Business Journal. Retrieved August 4, 2008. 
  124. ^ Huefner, Steven F., Daniel P Tokaji, and Edward B. Foley (2007), From Registration to Recounts: The Election Ecosystems of Five Midwestern States, The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law, p. 137. ISBN 978-0-9801400-0-2.
  125. ^ Michael P. McDonald. "2008 Unofficial Voter Turnout". United States Elections Project,  
  126. ^ Minn. Stat. § 201.061, subd. 3
  127. ^ "Office Holders". Green Party of Minnesota. Archived from the original on January 7, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2007. 
  128. ^ "Minnesota Democrat becomes first Muslim to win seat in Congress". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. November 7, 2006. Retrieved December 11, 2006. 
  129. ^ Pugmire, Tim, Minn. House: Republicans take control, Minnesota Public Radio, November 5, 2014
  130. ^ "210 Designated Market Areas - 03-04". Nielsen Media. Archived from the original on May 17, 2006. Retrieved November 26, 2006. 
  131. ^ "5 EYEWITNESS NEWS History". Retrieved March 28, 2007. 
  132. ^ "Daily Board of Directors". The Minnesota Daily. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved April 28, 2008. 
  133. ^ "About MPR". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 17, 2006. 
  134. ^ "PRI factsheet". Public Radio International. Retrieved May 7, 2007. 
  135. ^ "Recap, Flames 3, Wild 2, SO". Minnesota Wild. January 17, 2008. Archived from the original on March 19, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  136. ^ Quarstad, Brian (January 7, 2010). "National Sports Center Announces New Professional Soccer Team". Inside Minnesota Soccer. Retrieved April 29, 2010. 
  137. ^ "NCAA Members By Division". NCAA. Retrieved April 13, 2009. 
  138. ^ "Upper Midwest Athletic Conference - History". Upper Midwest Athletic Conference. Retrieved April 13, 2009. 
  139. ^ "All About Birds". Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2003. Retrieved October 24, 2006. 
  140. ^ "Statemaster Health Statistics Physical Exercise by State". Statemaster. 2002. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  141. ^ "Green Hunters: Minnesota DNR". Fish & Wildlife Today. Archived from the original on February 1, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  142. ^ "Water Skiing History". ABC of Skiing. "Go Skiing like Max!". 2006. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  143. ^ "Managing for Results" (PDF). Minnesota DNR. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  144. ^ Benjamin, Robert W. (July 15, 2006). "Ice Fishing can be a very exciting experience". Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  145. ^ "Turning Snow into Sport". Explore Minnesota Experiences. Minnesota Department of Tourism. Archived from the original on April 1, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  146. ^ "Snowmobiling Minnesota". Minnesota Department of Tourism. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  147. ^ "Take to the Trails! Explore Minnesota Biking". Minnesota Department of Tourism. Archived from the original on January 27, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. 
  148. ^ "Superior Hiking Trail". Minnesota Department of Tourism. Retrieved December 2, 2006. 


See also

State and national forests and the seventy-two state parks are used year-round for hunting, camping, and hiking. There are almost 20,000 miles (32,000 km) of snowmobile trails statewide.[146] Minnesota has more miles of bike trails than any other state,[147] and a growing network of hiking trails, including the 235-mile (378 km) Superior Hiking Trail in the northeast.[148] Many hiking and bike trails are used for cross-country skiing during the winter.

Fishing does not cease when the lakes freeze; ice fishing has been around since the arrival of early Scandinavian immigrants.[144] Minnesotans have learned to embrace their long, harsh winters in ice sports such as skating, hockey, curling, and broomball, and snow sports such as cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, snowshoeing, and snowmobiling.[145]

In the warmer months, these activities often involve water. Weekend and longer trips to family cabins on Minnesota's numerous lakes are a way of life for many residents. Activities include water sports such as water skiing, which originated in the state,[142] boating, canoeing, and fishing. More than 36% of Minnesotans fish, second only to Alaska.[143]

Minnesotans participate in high levels of physical activity,[140] and many of these activities are outdoors. The strong interest of Minnesotans in environmentalism has been attributed to the popularity of these pursuits.[141]

The Common Loon's distinctive cry is heard during the summer months on lakes throughout the state.[139]
Fishing in Lake Calhoun in Minneapolis

Outdoor recreation

Grandma's Marathon is run every summer along the scenic North Shore of Lake Superior, and the Twin Cities Marathon winds around lakes and the Mississippi River during the peak of the fall color season. Farther north, Eveleth is the location of the United States Hockey Hall of Fame.

Winter Olympic Games medallists from the state include twelve of the twenty members of the gold medal 1980 ice hockey team (coached by Minnesota native Herb Brooks) and the bronze medallist U.S. men's curling team in the 2006 Winter Olympics. Swimmer Tom Malchow won an Olympic gold medal in the 2000 Summer games and a silver medal in 1996.

Interlachen Country Club has hosted the U.S. Open, U.S. Women's Open, and Solheim Cup.

The Hazeltine National Golf Club has hosted the U.S. Open, U.S. Women's Open, U.S. Senior Open and PGA Championship.

The Twin Cities campus of the University of Minnesota is a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I school competing in either the Big Ten Conference or the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. Four additional schools in the state compete in NCAA Division I ice hockey: the University of Minnesota Duluth; Minnesota State University, Mankato; St. Cloud State University and Bemidji State University. There are nine NCAA Division II colleges in the Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference, and nineteen NCAA Division III colleges in the Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference and Upper Midwest Athletic Conference.[137][138]

Professional women's sports include the Minnesota Lynx of the Women's National Basketball Association, winners of the 2011 and 2013 WNBA Championships, the Minnesota Lightning of the United Soccer Leagues W-League, the Minnesota Vixen of the Independent Women's Football League, the Minnesota Valkyrie of the Legends Football League, and the Minnesota Whitecaps of the National Women's Hockey League.

Minnesota also has minor-league professional sports. Minnesota United FC replaced the United Soccer League Minnesota Thunder in 2010 and plays at the National Sports Center in Blaine.[136] The Minnesota Swarm play at the Xcel Energy Center and play in the NLL (National Lacrosse League). Minor league baseball is represented both by major league-sponsored teams and independent teams such as the St. Paul Saints.

Minnesota has professional men's teams in all major sports. The Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome was home to the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League through the 2013 season; it is being torn down and a new stadium will be constructed. The Dome also hosted the Minnesota Twins of Major League Baseball, winners of the 1987 and 1991 World Series, until 2010, when they began playing at Target Field. The Minnesota Timberwolves of the National Basketball Association play in the Target Center. The National Hockey League's Minnesota Wild play in St. Paul's Xcel Energy Center and reached 300 consecutive sold-out games on January 16, 2008.[135]

Organized sports

Sports and recreation

Two of the largest public radio networks, Minnesota Public Radio (MPR) and Public Radio International (PRI), are based in the state. MPR has the largest audience of any regional public radio network in the nation, broadcasting on 37 radio stations.[133] PRI weekly provides more than 400 hours of programming to almost 800 affiliates.[134] The state's oldest radio station, KUOM-AM, was launched in 1922 and is among the 10 –oldest radio stations in the United States. The University of Minnesota-owned station is still on the air, and since 1993 broadcasts a college rock format.

The four largest daily newspapers are the Star Tribune in Minneapolis, the Pioneer Press in Saint Paul, the Duluth News Tribune in Duluth and the Post-Bulletin in Rochester. The Minnesota Daily is the largest student-run newspaper in the U.S.[132] Sites offering daily news on the Web include The UpTake, MinnPost, the Twin Cities Daily Planet, business news site Finance and Commerce (web site) and Washington D.C.-based Minnesota Independent. Weeklies including City Pages and monthly publications such as Minnesota Monthly are available.

Broadcast television in Minnesota and the Upper Midwest started on April 27, 1948, when KSTP-TV began broadcasting.[131] Hubbard Broadcasting, which owns KSTP, is now the only locally owned television company in Minnesota. There are currently 39 analog broadcast stations and 23 digital channels broadcast over Minnesota.

The Twin Cities area is the fifteenth largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research. The state's other top markets are Fargo–Moorhead (118th nationally), Duluth–Superior (137th), Rochester–Mason City–Austin (152nd), and Mankato (200th).[130]


In the election of 2010, Republicans took control of both chambers of the Minnesota legislature for the first time in 38 years, and with Mark Dayton's election the Democratic-Farmer-Labor party took the governor's office for the first time in 20 years. Two years later, the DFL regained control of both houses, and with Governor Dayton in office, the party has same-party control of both the legislative and executive branches for the first time since 1990. Two years later, the Republicans regained control of the Minnesota House in the 2014 election.[129]

The state's U.S. Senate seats have generally been split since the early 1990s, and in the 108th and 109th Congresses, Minnesota's congressional delegation was split, with four representatives and one senator from each party. In the 2006 midterm election, Democrats were elected to all state offices except for governor and lieutenant governor, where Republicans Tim Pawlenty and Carol Molnau narrowly won reelection. The DFL also posted double-digit gains in both houses of the legislature, elected Amy Klobuchar to the U.S. Senate, and increased the party's U.S. House caucus by one. Keith Ellison (DFL) was elected as the first African American U.S. Representative from Minnesota as well as the first Muslim elected to Congress nationwide.[128] In 2008 DFLer and former comedian and radio talk show host Al Franken beat incumbent Republican Norm Coleman in the United States Senate race by 312 votes out of 3 million cast.

The state has had active third party movements. The Reform Party, now the Independence Party, was able to elect former mayor of Brooklyn Park and professional wrestler Jesse Ventura to the governorship in 1998. The Independence Party has received enough support to keep major party status. The Green Party, while no longer having major party status, has a large presence in municipal government,[127] notably in Minneapolis and Duluth, where it competes directly with the DFL party for local offices. Official "Major party" status in Minnesota (which grants state funding for elections) is reserved to parties whose candidates receive 5% or more of the vote in any statewide election (e.g., Governor, Secretary of State, U.S. President).

Both the Democratic and Republican parties have major party status in Minnesota, but its state-level "Democratic" party is actually a separate party, officially known as the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL). Formed out of a 1944 alliance of the Minnesota Democratic and Farmer-Labor parties, and its distinction from the national Democratic Party, while still official, is now but a technicality.

Hubert Humphrey brought national attention to the state with his address at the 1948 Democratic National Convention. Eugene McCarthy's anti-war stance and popularity in the 1968 New Hampshire primary likely convinced Lyndon B. Johnson to drop out of the presidential election. Minnesotans have consistently cast their Electoral College votes for Democratic presidential candidates since 1976, longer than any other state. Minnesota is the only state in the nation that did not vote for Ronald Reagan in either of his presidential runs. Minnesota has gone to the Democratic Party in every presidential election since 1960, with the exception of 1972, when it was carried by Richard Nixon and the Republican Party.

Minnesota is known for a politically active citizenry, and populism has been a longstanding force among the state's political parties.[122][123] Minnesota has a consistently high voter turnout (due in part to its liberal voter registration laws) with virtually no evidence of unlawful voting.[124] In the 2008 U.S. presidential election, 78.2% of eligible Minnesotans voted—the highest percentage of any U.S. state—versus the national average of 61.2%.[125] Previously unregistered voters can register on election day at their polls with evidence of residency.[126]

Election results from statewide races[121]
Year Office GOP DFL Others
2012 President 45.1% 52.8% 2.1%
Senator 30.6% 65.3% 4.1%
2010 Governor 43.2% 43.7% 13.1%
2008 President 43.8% 54.1% 2.1%
Senator 42.0% 42.0% 16.0%
2006 Governor 46.7% 45.7% 7.6%
Senator 37.9% 58.1% 4.0%
2004 President 47.6% 51.1% 1.3%
2002 Governor 44.4% 33.5% 22.1%
Senator 49.5% 47.3% 1.0%
2000 President 45.5% 47.9% 6.6%
Senator 43.3% 48.8% 7.9%
1998 Governor 34.3% 28.1% 37.6%
1996 President 35.0% 51.1% 13.9%
Senator 41.3% 50.3% 8.4%
1994 Governor 63.3% 34.1% 2.6%
Senator 49.1% 44.1% 6.8%
1992 President 31.9% 43.5% 24.6%


The first 6 of the Anishinaabe bands compose the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, the collective federally recognized tribal government of the Bois Forte, Fond du Lac, Grand Portage, Leech Lake, Mille Lacs, and White Earth reservations.

7 Anishinaabe reservations:

4 Dakota Mdewakanton communities:

The State of Minnesota was created by the USA out of the homelands of the Dakota and Anishinaabe native peoples. Today the remaining native governments are divided into 11 semi-autonomous reservations that negotiate with the USA and state on a peer nation-to-nation basis:


Federal court cases are heard in the United States District Court for the District of Minnesota, which holds court in Minneapolis, St. Paul, Duluth, and Fergus Falls. Appeals are heard by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, which is based in St. Louis, Missouri and routinely also hears cases in St. Paul.

Minnesota's United States senators are Democrat Amy Klobuchar and Democrat Al Franken. The outcome of the 2008 U.S. Senate election in Minnesota was contested until June 30 the next year; when the Minnesota Supreme Court ruled in favor of Franken, Republican Norm Coleman conceded defeat, and the vacant seat was filled by Franken.[120] The state has eight congressional districts; they are represented by Tim Walz (1st district; DFL), John Kline (2nd; R), Erik Paulsen (3rd; R), Betty McCollum (4th; DFL), Keith Ellison (5th; DFL), Michele Bachmann (6th; R), Collin Peterson (7th; DFL), and Rick Nolan (8th; DFL).


In addition to the city and county levels of government found in the United States, Minnesota has other entities that provide governmental oversight and planning. Some actions in the Twin Cities metropolitan area are coordinated by the Metropolitan Council, and many lakes and rivers are overseen by watershed districts and soil and water conservation districts.


Two specialized courts within administrative agencies have been established: the Workers' Compensation Court of Appeals, and the Tax Court, which deals with non-criminal tax cases.

Minnesota's court system has three levels. Most cases start in the district courts, which are courts of general jurisdiction. There are 279 district court judgeships in ten judicial districts. Appeals from the trial courts and challenges to certain governmental decisions are heard by the Minnesota Court of Appeals, consisting of nineteen judges who typically sit in three-judge panels. The seven-justice Minnesota Supreme Court hears all appeals from the Tax Court, the Workers' Compensation Court of Appeals, first-degree murder convictions, and discretionary appeals from the Court of Appeals; it also has original jurisdiction over election disputes.[119]


The Minnesota Legislature is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The state has sixty-seven districts, each covering about sixty thousand people. Each district has one senator and two representatives (each district being divided into A and B sections). Senators serve for four years and representatives for two years. In the November 2010 election, the Minnesota Republican Party gained twenty-five house seats, giving them control of the House of Representatives by a 72-62 margin.[118] The 2010 election also saw Minnesota voters elect a Republican majority in the Senate for the first time since 1972. In 2012, the Democrats regained the House of Representatives by a margin of 73-61, picking up 11 seats; the Democrats also regained the Minnesota Senate.

The Minnesota State Capitol in Saint Paul, designed by Cass Gilbert.


The executive branch is headed by the governor. Governor Mark Dayton, a Democrat, took office on January 3, 2011, to become the first Democratic Governor to hold the seat in two decades. The governor has a cabinet consisting of the leaders of various state government agencies, called commissioners. The other elected constitutional offices are secretary of state, attorney general, and state auditor.


As with the federal government of the United States, power in Minnesota is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.[117]

Law and government

Amtrak's daily Empire Builder (Chicago–Seattle/Portland) train runs through Minnesota, calling at the Saint Paul Union Depot and five other stations.[116] Intercity bus providers include Jefferson Lines, Greyhound, and Megabus. Local public transit is provided by bus networks in the larger cities and by two rail services. The Northstar Line commuter rail service runs from Big Lake to the Target Field station in downtown Minneapolis. From there, light rail runs to Saint Paul Union Depot on the Green Line, and to the MSP airport and the Mall of America via the Blue Line.

Minnesota's principal airport is Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport (MSP), a major passenger and freight hub for Delta Air Lines and Sun Country Airlines. Most other domestic carriers serve the airport. Large commercial jet service is provided at Duluth and Rochester, with scheduled commuter service to six smaller cities via Delta Connection carriers Comair, Mesaba Airlines, SkyWest Airlines, Compass Airlines' and Pinnacle Airlines.[114][115]

A METRO Blue Line vehicle in Minneapolis

Transportation in Minnesota is overseen by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT for short and used in the local news media). Principal transportation corridors radiate from the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area and Duluth. The major Interstate highways are Interstate 35 (I-35), I-90, and I-94, with I-35 and I-94 passing through the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area, and I-90 traveling east-west along the southern edge of the state.[110] In 2006, a constitutional amendment was passed that required sales and use taxes on motor vehicles to fund transportation, with at least 40% dedicated to public transit.[111] There are nearly two dozen rail corridors in Minnesota, most of which go through Minneapolis–St. Paul or Duluth.[112] There is water transportation along the Mississippi River system and from the ports of Lake Superior.[113]


The state supports a network of public universities and colleges, including 32 institutions in the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System, and five major campuses of the University of Minnesota. It is also home to more than 20 private colleges and universities, six of which rank among the nation's top 100 liberal arts colleges, according to U.S. News & World Report.[109]

[108].charter school it is home to the first [107],school vouchers While Minnesota has chosen not to implement [106].ACT exam In 2007 Minnesota students earned the highest average score in the nation on the [105] But while more than 90% of high school seniors graduated in 2006, about 6% of white, 28% of African American, 30% of Asian American and more than 34% of Hispanic and Native American students dropped out of school.[104][103]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.