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Hugh Mundell

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Hugh Mundell

Hugh Mundell
Also known as "The Blessed Youth", "Jah Levi"
Born (1962-06-14)14 June 1962
East Kingston, Jamaica
Died

14 October 1983(1983-10-14) (aged 21#REDIRECT

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Genres Reggae
Occupation(s) Singer
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1975–1983

Hugh Mundell (14 June 1962 – 14 October 1983) was a Jamaican reggae singer and songwriter.

Biography

Mundell was born the fourth child and only boy to Theresa and Alvin Mundell. Alvin Mundell was a successful lawyer.[1] Hugh attended St. Margaret's Preparatory School, Kingsway Preparatory School and the Ardenne High School before pursuing a career in music.[1] Most thought that Mundell would become an athlete because he was known to be a competitive runner and routinely participated in street running races with other neighbourhood youth.[2] Mundell grew up just houses away from three other youth who would also go on to become reggae singers: Winston McAnuff, Earl Sixteen Daley, and Yabby You protogé Wayne Wade.[3] Mundell was introduced to reggae by reggae performer and producer Boris Gardiner who was a friend of the family. Mundell was at Joe Gibbs' studio the day that Winston McAnuff recorded the song "Malcolm X." Joe Gibbs offers Mundell the opportunity to record and they lay down a track titled "Where Is Natty Dread?" The track is never pressed to vinyl. It is at Gibbs' studio that he meets dub maestro Augustus Pablo. Mundell explains in his November 1980 interview with Sounds magazine's Edwin Pouncey:

“I did one recording for Joe Gibbs for Errol Thompson Records which was not released called 'Where Is Natty Dread' and one day I was at the studio and Augustus Pablo saw me at the Joe Gibbs session 'cos he used to run around and check it out y'know. And he asked me to come and do some recordings for him so I said 'Yeah!' So I went by his house and started rehearsing and he create the rhythms. The following Saturday we went to the studio where we recorded my first two songs for release called 'Africa Must Be Free' and 'My, My.'"

Between 1976 and 1978 Mundell and Pablo lay the tracks for what would ultimately become Mundell's debut LP Africa Must Be Free By 1983. Produced by Augustus Pablo, Mundell wrote every song on the record. It included two Black Ark-recorded titles: "Let's All Unite" and "Why Do Black Man Fuss & Fight", both supervised and mixed by Lee Perry. The album received five stars from Rolling Stone magazine[4] and was included in Tom Moon's 2008 book, 1,000 Recordings to Hear Before You Die. He was a major influence on Junior Reid, who was three years younger, and Mundell was the first to record Reid.[1] He also kept a close friendship with Reid's friend Lacksley Castell, who like Reid, hailed from Waterhouse.

Mundell recorded several 12" singles under the alias Jah Levi.[5]

Hugh Mundell only performed publicly several times throughout his career. While he may have performed a number of shows in Jamaica and the UK, only the following shows have been confirmed:

  • June 1980, Bermuda. Hugh performed on a ferry boat cruise. Mundell stayed in the apartment of Bermudian Rastafarian soccer legend Cyril "Dago" Steede while in Bermuda.
  • 20 October 1980, Palais Des Arts, Paris, France with Brimstone
  • 12 December 1980, London Theatre, London, UK with Aswad (cancelled)
  • 17 February 1981, Top Rank Suite, Dale End, Birmingham w/ sound systems Sir Coxsone, Fatman, Studio City, Quaker City.
  • 17 March 1981, Hammersmith Palais, London, UK with Matumbi, Tribesmen, Brimstone, and Bumble & The Bees. Mundell cancels just days before the show. It is rescheduled for 6 April 1981.
  • 6 April 1981, Hammersmith Palais, London, UK with Matumbi, Tribesmen, Brimstone, and Bumble & The Bees.
  • July 1981, The Stone, San Francisco.
  • 4 October 1981, Reggae Sunblast Festival, Greek Theatre, Berkeley, California. Also on the bill are Judy Mowatt, Marcia Griffiths, Joe Higgs, The Wailers Band, and Wailing Souls.
  • Mundell appeared in the Bay area in December 1981 where he played a reggae roots festival along with Wailing Souls, Raskidus, Joe Higgs & Unity, and Uprising at the Oakland Auditorium on December 11 and the Japan Center Theater on December 12.[6]
  • 30 May 1982, Keystone, Berkeley, California, backed by I-DREN, an all-Jamaican band hailing from the bay-area.

In reviewing Mundell's performance in the local city paper, music journalist Bruce Dancis wrote the following:

“Nineteen year old Jamaican singer Hugh Mundell, backed by Ras Kidus Roots Connection, contributed a brief set that was marred by the fact that he was obviously feeling the effects of a cold. This was a disappointment, because the angelically voiced singer possesses one of the purest voices in popular music. Ironically, in Mundell’s prior Berkeley appearance this past July, his glorious vocals were impeded by poor communication with his support band; this time around, Mundell and the band were more connected, but the singer’s illness prevented him from launching into the spirited performance of which he is capable.”[3]

In addition to performing live as a reggae artist, Mundell also performed live as Jah Levi throughout Jamaica on the island sound system circuit with the likes of Barrington Levy, Burro Banton, Ranking Toyan, Junior Reid, and Elfigo Barker (Volcano Hi-Fi).[3] He also performed for Noel Harper's Killamanjaro Sound System with artists like Super Cat, John Wayne, Dirty Harry, Junior Reid, Madoo, Hopeton James, Puddy Roots, and Major Manzie.[3] There is existing audio of Mundell performing on the sound system circuit on two occasions. In August 1983, Mundell, along with Junior Reid, represented Killamanjaro at Whitehall Avenue, Kingston. With selector Ainsley on the turntable, Mundell and Reid did several numbers, Mundell versioning "Reasons" and Reid voicing the "Some Guys" standard. On 7 September 1983 Mundell and Junior Reid represented Volcano Sound at Cassava Piece, Constant Spring, Kingston 8. With Volcano's selector Danny Dread at the controls, Mundell and Reid spar over the "Diseases" riddim before they perform the "Betcha By Golly Wow" standard. Mundell also performs his song "Great Tribulation.”

Mundell was shot to death on 14 October 1983 while sitting in his vehicle Grant's Pen Avenue, Kingston, Jamaica. Also in the car were Mundell's wife in the passenger seat and Junior Reid, who was sitting in the back seat. Reid survived the assault and spoke in great detail about it in a 1985 interview with The Beat's Roger Steffens.[3]

At the time of his death, Mundell had recorded five LPs and numerous singles.[7]

Trial and Conviction of Rodrigo Codrington for the murder of Hugh Christopher Mundell

On Friday, November 22, 1985, Mr. Justice Downer sentenced 25-year-old Ricardo Codrington, labourer of Above Rocks, St. Andrew, to ten years imprisonment at hard labour for the murder of Hugh Mundell. The sentencing occurred after a Home Circuit Court found Codrigan guilty of manslaughter arising out of the fatal shooting of Mundell on October 13, 1983. Codrington was charged with murder, but the jury convicted him of the lesser offense. The Judge said Codrington had already served two years and that was taken into account when sentencing him.[8]

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ a b c Campbell, Howard (2012) "Hugh Mundell freedom fighter", Jamaica Observer, 15 June 2012, retrieved 17 June 2012
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b c d e
  4. ^ Rolling Stone 5 Star Album Lists – 1983
  5. ^ Craig Harris: Hugh Mundell (Allmusic)
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
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