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Vlaams Nationaal Verbond

Flemish National Union
Vlaams Nationaal Verbond
Leader Staf de Clerq (1933–1942)
Hendrik Elias (1942–1944)
Slogan Authority, discipline, and Dietsland
Founded 1933 (1933)
Dissolved 1944 (1944)
Preceded by Frontpartij
Headquarters Brussels, Belgium
Newspaper Volk en Staat
Ideology Flemish nationalism
Greater Netherlands
Authoritarianism
Populism[1]
Political position Far-Right[2]
French-speaking counterpart Rexist Party[3]
Colours              Orange, White, Blue
Politics of Belgium
Political parties
Elections

The Vlaams Nationaal Verbond (VNV;

  • Clough, Shepard B. (1946) [1945]. "IX: The Flemish Movement". In Goris, Jan-Albert. Belgium. The United Nations. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 
  • De Wever, Bruno (1994). Greep naar de Macht: Vlaams-nationalisme en Nieuwe orde, het VNV 1933-1945. Tielt: Lannoo.  
  • Ishiyama, John T.; Breuning, Marijke (1998). Ethnopolitics in the New Europe. Lynne Rienner Publishers.  
  •  

References

  1. ^ a b Payne, Stanley G. (1995). A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 424. 
  2. ^ Witte, Els (2009). Political History of Belgium, from 1830 onwards. ASP. p. 157. 
  3. ^ a b  
  4. ^ Ishiyama, John T.; Brening, Marijke (1998); p. 1123
  5. ^ a b c De Wever, Bruno (2006). "Belgium". World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia 1 (ABC-CLIO). p. 86. 
  6. ^ Kallis, Aristotle (2009). Genocide and Fascism: The Eliminationist Drive in Fascist Europe. Routledge. p. 278. 
  7. ^ Clough (1946). The Flemish Movement. p. 124. 
  8. ^ Rees (1991). Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right. p. 179. 
  9. ^ Kallis, Aristotle (2009). Genocide and Fascism: The Eliminationist Drive in Fascist Europe. Routledge. p. 280. 

Footnotes

De Clercq died suddenly in October 1942, and was succeeded by Hendrik Elias, a member of the more moderate side. Elias continued the collaboration but tried to come to terms with the military government to prevent the installation of a civilian government, which would be composed of Nazis. Elias failed, as Hitler installed the new body and declared the annexation of Flanders by Germany in 1944; seven weeks later, Belgium was liberated by the Allies. The VNV was outlawed after the liberation of Belgium. Elias fled to Germany, but was tried after the war and imprisoned until 1959.

When deportation of Jews, contributing to the Holocaust in Belgium. They willingly implemented Nazi policies like the obligation of Jews to wear the yellow badge. VNV activists played a leading role in the anti-Jewish Antwerp pogrom of April 1941.[9]

Collaboration

The party controlled the Frontist newspaper De Schelde[7] (named after the Scheldt river).

Despite cooperating with the Flemish section of the mainstream Catholic Party on the local level, de Clercq realised that his movement would not be able to take power and realise the separation from Belgium by democratic means. Instead, he initiated contacts with Nazi Germany, hoping that his project could be realised with German help during the upcoming war. He contacted the Abwehr, Germany's military intelligence service, informing them that a part of the Belgian military supported his movement and could be controlled by him in case of Germany declaring war. The Belgian state security gained knowledge of these contacts and arrested some VNV supporters.[5]

It shared many ideological elements with the Verdinaso ("Union of Pan-Dutch National Solidarists"), which had been founded two years earlier, but was slightly less radical. Unlike Verdinaso, the VNV took part in elections and also included a relatively moderate wing.[5] Initially, it also differed from Verdinaso in not being an anti-Semitic movement, but increasingly embraced anti-Semitic elements after 1935, rather out of political calculation than of ideological conviction.[6] In the 1936 Belgian general election they won 13.6% of the Flemish votes, corresponding to 7.1% nationwide. After the election, in which the right-wing pro-Belgian Catholic Rexist Party had performed very strongly (particularly in Wallonia), the two parties concluded an accord, intending to create a corporatist Belgian state with strong autonomy rights for the Flemish part. The VNV recalled this alliance after just one year.[3] In 1939, the VNV moderately increased its share of votes to 15% of the Flemish votes (8.4% in the whole of Belgium).[5]

The party was founded on October 8, 1933. It initially grew out of the long-established Frontpartij, a moderate exponent of the Flemish Movement that de Clerq had taken control of and moved to the right in 1932.[4] The VNV, as the Frontpartij became known the following year, was tied to the idea of uniting the many Flemish parties in post-1920s Belgium into a single movement, an objective finally attained with the party's creation, and it moved on to advocate the creation of a pan-Dutch state, called Dietsland, to include both Flanders and the Netherlands. It opposed both communism and liberalism. Its slogan was: Authority, discipline and Dietsland.

Creation

Contents

  • Creation 1
  • Collaboration 2
  • Footnotes 3
  • References 4

. the Holocaust in Belgium. VNV activists willingly contributed to the persecution of Jews and occupation authorities during World War II Nazi German with collaborated ("Dutch land"). It Dietsland which they termed Greater Netherlands to form a Netherlands from Belgium and to unite it with the Flanders Its aim was to separate [1]

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