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Close-mid back rounded vowel

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Title: Close-mid back rounded vowel  
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Close-mid back rounded vowel

Close-mid back rounded vowel
IPA number 307
Entity (decimal) o
Unicode (hex) U+006F
Kirshenbaum o
Braille ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)

The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is o.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".


  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4


IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[1] Botha [ˈböˑtɐ] 'Botha' Near-back. Allophone of /oə/ in less stressed words, in stressed syllables of polysyllabic words and in word-finally when unstressed. In the second case, it is in free variation with the diphthongal realization [öə̯ ~ ö̯ə ~ öə].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Egyptian بؤ [boʔ] 'mouth' See Egyptian Arabic phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic hoga [hoːga] 'steam'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2]
Bulgarian уста [os̪ˈt̪a] 'mouth' See Bulgarian language
Catalan[3] sóc [sok] 'I am' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese /gou1 [kou] 'tall' See Cantonese phonology
Wu [ho] 'flower'
Czech oko [ˈoko] 'eye' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[4][5][6][7][8] kone [ˈkʰoːnə] 'wife' See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[9] kool     'cabbage' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [oʊ]. See Dutch phonology
Leuven maken [ˈmoːkə] 'make' Corresponds to /aː/ in standard Dutch.
English Australian[10] yawn [joːn] 'yawn' See Australian English phonology
Cockney[11] In non-final position it can also be a diphthong like [oʊ] or [ɔo]. Word finally it's [ɔː]~[ɔə]~[ɔwə].
New Zealand[12]
South African[13] General and Broad varieties. Cultivated SAE has a more open vowel.
General Indian[14] go [ɡoː] 'go'
General Pakistani[15] Varies between [oː~əʊ~ʊ].
Multicultural London[16]
Faroese tosa [ˈtoːsa] 'speak'
French[19] réseau     'net' See French phonology
German Standard[20] oder     'or' See German phonology
Hindustani दो/دو     'two' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian kór [koːr] 'disease' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[21] foro [ˈfoːro] 'hole' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[22] [pɪˈpo] 'toad'
Korean 보수/bosu [ˈpoːsu] 'salary' See Korean phonology
Limburgish Most dialects[23][24][25] hoof [ɦoːf] 'garden' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Rural Weerts[26] koke [ˈkoːkə] 'to cook' Corresponds to /uə/ in the city dialect. The vowel transcribed /oː/ in the city dialect is actually a centering diphthong /oə/.[27]
Luxembourgish[28] Sonn [zon] 'sun'
Marathi गोड [ɡoɖ] 'sweet' See Marathi phonology
Norwegian Stavangersk[29] lov [lo̟ːʋ] 'law' Somewhat fronted.[29] See Norwegian phonology
Polish jojo [ˈjojɔ] 'yo-yo' Allophone of /ɔ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[30] dois [d̪ojʃ] 'two' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਹੋਰ     'more'
Shiwiar[31] Allophone of /a/.[31]
Silesian Ślůnsk [ˈɕlonsk] 'Silesia'
Slovak Some speakers[32] telefón [ˈt̻e̞l̺e̞foːn̺] 'telephone' Realization of /oː/ reported to occur in dialects spoken near the river Ipeľ, as well as - under Hungarian influence - in some other speakers. Corresponds to mid [o̞ː] in standard Slovak.[32] See Slovak phonology
Swedish åka     'travel' See Swedish phonology
Ukrainian мотузка [moˈtuzkɑ] 'rope' Unstressed allophone of /ɔ/ before stressed syllables with /u/. See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese tô [toː] 'bowl' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian bok [bok] 'billy-goat'


  1. ^ a b Lass (1987), p. 119.
  2. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
  4. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  5. ^ Grønnum (2005:268)
  6. ^ Grønnum (2003)
  7. ^ Allan, Holmes & Lundskær-Nielsen (2000:17)
  8. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  9. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  10. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  11. ^ Wells (1982a:311)
  12. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009)
  13. ^ Lass (2002:116)
  14. ^ Wells (1982b:626)
  15. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004:1009)
  16. ^ Gimson (2014:91)
  17. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  18. ^ Deterding (2000)
  19. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  20. ^ Kohler (1999:87), Mangold (2005:37)
  21. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:119)
  22. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  23. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  24. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  25. ^ Verhoeven (2007:221)
  26. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107)
  27. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107, 109)
  28. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  29. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:17)
  30. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  31. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  32. ^ a b Kráľ (1988:92)
  33. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969:166)


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