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Catalan dialects

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Title: Catalan dialects  
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Subject: Catalan language, Catalan dialects, History of Catalan, Catalan verbs, Phonological history of Catalan
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Catalan dialects

The main dialects of Catalan[1][2][3]

The dialects of the Catalan language feature a relative uniformity, especially when compared to other Romance languages;[4] both in terms of vocabulary, semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology.[5] Mutual intelligibility between its dialects is very high,[6][7][8] estimates ranging from 90% to 95%.[9] The only exception is the isolated idiosyncratic Alguerese dialect.[4]


  • Overview 1
  • Pronunciation 2
    • Vowels 2.1
    • Consonants 2.2
  • Morphology 3
  • Vocabulary 4
  • References 5
  • Bibliography 6


In 1861, linguist Manuel Milà i Fontanals split Catalan into two main dialects: Western and Eastern.[8][5] The most obvious phonetic difference lies in the treatment of unstressed a and e, which have merged to /ə/ in Eastern dialects, but remain distinct as /a/ and /e/ in Western dialects.[4][8] There are a few other differences in pronunciation, verbal morphology, and vocabulary.[6] Western Catalan comprises the two dialects of Northwestern Catalan and Valecian; the Eastern block comprises four dialects: Central Catalan, Balearic, Rossellonese, and Alguerese.[8] Each dialect can be further subdivided in several subdialects.

There are two spoken standards for the language based on the Eastern and Western dialects respectively:

Valencians are only surpassed in number of Catalan-speakers by Catalans themselves, representing approximately a third of the whole Catalan-speaking population.[11] Therefore, in the context of linguistic conflict, recognition and respect towards the dual standard, as well as the dual Catalan–Valencian denomination,[12] pacifies the tense central–periphery relations between Catalonia and the Valencian country.
Main dialectal divisions of Catalan[8][13]
Dialect Northwestern Valencian Central Balearic Northern/Rossellonese Alguerese
Area Spanish state French state Italian state
Provinces of Lleida, eastern half of Tarragona, La Franja Autonomous community of Valencia Provinces of Barcelona, western half of Tarragona, most of Girona Balearic islands Roussillon/Northern Catalonia City of Alghero in Sardinia



Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, except Spanish.[14] Balearic has also instances of stressed /ə/.[15] Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction,[16] and the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/.[17]

In Eastern Catalan (except Majorcan), unstressed vowels reduce to three: /a e ɛ/ → [ə]; /o ɔ u/ → [u]; /i/ remains distinct.[18] There are a few instances of unreduced [e], [o] in some words.[18] Alguerese has lowered [ə] to [a].

In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four: /a e ɛ/ follow the Eastern Catalan reduction pattern; however /o ɔ/ reduce to [o], with /u/ remaining distinct, as in Western Catalan.[19]

In Western Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to five: /e ɛ/ → [e]; /o ɔ/ → [o]; /a u i/ remain distinct.[20][21] This reduction pattern, inherited from Proto-Romance, is also found in Italian and Portuguese.[20] Some Western dialects present further reduction or vowel harmony in some cases.[20][22]

Central, Western, and Balearic differ in the lexical incidence of stressed /e/ and /ɛ/.[17] Usually, words with /ɛ/ in central Catalan correspond to /ə/ in Balearic and /e/ in Western Catalan.[17] Words with /e/ in Balearic almost always have /e/ in central and western Catalan as well.[17] As a result, Western Catalan has a much higher incidence of /e/.[17]

Different incidence of stressed /e/, /ə/, /ɛ/[17]
Word Western Majorcan Eastern
except Majorcan
set ("thirst") /'set/ /'sət/ /'sɛt/
ven ("he sells") /'ven/ /'vən/ /'bɛn/
General differences in the pronunciation of unstressed vowels in different dialects[8][23]
Word Western Catalan Eastern Catalan
North-Western Valencian Majorcan Central Northern
mare ("mother") mar[e] mar[ə]
cançó ("song") c[a]nçó c[ə]nçó
posar ("to put") p[o]sar p[u]sar
ferro ("iron") ferr[o] ferr[u]
Detailed Examples of vowel reduction processes in different dialects[24]
Word pairs:
the first with stressed root,
the second with unstressed root
Western Majorcan Central
gel ("ice")
gelat ("ice cream")
pera ("pear")
perera ("pear tree")
pedra ("stone")
pedrera ("quarry")
banya ("he bathes")
banyem("we bathe")
Majorcan: banyam("we bathe")
cosa ("thing")
coseta ("little thing")
tot ("everything")
total ("total")




In verbs, 1st person present indicative desinence is -e (∅ in verbs of the 2nd and 3rd conjugation), or -o.
E.g., parle, tem, sent (Valencian); parlo, temo, sento (North-Western). In verbs, 1st person present indicative desinence is -o, -i or ∅ in all conjugations.
E.g., parlo (Central), parl (Balearic), parli (Northern), ('I speak').
First person singular present indicative desinences in different dialects
Eastern Catalan Western Catalan Gloss
Central Northern Balearic Valencian North-Western
First parlo parli parl parle or parlo parlo "I speak"
Second temo temi tem tem temo "I fear"
Third sento senti sent sent sento "I feel"/"I hear"

In verbs, the inchoative desinences are -isc/-ixo, -ix, -ixen, -isca. In verbs, the inchoative desinences are -eixo, -eix, -eixen, -eixi.

In nouns and adjectives, maintenance of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words.
E.g.,hòmens 'men', jóvens 'youth'. In nouns and adjectives, loss of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words.
E.g.,homes 'men', joves 'youth'.


Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan (Eastern and Western) show some differences in word choices.[25] Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element.[25]
Selection of different words between Western and Eastern Catalan
Gloss "mirror" "boy" "broom" "navel" "to exit"
Eastern Catalan mirall noi escombra melic sortir
Western Catalan espill xiquet granera llombrígol eixir


  1. ^ Feldhausen 2010, p. 6.
  2. ^ Wheeler 2005, p. 2.
  3. ^ Costa Carreras 2009, p. 4.
  4. ^ a b c Moll 1958, p. 47.
  5. ^ a b Enciclopèdia Catalana, pp. 634–635.
  6. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, p. 1.
  7. ^ Costa Carreras & Yates 2009, p. 5.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Feldhausen 2010, p. 5.
  9. ^ Central Catalan has 90% to 95% inherent intelligibility for speakers of Valencian (1989 R. Hall, Jr.), cited on Ethnologue.
  10. ^ Xarxa Cruscat de l'Institut d'Estudis Catalans
  11. ^ Xarxa Cruscat de l'Institut d'Estudis Catalans
  12. ^
  13. ^ Wheeler 2005, pp. 2-3.
  14. ^ Enciclopèdia Catalana, p. 630.
  15. ^ Wheeler 2005, pp. 37,53-54.
  16. ^ Wheeler 2005, p. 37.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Wheeler 2005, p. 38.
  18. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, p. 54.
  19. ^ Wheeler 2005, pp. 53-54.
  20. ^ a b c Wheeler 2005, p. 53.
  21. ^
  22. ^ Recasens 1996, pp. 75–76,128–129.
  23. ^ Melchor & Branchadell 2002, p. 71.
  24. ^ Wheeler 2005, pp. 53-55.
  25. ^ a b Enciclopèdia Catalana, p. 632.


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