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From Top left to right: Jaydev vihar, Rajpath, IIT Bhubaneswar, Odisha Secretariat, Dhauli, Ram Mandir, Bhubaneswar, Lingaraja Temple
Nickname(s): Temple City of India
Bhubaneswar is located in Odisha
Country India
State Odisha
District Khordha
Named for Lord Shiva's name: Bhubaneswar
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC)
 • Mayor Anant Narayan Jena (BJD)
 • Municipal Commissioner Krishan Kumar (IAS)
 • Commissioner of Police Rajendra Prasad Sharma (IPS)
 • Metropolis 135 km2 (52 sq mi)
 • Metro 393.57 km2 (151.96 sq mi)
Elevation 45 m (148 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Metropolis 837,737
 • Rank 57
 • Density 2,131.37/km2 (5,520.2/sq mi)
 • Metro[2] 881,988
Demonym(s) Bhubaneswarites, Bhubaneswariya
 • Official Odia
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 751xxx
Telephone code 0674
Vehicle registration OR-02/OD-02/OD-33

Bhubaneswar , also spelt Bhubaneshwar Bhubanēswara;    ), is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha, formerly known as Orissa. The city has a history of over 3,000 years starting with the Mahamegha-bahana Chedi dynasty (around the 2nd century BCE) which had its capital at Sisupalgarh, nearby. Bhubaneswar, derived its name from Tribhubaneswar, which literally means the Lord (Eeswar) of the Three World (Tribhuban), which refers to Shiva.[3] Bhubaneswar has been known by names such as Toshali, Kalinga Nagari, Nagar Kalinga, Ekamra Kanan, Ekamra Kshetra and Mandira Malini Nagari ("City of Temples"). It is the largest city in Odisha and is a centre of economic and religious importance in Eastern India.

With many Hindu temples, which span the entire spectrum of Kalinga architecture, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a 'Temple City of India' and with Puri and Konark it forms the Swarna Tribhuja ("Golden Triangle"), one of eastern India's most visited destinations.[4]

Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital in 1948, the year after India gained its independence from Britain. The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. Along with Jamshedpur and Chandigarh, it was one of modern India's first planned cities. Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often referred to as the 'twin cities of Odisha'. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities had a population of 1.7 million in 2011.[5] Bhubaneswar is categorised as a Tier-2 city. An emerging information technology (IT) and education hub, Bhubaneswar is one of the country's fastest-developing cities.


  • History 1
  • Geography 2
    • Urban structure 2.1
    • Climate 2.2
  • Economy 3
  • Demographics 4
  • Civic administration 5
  • Utilities 6
  • Transport 7
    • Road 7.1
    • Rail 7.2
    • Air 7.3
  • Education 8
  • Culture 9
    • Festivals 9.1
    • Cuisine 9.2
  • Sports 10
  • Tourism 11
  • References 12
  • External links 13


 Ancient remains of stone walls with a grassy path in the middle
Remains of the ancient city of Sisupalgarh, on the outskirts of Bhubaneswar, dated at least 2,500 years old

The history of Bhubaneswar may be viewed in ancient and modern eras. The ancient city has a history of thousands of years, while the modern city emerged in 1948.[6]

Bhubaneswar's first mention was during the Kalinga War, which took place near Dhauli (now in the south of the city) in the 3rd century BCE. Later Emperor Kharavela established his capital at Sisupalgarh, on the outskirts of the modern city. The Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves by Kharavela give a good account of that period, which is estimated as 1st–2nd century BCE. Temples built throughout the ancient and medieval periods chronicle the city's history. Bhubaneswar is famous for its heritage culture around the world.

Jain and Buddhist temples portray the settlements around Bhubaneswar in the first two centuries BCE. One of the most complete edicts of the Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, dating from between 272–236 BCE, remains carved in rock 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the southwest of the modern city.[7]

The city was the ancient capital of the Kalinga Empire, and the architectural legacy of the period is manifest. Historical sites testify to the importance of the region during the 7th to 11th centuries CE, when the Kalinga kings ruled Odisha and beyond. The Ananta Vasudeva Temple and Bindusagar Tank is the only temple of Vishnu in the city. The temples in Bhubaneswar are regarded as having been built from the 8th to 12th centuries under Shaiva influence.[8]

Inscription on rock in Brahmi language
Hathigumpha inscriptions at the Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves

On 1 April 1936, Odisha, then known as Orissa, became a separate province in British India with Cuttack as its capital. This date is celebrated as Utkal Divas. Cuttack had been Odisha's capital since the 12th century. With independence in 1947, Odisha became a state. Because of Cuttack's vulnerability to floods and space constraints, the capital was moved to Bhubaneswar, which was formally inaugurated on 13 April 1948. The new capital was built as a modern city, designed by German architect Otto Königsberger with wide roads, gardens and parks.[9] Though part of the city followed the plan, it has grown rapidly over the last few decades, outstripping the planning process.[10]


A river passing along green fields
Daya River at the foothills of Dhauli

Bhubaneswar is in Khordha district of Odisha. It is in the eastern coastal plains, along the axis of the Eastern Ghats mountains.[11] The city has an average altitude of 45 m (148 ft) above sea level.[11] It lies southwest of the Mahanadi River that forms the northern boundary of Bhubaneswar metropolitan area, within its delta.

The city is bounded by the Daya River to the south and the Kuakhai River to the east;[11] the Chandaka Wildlife Sanctuary and Nandankanan Zoo lie in the western and northern parts of Bhubaneswar, respectively.[9]

Bhubaneswar is topographically divided into western uplands and eastern lowlands, with hillocks in the western and northern parts.[11] Kanjia lake on the northern outskirts, affords rich biodiversity and is a wetland of national importance.[12] Bhubaneswar's soils are 65 per cent laterite, 25 per cent alluvial and 10 per cent sandstone.[13] The Bureau of Indian Standards places the city inside seismic zone III on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes.[14] The United Nations Development Programme reports that there is "very high damage risk" from winds and cyclones.[14] The 1999 Odisha cyclone caused major damage to buildings, the city's infrastructure and cost many human lives.[15][16] Floods and waterlogging in the low-lying areas have become common due to unplanned growth.[13][17]

Urban structure

Bhubaneswar City at Night
Rajpath, Bhubaneswar

The Bhubaneswar urban development area consists of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation area, 173 revenue villages and two other municipalities spread over 393.57 square kilometres (151.96 sq mi).[18] The area under the jurisdiction of the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation covers 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi).[19] The city is somewhat dumbbell-shaped with most of the growth taking place to the north, northeast and southwest.[20] The north–south axis of the city is widest, at roughly 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi). Growth in the east is restricted due to the presence of Kuakhai River and by the wildlife sanctuary in the northwestern part.[20] The city can be broadly divided into the old town, planned city (or state capital), added areas and outer peripheral areas. It is subdivided into Units and Colonies.

The old town or "Temple Town", the oldest part of the city, is characterised by many temples, including the Lingaraj, Rajarani, and Muktesvara temples, standing alongside residential areas. This area is congested, with narrow roads and poor infrastructure.[20] Among neighbourhoods in the old town are Rajarani Colony, Pandav Nagar, Brahmeswar Bagh, Lingaraj Nagar, Gouri Nagar, Bhimatanki and Kapileswar.

The planned city was designed in 1948 to house the capital. It is subdivided into units, each with a high school, shopping centres, dispensaries and play areas. While most of the units house government employees, Unit V houses the administrative buildings, including the State Secretariat, State Assembly, and the Raj Bhavan. Private residential areas were later built in other areas of the planned city, including Saheed Nagar and Satya Nagar. Unit I, popularly known as the Market Building, was formed to cater to the shopping needs of the new capital's residents. Later, markets and commercial establishments developed along the Janpath and Cuttack-Puri Road at Saheed Nagar, Satya Nagar, Bapuji Nagar and Ashok Nagar. A dedicated institutional area houses educational and research institutes, including Utkal University, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology and Sainik School. Indira Gandhi Park, Gandhi Park and the Biju Patnaik Park are located in the unit.[20]

The added areas are mostly areas lying north of National Highway 5, including Nayapalli, Jayadev Vihar, Chandrasekharpur and Sailashree Vihar, which were developed by Bhubaneswar Development Authority to house the growing population.[20]

The peripheral areas are outside the municipal boundary or have subsequently been included within the extended boundary, including Tomando, Patia and Raghunathpur. Most of these areas were developed in a haphazard manner, without proper planning.[21]


A one storied building with decorative plants and landscaping around it
Meteorological Centre, Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar has a tropical savanna climate, designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. The annual mean temperature is 27.4 °C (81.3 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 22–32 °C (72–90 °F).[22] Summers (March to June) are hot and humid, with temperatures in the low 30s C; during dry spells, maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in May and June.[22] Winter lasts for only about ten weeks, with seasonal lows dipping to 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) in December and January. May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures range from 32–42 °C (90–108 °F). January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from 15–28 °C (59–82 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 45 °C (113.0 °F), and the lowest is 12 °C (54 °F).[22]

Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of the south west summer monsoon[23] lash Bhubaneswar between June and September, supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 1,542 mm (61 in). The highest monthly rainfall total, 330 mm (13 in), occurs in August.[22]

Climate data for Bhubaneswar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.8
Average high °C (°F) 28.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.2
Average low °C (°F) 15.6
Record low °C (°F) 8.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4
Average rainy days 0.4 2.3 2.8 3.1 5.1 12.0 18.0 19.1 14.6 8.8 2.1 0.7 89
Average relative humidity (%) 60 61 63 66 66 74 83 85 83 76 66 60 70.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 253.4 234.0 237.8 238.8 242.9 140.7 107.2 128.6 150.8 221.8 217.5 255.0 2,428.5
Source #1: NOAA (1971–1990)[24]
Source #2: IMD[25]


Panoramic view of Jaydev Vihar interchange at night

Bhubaneswar is an administrative, information technology, education and tourism city .[11] Bhubaneswar was ranked as the best place to do business in India by the World Bank in 2014.[26] Bhubaneswar has emerged as one of the fast-growing, important trading and commercial hub in the state and eastern India. Tourism is a major industry, attracting about 1.5 million tourists in 2011.[11][27] Bhubaneswar was designed to be a largely residential city with outlying industrial areas. The economy had few major players until the 1990s and was dominated by retail and small-scale manufacturing. With the economic liberalisation policy adopted by the Government of India in the 1990s, Bhubaneswar received investment in telecommunications, information technology (IT) and higher education.[11]

As of 2001, around 2.15% of the city's workforce was employed in the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining, etc.); 2.18% worked in the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing); and 95.67% worked in the tertiary sector (service industries).[11]

In 2011, according to a study by Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India, Bhubaneswar had the highest rate of employment growth among 17 Tier-2 cities in India.[28] It has been listed among the top ten emerging cities in India by Cushman and Wakefield, taking into consideration factors like demographics, physical, social and real estate infrastructure, current level and scope of economic activities and government support.[29] In 2012, Bhubaneswar was ranked third among Indian cities, in starting and operating a business by the World Bank.[30]

Bhubaneswar has been traditionally home to handicrafts industry, including silver filigree work,

  • Bhubaneswar travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Official website of Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation
  • Official website of Bhubaneswar Development Authority
  • Tourist destinations in Bhubaneswar

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See also

* Distance from Bhubaneswar


(8 km)*

Surrounded by paddy fields, the Dhauli hill brings back memories of the historic 'Kalinga war' which was fought around here. It is here that Ashoka, the terrible, was transformed into Ashoka, the compassionate and championed the cause of Buddhism. On the foot of the hill one can see the Rock Edicts of Ashoka and the forepart of a skillfully sculpted elephant hewn out of a huge rock. Dhauli has gained prominence due to the establishment of a Buddhist Peace Pagoda, popularly known as Shanti Stupa, built in the early seventies by the Japan Buddha Sangha and Kalinga Nippon Buddha Sangha. An old temple of Lord Dhavaleswar, reconstructed in 1972, also stands on the hill-top.
Sisupalgarh Just two km from the famed Lingaraj Temple of Bhubaneswar lie the ruins of Sisupalgarh. Dating back to the third or fourth century BC, these ruins show that even at that early date there was a well fortified city here, and establish the fact that the Orissan civilization has very ancient roots.

(15 km)*

Hirapur has the 11th century Hypaethral temple of sixty fourYoginis. It is second of its kind in Orissa and one of four such unique temples in India.

(42 km)*

Situated amidst greenery and famous for the hot sulphur water spring, Atri, 42 km. from Bhubaneswar and 14 km. from Khurda, is also a holy place with the shrine of Hatakeswar. A bath in the spring water is reputed to cure skin diseases apart from being a pleasant experience.

(20 km)*

Picturesquely carved out of the Chandaka forest,Nandankanan is a Biological Park where animals are kept in their natural habitat. A centrally located lake divides the Zoo from the Botanical Gardens. Tigers, Lions, Clouded Leopards, Black Panthers, European Brown Bear, Himalayan Black Bear, Gharials, Rosy Pelican, Grey Pelican, Indian Python, King Cobra, etc. are among the attractions of the zoo, which is famous for its White Tigers. The exotic Botanical Garden on the other side of the zoo preserves varieties of indigenous plants. Regular bus services are available to reach the place.

Places around Bhubaneswar :
Dhauli Hirapur Nandankanan
Fairs / Festivals Place Period
Shiva Ratri Bhubaneswar, Atri February - March
Khandagiri Mela Khandagiri January - February
Ashokastami Bhubaneswar March–April
Ramanavami Odagaon, Bhubaneswar March - April
Jhamuyatra Kakatpur April - May
Anla Navami Sakshigopal October - November
Fairs and Festivals of the region :
Ancient Temples
Ananta Vasudeva

(c. 13th century A.D.)

Bharateswar Temple

(c. 6th century A.D.)

Bhaskareswar Temple Brahma Temple Brahmeswar Temple

(c. 11th century A.D.)

Chandana Temple Chitrakarini Daiteswar Temple
Dwarabasini Temple Gosagareswar Temple Kainchi Temple
Kedareswar Temple Kotitirtheswar Laxmaneswar Temple

(c. 6th century A.D.)

Lingaraj Temple

(c. 11th century A.D.)

Makarewswar Markandeswar Temple

(c. 10th century A.D.)

Mohini Temple Papanasini
Parsurameswar Temple

(c. 7th century A.D.)

Rajarani Temple

(c. 11th century A.D.)

Rameswar Temple
Satrughaneswar Temple

(c. 6th century A.D.)

Subarneswar Swarnajaleswar Temples

(c. 7th century A.D.)

Taleswar Temple Tirtheswar Temple Uttareswar Temple
Vaital Temple

(c. 8th century A.D.)

Vimaleswar / Gaurisankar Vishnu Temple
Khandagiri & Udaygiri caves (c 1st century B.C.)
Modern Temples
Baya Baba Matha Ram Mandir Shirdi Sai Baba Mandir ISKCON Temple
Biju Patanaik Park Buddha Jayanti Park Ekamra Kanan /Cactus Garden
Forest Park Gandhi Park I.G. Park
IMFA Park Kharavela Park S.P. Mukherjee Park
Subas Bose Park
Boyanika Ekamra Haat Kalamandir
Sambalpuri Bastralaya Satyam Shivam Sundaram Utkalika
Priyadarshani Bazar Kolkata Vishal Garments
Other Landmarks
Nicco Park
Pathani Samanta Planetarium
BDA Nicco Park Fortune Tower Info City
Kalinga Stadium Pathani Samanta Planetarium Science Park

Some of the other important tourist spots of Bhubaneswar are:

Handicrafts of the Region: Silver filigree, Stone and Wood carving, Patta paintings, Tie and Dye textiles, bamboo basketry, brass and bell metal work, horn work, and many other famous handicrafts of Orissa can be selected as souvenirs from the local markets. Purchases can be made from Utkalika (run by the Department of Handicrafts) or at the many privately run shops.

Stay: With numerous hotels as well as the Orissa Tourism Development Corporation's Panthanivas, Bhubaneswar is well equipped to accommodate every type of visitor.

Best time to visit: Bhubaneswar can be visited round the year, but the ideal time, especially for visitors from colder climes, would be from October to March.

The new Bhubaneswar with its modern buildings and extensive infrastructure perfectly complements its historic surroundings. With facilities to cater to every type of visitor, Bhubaneswar makes an ideal tourist destination.Approach: Bhubaneswar is well connected by air, rail and road to the rest of India. The modern Biju Patnaik airport is being extended to receive wide bodied aircraft, and one may well see international charters landing here soon.

Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa, is also popularly known as the "Temple City of India". Being the seat of Tribhubaneswar or 'Lord Lingaraj', Bhubaneswar is an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. Hundreds of temples dot the landscape of the Old Town, which once boasted of more than 2000 temples. Bhubaneswar is the place where temple building activities of Orissan style flowered from its very inception to its fullest culmination extending over a period of over one thousand years.


All India Radio, the national state-owned radio broadcaster, airs several AM channels from the radio station located in Cuttack.[119] Bhubaneswar has five local radio stations broadcasting on FM, including two from AIR.[119][120] India's state-owned television broadcaster Doordarshan Odia provides two free-to-air terrestrial channels,[121] while a mix of Oriya, Hindi, English, and other regional channels are accessible via cable subscription and direct-broadcast satellite services. Some of the Odia language television channels are Colors Odia, Sarthak TV and Tarang TV. Oriya-language 24-hour television news channels include Odisha TV, Kanak TV, ETV News Odia, MBC TV and Naxatra News.[122]

The city's widely circulated Oriya-language newspapers are Sambad, Dharitri, Pragatibadi, Samaja, Khabar, Orissa Bhaskara, Prameya and Samaya.[118] Orissa Post and Orissa Age are the English-language newspaper that is produced and published from Bhubaneswar. Other popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Bhubaneswar include The Times of India, The Telegraph, The Statesman, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Indian Express, and the Asian Age.[118] Bhubaneswar has substantial circulation of financial dailies, including The Economic Times, The Financial Express, Business Line, and Business Standard.[118] Vernacular newspapers, such as those in the Hindi, Bengali and Telugu, are read by minorities.[118] Major periodicals based in Bhubaneswar include Saptahik Samaya, Saptahik Samaja, and Kadambini.

Construction of galleries and stadium renovation is in process. An air-conditioned indoor stadium with a capacity of 2000 spectators for badminton, volleyball, basketball and table tennis games is under construction.[112] Barabati Stadium in Cuttack, Odisha's only venue for international cricket matches, is located around 25 kilometres (16 mi) away.[116] Bhubaneswar has a franchise of Odisha Premier League, Bhubaneswar Jaguars, which started in 2010. Bhubaneswar Golf Club, a nine-hole golf course is situated in Infocity.[117]

Bhubaneswar's major sporting arena is the Kalinga Stadium, having facilities for athletics, football, hockey, basketball, tennis, table tennis and swimming.[112][113][114] Kalinga Lancers, the sixth franchise of Hockey India League and Samaleswari S.C., a franchise of I-League 2nd Division, are based in Bhubaneswar with Kalinga Stadium as their home ground. East Coast Railway Stadium, a prominent cricket stadium hosts Ranji Trophy and other matches.[115]

Bhubaneswar Golf Club


Chhena Gaja, famous sweet of Odisha from Pahala, Bhubaneswar

The Abadha of Lingaraj Temple and Ananta Vasudeva Temple served for devotees is considered a vegetarian culinary delight. Other vegetarian dishes are Dalma (made of lentils and vegetables boiled together and then fried with other spices) and Santula (lightly spiced steamed vegetables).[109] Sweets play a large part in the diet of Bhubaneswarites—especially at their social ceremonies. Bhubaneswar is known for its kora-khhaii which are made up of paddy, jaggery and coconut pieces. Pitha, a kind of sweet cake, bread or dim sum are winter specialties.

Key elements of the city's cuisine include rice and a fish curry known as machha jholo, which can be accompanied by desserts such as Rasagola, Rasabali, Chhena Gaja and Chhena Poda.[108] Odisha's large repertoire of seafood dishes includes various preparations of lobsters and crabs brought in from Chilika Lake.[109] Street foods such as Gupchup (a deep-fried crêpe with tamarind sauce), Cuttack-chaat, Dahi bara-Aloo dum and Bara-ghuguni are sold all over the city.[110] Traditional Oriya food such as Dahi-Pakhal (rice soaked in water with yogurt and seasonings) is considered as a body coolant, accompanied by Badi chura or saga are consumed during months of April–June.[111]


Adivasi Mela is a fair that displays art, artefacts, tradition, culture, and music of the tribal inhabitants of Odisha is held in January.[104] Toshali National Crafts Mela, held in December, showcases handicrafts from all over India and from foreign countries.[105] Other important fairs in the city include the Rajdhani Book Fair and Khandagiri Utsav.[106][107]

Other festivals celebrated include Shivaratri, Diwali, Ganesh Puja, Nuakhai and Saraswati Puja. Eid and Christmas are celebrated by the religious minorities in the city.[101][102][103]

On the day of Ashokashtami in the month of March or April, the image of Lingaraja (Shiva) and other deities are taken in a procession from Lingaraja Temple to the Mausima Temple, where the deities remain for four days.[96] Hundreds of devotees participate in pulling the temple car that carries the deities, known as Rukuna Rath.[97] Ratha-Yatra, "Temple Car Festival," is the most important festival in Odisha and Bhubaneswar.[98] The festival commemorates Jagannath, who is said to have been the incarnation of India's revered deities, Vishnu and Krishna. Durga Puja, held in September–October, is an occasion for glamorous celebrations.[99][100]


The Odisha State Museum offers archaeological artifacts, weapons, local arts and crafts as well as insights into Odisha's natural and indigenous history.[92] The Tribal Research Institute Museum hosts authentic tribal dwellings created by tribal craftsmen.[93] Nandankanan Zoological Park, located on the northern outskirt of the city, is India's first zoo to join World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.[94][95] The State Botanical Garden (Odisha) and Regional Plant Resource Center, popularly known as Ekamra Kanan, a park and botanical garden, has a large collection of exotic and regional fauna. The Ekamra Haat is a hand-loom and handicrafts market. Nicco Park and Ocean World are amusement parks. Other museums include Pathani Samanta Planetarium, Regional Museum of Natural History, Regional Science Center and State Handicrafts Museum.

Though Oriya women traditionally wear the sari and the shalwar kameez, Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women.[90] Western-style dress has greater acceptance among men, although the traditional dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals.[91]

Odissi dance is generally accompanied by Odissi music. Srjan, the Odissi dance academy founded by Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra, the legendary Odissi dancer is found here.[85][86] The Rabindra Mandap in central Bhubaneswar plays host to cultural engagements, theatre and private functions.[87] As a part of the Ekamra Festival, many cultural sub-festivals takes place in January in Bhubaneswar which includes Kalinga Mahotsav (for traditional martial arts), Dhauli-Kalinga Mahotsav (for classical dance forms), Rajarani Music Festival (for classical music) and Mukteswar Dance Festival (for Odishi dance).[88] Residents engage in khattis, or leisurely chats, that often take the form of freestyle intellectual conversation.[89]

Bhubaneswar along with Cuttack is the home of the Oriya cinema industry, dubbed "Ollywood", where most of the state's film studios are. Odia culture survives in the form of Classical Odissi dance, handicrafts, sand artistry and sculpturing as well as theatre and music. Boundary walls and gardens are increasingly being redone to depict the folk art of the state.[80][81] Odissi, the oldest of the eight surviving classical dance forms of India can be traced from archaeological evidence from the temples in Bhubaneswar.[82][83][84]

The twin hills of Khandagiri & Udayagiri, served as the site of an ancient Jain monastery which was carved into cave-like chambers in the face of the hill. These caves, with artistic carvings, date back to the 2nd century BCE. Dhauli hills has major edicts of Ashoka engraved on a mass of rock and a white Peace Pagoda was built by the Japan Buddha Sangha and the Kalinga Nippon Buddha Sangha in the 1970s. Apart from the ancient temples, other important temples were built in recent times include Ram Mandir and ISKCON.

Famous temples include Lingaraj Temple, Muktesvara Temple, Rajarani Temple, Ananta Vasudeva Temple.[79]

Bhubaneswar is supposed to have had over one thousand temples, earning the tag of the 'Temple City of India'. Temples are made in the Kalinga architectural style with a pine spire that curves up to a point over the sanctum housing the presiding deity and a pyramid-covered hall where people sit and pray.

Ravindra Mandap, an auditorium in Bhubaneswar
Muktesvara deula, covered with erotic ancient carvings, known for its quality of sculptures


Oriya and English are the primary languages of instruction. Schools in Bhubaneswar follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing secondary education, students typically enroll in schools that are affiliated with the Council of Higher Secondary Education, the ICSE, or the CBSE. The regional CBSE board office for Odisha is in Bhubaneswar. Liberal arts, business, science and vocational programs are available.Two colleges located in Bhubaneswar and owned by Government of Odisha are mainly dedicated for higher secondary education. Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar College is an autonomous government college. Rajdhani College, Bhubaneswar was established in in 1973 is also government owned. Schools in Bhubaneswar are run by the state government or private organisations.

Bhubaneswar has two deemed universities: KIIT University and Siksha O Anusandhan University; four medical colleges—All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhubaneswar named after Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital and Institute of Medical Sciences and Sum Hospital. These are private Universities.

Bhubaneswar has a large number of institutes for high education. Bhubaneswar is one of the few cities in India which houses IIT, NISER, and many other premier Government institutes. Premier educational institutions include the IIT Bhubaneswar, National Institute of Science Education and Research, International Institute of Information Technology, Bhubaneswar (IIIT-Bh), Xavier Institute of Management (XIMB), Institute of Mathematics and Applications(IOMA), National Institute of Fashion Technology, Institute of Physics, Institute of Life Sciences, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Regional Medical Research Center and Regional Institute of Education.[78] The premiere Engineering college owned by the state Government of Odisha, College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar, is the most comprehensive engineering Institute having a set of specialization which include, electrical engineering, architecture, textile, and fashion technology, etc. The Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology located in Bhubaneswar is a unique Institute owned by Government of India. Rama Devi Women's University is a University located in Bhubaneswar which is specifically dedicated to Woman education.

Colleges are affiliated with a university or institution based in Bhubaneswar or elsewhere in India. Bhubaneswar has emerged as an education hub in eastern India, with several private and government colleges geared towards engineering, management, and other courses.[75][76][77] Utkal University, established in 1939, is the oldest, with 267 affiliated general colleges, 15 law colleges, six medical and pharmacy colleges. Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology established in 1962, is the second oldest agricultural university in the country. Utkal University of Culture is dedicated for research, teaching and education.

Academic Block of Xavier Institute of Management; a prestigious management school in India


Biju Patnaik International Airport, also known as Bhubaneswar Airport, 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) south of the city center, is the major and sole international airport in Odisha. There are daily flights from Bhubaneswar to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Bangalore. In March 2013, a new domestic terminal with a capacity of handling 30 million passengers per year was inaugurated to handle increased air traffic.[74] On 10 July 2015, the first international flight took off from terminal 2 of Biju Patnaik International Airport.


Bhubaneswar has five railway stations within its city limits (from north to south):

The East Coast Railway has its headquarters in Bhubaneswar. Bhubaneswar railway station is one of the main stations of the Indian railway network. It is connected to major cities by daily express and passenger trains, but daily service to all metro cities is not available from here. For this the government is asking new trains for last consecutive years which is not getting sanctioned from the central government. However, the station is overloaded by existing traffic. Currently, the station has six platforms. There are plans to add two more platforms. A satellite station is under construction near Barang to decongest the existing one.[72][73]

East Coast Railway Headquarter in Bhubaneswar


Bhubaneswar has wide roads in grid form in the central city. Bhubaneswar has approximately 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) of roads, with average road density of 11.82 square kilometres (4.56 sq mi).[11] Baramunda bus stand is the major bus terminus in the city from where buses ply to all the districts in Odisha as well as to neighbouring state's cities like Hyderabad, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Raipur and Ranchi. City bus service runs in public-private partnership between Bhubaneswar-Puri Transport Service Limited (BPTSL) and Dream Team Sahara (DTS) under JNNURM scheme.[65] A fleet of 105 buses cover all major destinations including Cuttack, Puri and Khordha.[65] Auto rickshaws are available for hire and on a share basis throughout the city.[66][67] In parts of the city, cycle rickshaws offer short trips.[68] To ease traffic jams, over-bridges at major road junctions and expansion of roads are under construction.[69][70] In a study of six cities in India, Bhubaneswar was ranked third concerning pedestrian infrastructure. The city scored 50 points out of maximum 100. The government of Odisha introduced the much-awaited Bhubaneswar BRTS (bus rapid transit) in Bhubaneswar.[71]


The headquarters of the Odisha State Road Transport Corporation (OSRTC) is in Bhubaneswar. The main Bhubaneswar inter-state bus terminus is at Barmunda, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the city centre, from where OSRTC and private operators run buses connecting Bhubaneswar to cities in Odisha and with the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh.[64] Bhubaneswar is connected to the rest of Odisha and India by National Highways-NH 5, which is a part of the Kolkata-Chennai prong of the Golden Quadrilateral, NH 203, State Highway 13 (Odisha) and State Highway 27 (Odisha).[18]


[63][62], are the leading telephone, cell phone and internet service providers in the city.Tata DoCoMo, and Aircel, Idea Cellular, Reliance, Bharti Airtel, Vodafone, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited State-owned [11] Electricity is supplied by the state-operated


A wide four storied building with landscaped lawn and garden in the foreground
Odisha State Secretariat building

Citizens of Bhubaneswar elect one representative to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and three representatives to the state legislative assembly, through the constituencies of Bhubaneswar North, Ekamra-Bhubaneswar and Bhubaneswar Central.[60][61]

As the seat of the Government of Odisha, Bhubaneswar is home to the Odisha Legislative Assembly and the state secretariat. Bhubaneswar has lower courts: the Court of Small Causes and the District Civil Court decide civil matters; the Sessions Court rules in criminal cases.[56] The Bhubaneswar–Cuttack Police Commissionerate, established in 2008, is a city police force with primary responsibilities in law enforcement and investigation in the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack area.[57][58] Rajendra Prasad Sharma is the police commissioner.[59]

The Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC) oversees and manages civic infrastructure for the city's 67 wards.[53] Residents of each ward elect a councillor to the BMC for a five-year term. Standing committees handle urban planning and maintain roads, government-aided schools, hospitals and municipal markets.[54] As Bhubaneswar's apex body, the corporation discharges its functions through the mayor-in-council, which comprises a mayor, a deputy mayor and other elected members. The executive wing is headed by a Commissioner. BMC responsibilities include drainage and sewerage, sanitation, solid waste management and street lighting.[11] As of 2014, the Biju Janata Dal party controlled the BMC; the mayor was Ananta Narayan Jena and deputy mayor was K. Shanti.[55] The Bhubaneswar Development Authority is responsible for statutory planning and development and building regulation.[11]

Civic administration

Others include Buddhists,Jains and Sikhs
Religions in Bhubaneswar
Religion Percent

The residents are known as Bhubaneswarites.[52] The main language spoken in the city is Odia, however, Hindi and English are understood by most residents. Although Odias comprise the vast majority, Marwaris, Bengalis and Telugus also live there. Growth in the information technology industry and education sector in Bhubaneswar changed the city's demographic profile; likely infrastructure strains and haphazard growth from demographic changes have been a cause of concern.

According to the 2001 census, 11 per cent lived in 99 unauthorised and 47 authorised slums.[11] In 2009, the number of slums in Bhubaneswar increased to 377, mostly unauthorised.[47] Migration from rural areas and neighbouring states drove the growth of the slums.[48][49] According to the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack Police Commissionerate, the number of crime incidents reported in Bhubaneswar during 2011 was 3,350, decreasing from 4,417 incidents in 2010.[50][51]

As per the 2011 census of India, Bhubaneswar had a population of 837,737, while the metropolitan area had a population of 881,988.[2][1] As per the estimate of IIT Kharagpur, which made a development plan, the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack Urban complex, consisting of 721.9 square kilometres (278.7 sq mi), has a population of 1.9 million (as of 2008).[45] As of 2011, the number of males was 445,233, while the number of females were 392,504. The decadal growth rate was 45.90 per cent. Effective male literacy was 95.69 per cent, while female literacy was 90.26 per cent. About 75,237 were under six. Bhubaneswar's literacy rate is 93.15 per cent[1]—significantly higher than the national average of 74.04 per cent.[46]

Bhubaneshwar population 
Census Pop.
1951 16,512
1961 38,211 131.4%
1971 105,491 176.1%
1981 227,525 115.7%
1991 423,465 86.1%
2001 647,302 52.9%
2011 837,737 29.4%


In 2009, Odisha was ranked ninth among Indian states in terms of software export by NASSCOM, with most IT/ITES companies established in Bhubaneswar.[37] In 2011–12, Odisha had a growth rate of 17% for software exports.[38] According to a 2012 survey, among the tier-2 cities in India, Bhubaneswar has been chosen as the best for conducting IT/ITES business.[39] The government fostered growth by developing of IT parks such as Infocity-1, Infovalley, STPI-Bhubaneswar and JSS STP.[40][41] Infocity was conceived as a five-star park, under the Export Promotion Industrial Parks (EPIP) Scheme to create infrastructure facilities for setting up information technology related industries. Infosys and Tech Mahindra have been present in Bhubaneswar since 1996. Other software companies include TCS, Mindfire Solutions, Wipro, IBM, Genpact, Firstsource, Mindtree and MphasiS. Apart from the big multinationals, some 300 small and mid-size IT companies and business start ups have offices in Bhubaneswar.[41]

The Department of Industries established four industrial areas in and around Bhubaneswar, in the Rasulgarh, Mancheswar, Chandaka, and Bhagabanpur areas.[11] In the informal sector, 22,000 vendors operate in regulated or unregulated vending zones.[35][36]


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