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Hearing Voices Movement

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Hearing Voices Movement

The Hearing Voices Movement is the name used by organizations and individuals advocating the "hearing voices approach",[1] an alternative way of understanding the experience of those people who "hear voices". In the medical professional literature, ‘voices’ are most often referred to as auditory hallucinations or ‘verbal’ hallucinations. The movement uses the term ‘voices’, which it feels is a more accurate and ‘user-friendly’ term.

The movement was instigated by Marius Romme, Sandra Escher and Patsy Hage [2] in 1987.

The movement challenges the notion that to hear voices is necessarily a characteristic of mental illness.[3][4][5] Instead it regards hearing voices as a meaningful and understandable, although unusual, human variation.[6][7] It therefore rejects the stigma and pathologisation of hearing voices and advocates human rights, social justice and support for people who hear voices that is empowering and recovery focused.[8][9][10] The movement thus challenges the medical model of mental illness, specifically the validity of the schizophrenia construct.[11]

Contents

  • History and tenets 1
  • Theoretical overview 2
  • Alternative to medical model of disability 3
  • Position 4
  • Organisation 5
  • Activities 6
    • Hearing Voices Groups 6.1
    • World Hearing Voices Congress 6.2
    • Annual World Hearing Voices Day 6.3
    • Website and Social Media Platforms 6.4
    • Research Committee 6.5
  • Impact 7
    • Informing public debate 7.1
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • Publications 10
  • Further reading 11

History and tenets

The international Hearing Voices Movement is a prominent mental health service-user/survivor movement that promotes the needs and perspectives of experts by experience in the phenomenon of hearing voices (auditory verbal hallucinations). The main tenet of the Hearing Voices Movement is the notion that hearing voices is a meaningful human experience.[12]

The Hearing Voices Movement regards itself and is regarded by others as being a post-psychiatric organisation.[13][14][15] It positions itself outside of the mental health world in recognition that voices are an aspect of human difference, rather than a mental health problem. One of the main issues of concern for the Hearing Voices Movement is empowerment [16] and human rights (see the Melbourne Hearing Voices Declaration 2013 and the Thessaloniki Declaration 2014).

The Hearing Voices Movement also seeks holistic health solutions to problematic and overwhelming voices that cause mental distress. Based on their research,[17] the movement espouses that many people successfully live with their voices. In themselves voices are not seen as the problem. Rather it is the relationship the person has with their voices that is regarded as the main issue.[18][19] Research indicates that mindfulness-based interventions can be beneficial for people distressed by hearing voices.[20][21][22]

The Hearing Voices Movement has developed interventions for mental health practitioners to support people who hear voices and are overwhelmed by the experience.[23][24][25][26][27]

Theoretical overview

The work of Romme, Escher and other researchersl[28][29][30][31][32][33] provides a theoretical framework for the movement. They find that:

  1. Not everyone who hears voices becomes a patient. Over a third of 400 voice hearers in the Netherlands they studied had not had any contact with psychiatric services. These people either described themselves as being able to cope with their voices and/or described their voices as life enhancing.[34]
  2. Demographic (epidemiological) research carried out over the last 120 years provides evidence that there are people who hear voices in the general population (2% - 6%) who are not necessarily troubled by them [35][36][37][38][39]). Only a small minority fulfil the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and, of those, only a few seek psychiatric aid[40] indicating that hearing voices in itself is not necessarily a symptom of an illness.[41] Even more (about 8%) have peculiar delusions and do so without being ill.
  3. People who cope well with their voices and those who did not, show clear differences in terms of the nature of the relationship they had with their voices.[42]
  4. People who live well with their voice experience use different strategies to manage their voices than those voice hearers who are overwhelmed by them.[43][44]
  5. 70% of voice hearers reported that their voices had begun after a severe traumatic or intensely emotional event[45][46][47][48][49][50] such as an accident, divorce or bereavement, sexual or physical abuse, love affairs, or pregnancy.[51] Romme and colleagues found that the onset of voice hearing amongst a patient group was preceded by either a traumatic event or an event that activated the memory of an earlier trauma.[52][53]
  6. Specifically, there is a high correlation between voice hearing and abuse[54] These findings are being substantiated further in on-going studies with voice hearing amongst children.[55][56]
  7. Some people who hear voices have a deep need to construct a personal understanding for their experiences and to talk to others about it without being designated as mad.[57]

Romme, colleagues and other researchers find that people who hear voices can be helped using methods such as voice dialoguing [58] cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT)[59] and self-help methods.[60]

Romme theorizes a three phase model of recovery:[61]

  • Startling – Initial confusion; emotional chaos, fear, helplessness and psychological turmoil.
  • Organization – The need to find meaning, arrive at some understanding and acceptance. The development of ways of coping and accommodating voices in everyday living. This task may take months or years and is marked by the attempt to enter into active negotiation with the voice(s).
  • Stabilisation – The establishment of equilibrium, and accommodation, with the voice(s), and the consequent re-empowerment of the person.

Alternative to medical model of disability

The Hearing Voices Movement disavows the medical model of disability and disapproves of the practises of mental health services through much of the Western World, such as treatment solely with medication.[62] For example, some service users have reported negative experiences of mental health services because they are discouraged from talking about their voices as these are seen solely as symptoms of psychiatric illness.[63][64][65][66][67] Slade and Bentall conclude that the failure to attend to hallucinatory experiences and/or have the opportunity for dialogue about them is likely to have the effect of helping to maintain them.[68]

In Voices of Reason, Voices of Insanity, Leudar and Thomas review nearly 3,000 years of voice-hearing history, including that of Socrates, Schreber, and Janet's patient 'Marcelle', amongst others.[69] As with Smith [70] and Watkins[71] they argue that the Western World has moved the experience of hearing voices from a socially valued context to a pathologised and denigrated one. Foucault has argued that this process can generally arise when a minority perspective is at odds with dominant social norms and beliefs.[72]

Position

The position of the hearing voices movement can be summarised as follows:[73]

  • Hearing voices is not in itself a sign of mental illness.
  • Hearing voices is experienced by many people who do not have symptoms that would lead to diagnosis of mental illness.
  • Hearing voices is often related to problems in life history.
  • If hearing voices causes distress, the person who hears the voices can learn strategies to cope with the experience. Coping is often achieved by confronting the past problems that lie behind the experience.

Organisation

INTERVOICE is the organisation that provides coordination and support to the Hearing Voices Movement. It is supported by people who hear voices, relatives, friends and mental health professionals including therapists, social workers, nurses, psychiatrists and psychologists. INTERVOICE members believe that the most important factor in the success of their approach is the importance placed on the personal engagement of the people involved, meaning that all participants are considered an expert of their own experience.Membership

INTERVOICE was formed in 1997, at a meeting of voice hearers, family members and mental health workers was held in Maastricht, Netherlands to consider how to organise internationally further research and work about the subject of voice hearing. The meeting decided to create a formal organizational structure to provide administrative and coordinating support to the wide variety of initiatives in the different involved countries.

The organisation is structured as a network and is called INTERVOICE (The International Network for Training, Education and Research into Hearing Voices). In 2007 INTERVOICE was incorporated as a non-profit company and charity under UK law and operates under the name of International Hearing Voices Projects Ltd. The president is Marius Romme and the governing body is made up of people who hear voices and mental health practitioners.

The Hearing Voices Movement [74] was established in 1987 by Romme and Escher, both from the Netherlands, with the formation of Stichting Weerklank (Foundation Resonance), a peer led support organisation for people who hear voices. In 1988, the Hearing Voices Network was established in England with the active support of Romme.[75] Since then, networks have been established in 35 countries including Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Hungary, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Malta, Palestine, Malaysia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Norway, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda, USA and Wales.[76]

Activities

Hearing Voices Groups

Hearing Voices Groups are based on an ethos of self help, mutual respect and empathy. They provide a safe space for people to share their experiences and to support one another. They are peer support groups, involving social support and belonging, not necessarily therapy or treatment. Goups offer an opportunity for people to accept and live with their experiences in a way that helps them regain some power over their lives. There are hundreds of hearing voices groups and networks across the world (see World Map of Hearing Voices Groups and Networks). In 2014 there were more than 180 groups in the UK. These include groups for young people, people in prison, women and people from Black and Minority Ethnic communities.[77][78][79][80][81][82]

World Hearing Voices Congress

INTERVOICE hosts the annual World Hearing Voices Congress. In 2015 the 7th Congress will be held in Madrid, Spain. Previous conferences have been held in Maastricht, Netherlands, (2009); Nottingham, England (2010), Savona, Italy (2011), Cardiff, Wales (2012); Melbourne, Australia (2013); Thessaloniki, Greece (2014).

Annual World Hearing Voices Day

This is held on the 14th September and celebrates hearing voices as part of the diversity of human experience, It seeks to increase awareness of the fact that you can hear voices and be healthy. It also challenges the negative attitudes towards people who hear voices and the assumption that hearing voices, in itself, is a sign of mental illness.

Website and Social Media Platforms

INTERVOICE places importance on maintaining a high profile on the internet and social media as follows (as of October 2015):

  • INTERVOICE hosts a website which provides information on the activities of the organisation, in particular the work of the member countries. It provides information and support for people who hear voices. It also emphasises the more positive aspects of the experience and their cultural and historical significance
  • The INTERVOICE FaceBook Group is a moderated discussion forum with more than 5,500 members.
  • The Hearing Voices Media Watch FaceBook page monitors news coverage about hearing voices. The page is liked by over 2,500 people.
  • The INTERVOICE Twitter page has over 3,300 followers.
  • The INTERVOICE Youtube Channel lists over 250 videos about hearing voices and related issues.
  • Professor Jim van Os leads a group of voice hearers, clinicians and researchers who have developed a web site in Dutch, (with an English page) [Schizophrenia does not exist https://www.schizofreniebestaatniet.nl/english/] which contains a series of videos which explain simple mechanisms through which various symptoms of psychosis can emerge.

Research Committee

INTERVOICE has an international research committee, that commisisons research, encourages and supports exchanges and visits between member countries, the translation and publication of books and other literature on the subject of hearing voices and other related extraordinary experiences.

Impact

Informing public debate

Awareness of the hearing voices approach in the public arena has grown over the last twenty seven years through media coverage in Europe, USA, Australia etc:

  • Hearing Voices, Horizon Documentary, BBC, UK (1995) Description "Traditional clinical psychology postulates that people who hear voices are mad, but Dutch psychiatrist Professor Marius Romme argues that the voices people hear relate to their own thoughts and that they can learn to live with them. Explores the arguments for focusing on what the voices say, rather than suppressing them with medication." Broadcast on BBC2 on 24/4/95.
  • Angels and Demons directed by Sonya Pemberton, f2003; produced by ABC Commercial, in Enough Rope, Episode 162 (Ultimo, New South Wales: ABC Commercial, 2008), 47 mins description "Angels and Demons provides a rare insight into the experiences of those with mental illness. Himself deeply confronted, Andrew also finds the possibility of a better life for people often dismissed as beyond hope."
  • The Doctor Who Hears Voices, Channel 4, UK Description Based on a true story. "Ruth" (played by actress Ruth Wilson, to protect the identity of the real patient in question) is a junior doctor hearing voices which tell her to kill herself. She is treated by controversial psychologist Dr Rufus May. Rufus May is a maverick psychologist. He believes there is no such thing as schizophrenia, that medication can destroy lives and that there's nothing wrong with hearing voices. Rufus is an authority on the subject. He was diagnosed with acute schizophrenia aged 18."
  • The voices in my head TED2013, Filmed February 2013 Description "Despite what traditional medicine may opine, Eleanor Longden isn’t crazy -- and neither are many other people who hear voices in their heads. In fact, the psychic phenomenon is a “creative and ingenious survival strategy” that should be seen “not as an abstract symptom of illness to be endured, but as complex, significant, and meaningful experience to be explored,” the British psychology researcher says. Longden spent many years in the psychiatric system before earning a BSc and an MSc in psychology, the highest classifications ever granted by the University of Leeds, England. Today she is studying for her PhD, and lectures and writes about recovery-oriented approaches to psychosis, dissociation and complex trauma." Viewed over three million times on TED Talks and a further one million times on Youtube.

See also

References

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Publications

  • Jaynes J., The origin of consciousness and the breakdown of the bicameral mind: (1976) Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Romme, M. Escher, S. (1993) Accepting Voices. Mind Publications
  • Baker, P. (1995, 2011), The Voice Inside, P&P Publications
  • Romme, M. Escher, S. (Eds) (1996) Understanding voices: coping with auditory hallucinations and confusing realities, Rijksuniversiteit Maastricht, the Netherlands and English edition, Handsell Publications
  • Coleman R. Smith M. (1997, 2005) Working with Voices II: Victim to Victor
  • Watkins J. (1998, 2008) Hearing Voices: A Common Human Experience, Michelle Anderson Publishing
  • Romme, M. & Escher, S., (2000), Making Sense of Voices – A guide for professionals who work with voice hearers, MIND Publications, London
  • Leudar I. Thomas P. (2000) Voices of Reason, Voices of Insanity: Studies of Verbal Hallucinations, Routledge
  • Stephens G.L Graham G. (2000) When Self-Consciousness Breaks: Alien Voices and Inserted Thoughts, Bradford Books
  • Blackman L. (2001) Hearing voices: embodiment and experience, Free Association Books
  • Downs J. (Ed), (2001) Starting and Supporting Voices Groups, A Guide to setting up and running support groups for people who hear voices, see visions or experience tactile or other sensations. Hearing Voices Network, Manchester, England
  • Downs J.(Ed), (2001), Coping with Voices And Visions, A guide to helping people who Experience hearing voices, seeing visions, tactile or other Sensations, Hearing Voices Network, Manchester, England
  • James A. (2001), Raising our Voices: An Account of the Hearing Voices Movement, Handsell Publishing
  • Romme, M. Escher, S. (2005) Children Hearing Voices: What you need to know and what you can do, PCCS Books, UK
  • Romme M. Escher S. Dillon J. Corstens D. Morris M. (2009) "Living with Voices: 50 Stories of Recovery", PCCS Books/Birmingham City University
  • Romme M. Escher, S. eds. (2011) Accepting and Making Sense of Voices In Psychosis as a personal crisis: an experienced based approach, Routledge
  • Blackman, L (2001) Hearing Voices: Embodiment and Experience (London and New York: Free Association Books).
  • McCarthy-Jones S. Hearing Voices (2013) The Histories, Causes and Meanings of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
  • Longden E. (2013) Learning from the Voices in My Head, TED Books
  • Romme, Marius, and Sandra Escher, eds. (2013) Psychosis as a personal crisis: An experience-based approach. Routledge

Further reading

Press

  • Treatment of Schizophrenia Challenged In Western Australia The NewsMaker (Australia) 9 June 2011, "The Psychiatrist, the psychologist and the ex patient: a frank discussion on schizophrenia" Dr Dirk Corstens from the Netherlands, award-winning psychologist Eleanor Longden, and ex patient and Voices advocate Ron Coleman, discuss their expertise and experience on schizophrenia and voice hearing, as well as share innovative ways on the treatment of schizophrenia and management the experience.
  • A first-class recovery: From hopeless case to graduate The Independent (UK) 25 October 2009, Eleanor Longden was a diagnosed schizophrenic and heard menacing voices in her head for 10 years.
  • Embracing the dark voices within BBC News Online (UK), 3 September 2009
  • I talk back to the voices in my head The Guardian (UK), 4 April 2009
  • A dialogue with myself The Independent (UK), 15 April 2008, When Ruth began hearing voices, she turned to a controversial drug-free therapy programme. Now, her story is told in a powerful TV film
  • Listening Cure Time/CNN (USA), 21 February 2008
  • Can You Live With the Voices in Your Head? New York Times (USA), 25/03/2007
  • Voices carry Boston Globe (USA), 25/03/2007
  • The mad doctor: The extraordinary story of Dr Rufus May, the former psychiatric patient The Independent (UK), 18 March 2007
  • Mad Medicine: A New Group for People Who Hear Voices Celebrates Mental Diversity Portland Mercury June 25, 2009
  • Assiz. C (6 January 1991) Heard but not seen, Independent on Sunday

Articles

  • Baker P.K (1990): I hear voices and I’m glad to!, Critical Public Health, No. 4, 1990, pp 21–27
  • Baker P.K (1995) Accepting the Inner Voices, Nursing Times, Vol. 91, No 31, 1995, pp 59–61
  • Baker P.K (1996) Can you hear me, a research and practice summary, Handsell UK
  • Barret T.R and Etheridge J.B (1992) Verbal hallucinations in Normals I: People who hear voices Applied Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 6, pp. 379–387
  • Benthall R.P (1990) The illusion of Reality: a review and integration of psychological research into psychotic hallucinations, Psychological Bulletin, no. 107, pp. 82–95
  • Bentall R.P., Claridge G.S. & Slade P.D (1988), Abandoning the Concept of “Schizophrenia”: Some Implications of Validity Arguments for Psychological Research into Psychotic Phenomena British Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol.27, pp. 303–324
  • Bentall R.P., Claridge G.S. & Slade P.D (1989), The Multidimensional Nature of Schizotypal traits: A factor analytic study with normal subjects British Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol.?
  • Benthall R.P., Haddock G. and Slade P.D (1994), Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for persistent auditory hallucinations: from theory to therapy, Behavioral Psychotherapy No. 25, pp. 51–56
  • Bentall R.P., Jackson H.J & Pilgrim D. (1988), Abandoning the concept of “schizophrenia: Some implications of validity arguments for psychological research into psychotic phenomena, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, No. 27, pp. 303 – 324
  • Bentall R.P., Kaney S & Dewey. M (1991), Paranoia and Social Reasoning: An Attribution Theory Analysis, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, No. 30, pp. 13–23
  • Benthall R.P and Slade P.D. (1995) Reliability of a scale for measuring disposition towards hallucinations: a brief report, Person. Individ. Diff. Vol 6, No. 4, pp. 527–529
  • Richard Bentall & Gillian Haddock: Cognitive behaviour therapy for persistent auditory hallucinations, (1990) Behaviour Therapy 25: 51 – 66;
  • Chadwick P.D.J. and Birchwood M.J, (1994), Challenging the omnipotence of voices: A cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations, British Journal of Psychiatry, No. 164, pp. 190–201
  • Coleman R and M. Smith: Victim to Victor: working with voices (1997) Handsell, Gloucester, UK
  • Cullberg J., (1991) Recovered versus non-recovered schizophrenic patients among those who have had intensive psychotherapy, Acta Psychiatr Scand. Vol. 84, pp. 242–245
  • Davies, H. (2002) Hearing Voices Past and Present: A Users Perspective, Chapter 2, Psychosocial Interventions For People with Schizphrenia: A Practical Guide For Health Workers, Harris, N. Williams, S. Bradshaw, T. (Eds), Palgrave McMillan
  • Downs J. (Ed), (2001) Starting and Supporting Voices Groups: A Guide to setting up and running support groups for people who hear voices, see visions or experience tactile or other sensations. Hearing Voices Network, Manchester, England
  • Downs J. (Ed), (2001), Coping with Voices And Visions, A guide to helping people who Experience hearing voices, seeing visions, tactile or other Sensations, Hearing Voices Network, Manchester, England
  • Ensink B. (1993) Confusing Realities: A study of child sexual abuse and psychiatric symptoms Amsterdam, VU University Press (1992) and also Trauma: A study of child abuse and hallucinations, in Accepting Voices Eds M. Romme and S. Escher
  • Eaton W.W. Romanoski A. Anthony J.C. Nestadt G. (1991) Screening for psychosis in the general population with a self-report interview, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, No. 179, pp 689–693
  • Falloon I.R.H. Talbot R.E. (1981) Persistent auditory hallucinations: coping mechanisms and implications for management, Psychological Medicine, No.11, pp. 329–339
  • Freedland J. (1995), Hearing is believing, The Guardian (UK Newspaper), April 22
  • Mike Grierson (1991), A Report on the Manchester Hearing Voices Conference November 1990 Hearing Voices Network
  • Haddock G., Benthall R.P and Slade P. (1996), Psychological treatments for auditory hallucinations, focussing or distraction? pp. 45–71 in Cognitive, Behavioural Interventions with Psychotic Disorders * Routledge, London Therapy, Eds. Haddock G. and Slade P
  • Haddock G., Bentall R.P and Slade, P.D: Psychological treatmment of chronic auditory hallucinations: two case studies (1993) Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy 21: 335 – 46;
  • G. Haddock, P. Slade: Empowering people who hear voices in cognitive behavioral interventions with psychotic disorders, Routledge, London (1996)
  • Heery M. W. (1989), Inner Voice Experiences: an exploratory study of 30 cases Journal of Transpersonal Psychiatry, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 73–82
  • Doug Holmes Ph.D, Hearing Voices: Hillary, Angels, and O.J. to the Voice-Producing Brain Shenandoah Psychology Press, shenpsy@rica.net, 15 February 1999
  • Leudar I. Thomas P. (1994) Guidelines for Establishing Pragmatic Aspects of Voices – Voice Hearer Talk, Manchester: Department of Psychology, University of Manchester
  • I Leudar, P Thomas and M. Johnston (1994) Self Repair for in dialogues of schizophrenics: effects of hallucinations and negative symptoms, Brain and Language 43: 487 – 511
  • Leudar I Thomas P. Johnston M. (1992) Self monitoring in speech production: effects of verbal hallucinations and negative symptoms Psychological Medicine
  • Leudar I. Thomas P. McNally D. Glinsky A. (1997) What can voices do with words? Pragmatics of verbal hallucinations Psychological Medicine
  • Lineham T., (1993), Hearing is Believing, New Satatesman and Society, 26.3.93, pp. 18–19
  • Lockhart A. R. (1975), Mary’s Dog is an Ear Mother: Listening to the Voices of Psychosis, Psychological Perspectives Vol. 6, No 2, pp. 144–160
  • Miller L.J., O’Connor R.N & DiPasquale T., (1993), Patients’ Attitudes Toward Hallucinations American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 150, no.4, pp. 584–588
  • Rector, Seeman (1992) Auditory Hallucinations in Women and Men, Schizophrenia Research, vol 7, pp. 233– 236
  • Sarbin T.R. (1990), Towards the Obsolescence of the Schizophrenia Hypothesis, The Journal of Mind and Behaviour, vol. 11. No.3/4, pp. 259–283
  • Siegel, Ronald: Fire in the Brain: Clinical Tales of Hallucination Dutton Books New York 1992 Sidgewick H.A. (1894)Report on the census of hallucinations, Proceedings of the Society of Psychical Research, No. 26, pp. 25–394
  • Slade P.D. (1993) Models of Hallucination: from theory to practice in David, A..S and Cutting, J. (Eds.) The Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia; Earlbaum, London
  • Slade P.D and Bentall R.P. (1988) Sensory Deception; towards a scientific analysis of hallucinations Croom Helm, London
  • Tarrier N. Harwood S. Yusupoff L. Beckett R. & Baker A. (1990), Coping Strategy Enhancement (CSE): Method of Treating Residual Schizophrenic Symptoms Behavioural Psychotherapy, No.18, pp. 283–293
  • Tiihonen, Hari, Naukkarinen, Rimon, Jousimaki and Kajola (1992) Modified Activity of Human Auditory Cortex during Auditory Hallucinations, American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 149, No.2, pp. 225–257
  • Yusopoff and Tarrier N. (1996) Coping strategy enhancement for persistent hallucinations and delusions, pp. 86–103, in Cognitive, Behavioural Interventions with Psychotic Disorders, Routledge, London Therapy, Eds. Haddock G. and Slade

Voice Hearing Prevalence

  • Beavan, V., Read, J. & Cartwright, C. (2011). The prevalence of voice-hearers in the general population: A literature review. Journal of Mental Health, 20(3), 281-292.
  • Pearson, D., Smalley, M., Ainsworth, C., Cook, M., Boyle, J. & Flury, S. (2008). Auditory hallucinations in adolescent and adult students: Implications for continuums and adult pathology following child abuse. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(8), 634–638.
  • Posey, T. B. & Losch, M. E. (1983–1984). Auditory hallucinations of hearing voices in 375 normal subjects. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 3(2), 99–113.
  • Tien A.Y. (1991) Distributions of hallucinations in the population Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, No.26, pp. 287–292

Voice Hearing and Life Events

  • Andrew, E., Gray, N. & Snowden, R. (2008). The relationship between trauma and beliefs about hearing voices: A study of psychiatric and non-psychiatric voice hearers. Psychological Medicine, 38(10), 1409-1417.
  • Honig, A., Romme, M., Ensink, B., Escher, S., Pennings, M. & deVries, M. (1998). Auditory hallucinations: A comparison between patients and nonpatients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186(10), 646-651.
  • Moskowitz, A. & Corstens, D. (2007). Auditory hallucinations: Psychotic symptom or dissociative experience? The Journal of Psychological Trauma, 6(2/3), 35-63.
  • Read, J., Perry, B.D., Moskowitz, A. & Connolly, J. (2001). The contribution of early traumatic events to schizophrenia in some patients: A traumagenic neurodevelopmental model. Psychiatry, 64(4), 319-345.
  • Read, J., van Os, J., Morrison, A., & Ross, C. (2005). Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: A literature review with theoretical and clinical implications. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112(5), 330-350.
  • Shevlin, M., Murphy, J., Read, J., Mallett, J., Adamson, G. & Houston, J. E. (2011). Childhood adversity and hallucinations: A community-based study using the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(12), 1203-1210.
  • Whitfield, C., Dube, S., Felitti, V. & Anda, R. (2005). Adverse childhood experiences and hallucinations. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29(7), 797-810.

Working With Voices

  • Beavan, V. & Read, J. (2010). Hearing voices and listening to what they say: The importance of voice content in understanding and working with distressing voices. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(3), 201-205.
  • Corstens, D., Longden, E. & May, R. (2011). Talking with voices: Exploring what is expressed by the voices people hear. Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches. Advance online publication.
  • Longden, E., Corstens, D., Escher, S., & Romme, M. (2011). Voice hearing in biographical context: A model for formulating the relationship between voices and life history. Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches. Advance online publication.

Romme M, Morris M. The recovery process with hearing voices: accepting as well as exploring their emotional background through a supported process. Psychosis Psychol Soc Integr Appr. 2013;5:259–269.

  • Stainsby, M., Sapochnik, M., Bledin, K. & Mason, O. J. (2010). Are attitudes and beliefs about symptoms more important than symptom severity in recovery from psychosis? Psychosis: Psychological, Social and Integrative Approaches, 2(1), 41-49.

Hearing Voices Groups

  • Dillon J, Hornstein GA. Hearing voices peer support groups: a powerful alternative for people in distress. Psychosis Psychol Soc Integr Appr. 2013;5:286–295.
  • Dillon J, Longden E. Hearing voices groups: creating safe spaces to share taboo experiences. In: Romme M, Escher S, eds. Psychosis as a Personal Crisis: An Experience Based Approach. London, UK: Routledge; 2011:129–139.

May R, Longden E. Self-help approaches to hearing voices. In: Larøi F, Aleman A, eds. Hallucinations: A Guide to Treatment and Management. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2010.

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