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Rudolf Otto Sigismund Lipschitz (14 May 1832 – 7 October 1903) was a German mathematician who made contributions to mathematical analysis (where he gave his name to the Lipschitz continuity condition) and differential geometry, as well as number theory, algebras with involution and classical mechanics.
Rudolf Lipschitz was born on 14 May 1832 in Königsberg. He was the son of a landowner and was raised at his father's estate at Bönkein which was near Königsberg.^{[1]} He entered the University of Königsberg when he was 15, but later moved to the University of Berlin where he studied with Gustav Dirichelet. Despite having his studies delayed by illness, in 1853 Lipschitz graduated with a PhD in Berlin.^{[2]}
After receiving his PhD, Lipschitz started teaching at local Gymnasiums. In 1857 he married Ida Pascha, the daughter of one of the landowners with an estate near to his father's.^{[1]} In 1857 he earned his habilitation at the University of Bonn and remained there as a privatdozent. In 1862 Lipschitz became an extraordinary professor at the University of Breslau where he spent the following two years. In 1864 Lipschitz moved back to Bonn as a full professor, remaining there for the rest of his career. Here he examined the dissertation of Felix Klein. Lipschitz died on 7 October 1903 in Bonn.^{[3]}
Lipschitz discovered Clifford algebras in 1880,^{[4]}^{[5]} two years after William K. Clifford (1845–1879) and independently of him, and he was the first to use them in the study of orthogonal transformations. Up to 1950 people mentioned “Clifford-Lipschitz numbers” when they referred to this discovery of Lipschitz. Yet Lipschitz’s name suddenly disappeared from the publications involving Clifford algebras; for instance Claude Chevalley (1909–1984)^{[6]} gave the name “Clifford group” to an object that is never mentioned in Clifford’s works, but stems from Lipschitz’s. Pertti Lounesto (1945–2002) contributed greatly to recalling the importance of Lipschitz’s role.^{[7]}^{[8]}
Lehrbuch der Analysis (two volumes, Bonn 1877, 1880); Wissenschaft und Staat (Bonn, 1874); Untersuchungen über die Summen von Quadraten (Bonn, 1886); Bedeutung der theoretischen Mechanik (Berlin, 1876).
Berlin, North Rhine-Westphalia, Hamburg, France, United Kingdom
Berlin, Soviet Union, World War II, Kaliningrad, Germany
Logic, Set theory, Statistics, Number theory, Mathematical logic
German language, World War II, Germany, Pope Benedict XVI, Heinrich Heine
Geometry, Germany, Group theory, Copley medal, Complex analysis
University of Göttingen, Number theory, First French Empire, Prussia, Joseph Fourier
Stephen Hawking, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Albert Einstein, Purdue University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Nobel Prize in Physics, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1945, Adolf Hitler, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Almost everywhere, Sine, Mathematical analysis, Continuous function, Modulus of continuity
Głubczyce, Lifshitz, Daniel Lipšic, Israel Lipschitz, Jacques Lipchitz