World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Xylococcus bicolor

Article Id: WHEBN0021054311
Reproduction Date:

Title: Xylococcus bicolor  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Chaparral
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Xylococcus bicolor

Xylococcus bicolor in bloom with old fruit and leaves
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Magnoliophyta
(unranked): Magnoliopsida
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Xylococcus
Nutt.
Species: X. bicolor
Binomial name
Xylococcus bicolor
Nutt.

Xylococcus is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the heath family which contains the single species Xylococcus bicolor, the Mission Manzanita. This is a shrub that grows to three meters in height, two meters in diameter. Its native range is very limited, comprising Southwestern and Pacific coastal California from San Diego county through north-central Pacific coastal Baja California, a bit of southern Riverside County near Temecula, and Santa Catalina Island.[1] It is a member of the chaparral plant community.

Description

The Mission Manzanita is a slow-growing shrub that resembles the true manzanitas (Arctostaphylos). The form is upright, usually with a single trunk and a roughly spheroid crown. Leaves are oblong, glossy dark green on the top and very light colored with a felty texture on the underside. The edges of the leaves curl under as they age. Bark is smooth and a red-gray color.

Flowers, which appear from December to February depending on rainfall, are white to pink in color blending to yellowish at the open end, 8-10mm in length and hang like bells in small clusters near the ends of branches.

Fruit is glossy dark red to almost black, 7mm diameter and has very little flesh, being mostly a large, woody seed. The name Xylococcus comes from the Greek for "wood berry".

Ecology

The Mission Manzanita is found mixed southern chaparral ecosystems below 3500' elevation on dry, sunny slopes in a very limited range of coastal areas of southern California and northern Baja California.

Birds, including the California Thrasher and Scrub jay, eat seeds. Hummingbirds, especially the resident Anna's Hummingbird, drink nectar from flowers. Various birds nest in Mission Manzanita and many use it for cover.

While some chaparral plant species require fire to germinate seeds and reproduce, Xylococcus bicolor does not, nor does it require openings left by wildfires. But as a chaparral member species it must have a means of coping with wildfire. It does so by resprouting from the base after its top has burned away. This mechanism works very well unless a second fire follows closely after the first. If the plant has not had time to sufficiently regenerate it will probably perish.[2]

Uses

The Luiseno Native American tribe bruised ripe berries and soaked them overnight in cold water to produce a cider-like drink.[3]

Cultivation

Requires full sun, well drained soil. Soil PH 6-7. USDA zones 7-10. Water regularly and mulch during first year.[4]

Coyote scat is a good source of fertile seed. At certain times of the year their scat is full of the seeds. Apparently the acid wash helps germination.[5]

References

Notes

  • James Lightner San Diego County Native Plants, San Diego Flora (2004)

External links

  • Jepson's "A Flora of California"
  • Jepson Flora Project 1993 "Xylococcus bicolor"

See also

Trees portal
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.