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Voiceless velar fricative

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Title: Voiceless velar fricative  
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Subject: Standard German phonology, Voiceless uvular fricative, Ch (digraph), Egyptian Arabic phonology, Modern Hebrew phonology
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Voiceless velar fricative

Voiceless velar fricative
x
IPA number 140
Encoding
Entity (decimal) x
Unicode (hex) U+0078
X-SAMPA x
Kirshenbaum x
Braille ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
Sound
 ·

The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. It was part of the consonant inventory of Old English and can still be found in some dialects of English, most notably in Scottish English loch.

The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is x.

There is also a voiceless post-velar fricative (also called pre-uvular) in some languages. For voiceless pre-velar fricative (also called post-palatal), see voiceless palatal fricative.

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Varieties of [x] 2
  • Occurrence 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Bibliography 6

Features

Features of the voiceless velar fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue at the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Varieties of [x]

IPA Description
x plain velar fricative
labialised
ejective
xʷʼ ejective labialised
x̜ʷ semi-labialised
x̹ʷ strongly labialised
palatalised
xʲʼ ejective palatalised

Occurrence

The voiceless velar fricative and its labialized variety are traditionally postulated to have occurred in Proto-Germanic, the ancestor of the Germanic languages, as the reflex of the Proto-Indo-European voiceless palatal and velar stops and the labialized voiceless velar stop. Thus Proto-Indo-European *r̥nom "horn" and *ód "what" became Proto-Germanic *hurnan and *hwat, where *h and *hw were likely to be [x] and [xʷ]. This sound change is part of Grimm's law.

In Modern Greek, the voiceless velar fricative (with its allophone the voiceless palatal fricative [ç], occurring before front vowels) originated from the Ancient Greek voiceless aspirated stop /kʰ/ in a sound change that lenited Greek aspirated stops into fricatives.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abaza хьзы [xʲzǝ] 'name'
Adyghe хы     'six'
Afrikaans Some speakers[1] goed [xut] 'good' Usually uvular [χ] instead.[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Aleut Atkan dialect alax [ɑlɑx] 'two'
Arabic Modern Standard خضراء [xadˤraːʔ] 'green (f)' May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect.[2] See Arabic phonology
Assamese অসমীয়া [ɔxɔmija] 'Assamese'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic [xaː] 'one'
Avar чeхь [tʃex] 'belly'
Azerbaijani x/خوش [xoʃ] 'pleasant'
Basque Some speakers[3] jan [xän] 'to eat' Either velar or post-velar.[3] For other speakers it's [j ~ ʝ ~ ɟ].[4]
Breton hor c'hi [or xiː] 'our dog'
Bulgarian тихо/tiho     'quietly'
Chinese Mandarin /hé [xɤ˧˥] 'river' See Standard Chinese
Czech chlap [xlap] 'guy' See Czech phonology
Dutch Northern dialects[5] acht [ˈɑxt] 'eight' See Dutch phonology
English Scottish loch [ɫɔx] 'loch' Younger speakers may merge this sound with /k/.[6][7] See Scottish English phonology
Scouse[8] book [bʉːx] 'book' A syllable-final allophone of /k/ (lenition).
Some American speakers yech [jɛx] 'yech' See English phonology
Esperanto monaĥo [monaxo] 'monk' See Esperanto phonology
Eyak duxł [tʊxɬ] 'traps'
Finnish[9] tuhka [tuxkɑ] 'ash' Allophone of /h/. See Finnish phonology
French jota [xɔta] 'jota' Occurs only in loanwords (from Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, etc.). See French phonology
[10] ჯო [ˈdʒɔxi] 'stick'
German Buch     'book' See German phonology
Greek τέχνη/chni [ˈte̞xni] 'art' See Modern Greek phonology
Hindustani ख़ुशी/خوشی [xʊʃiː] 'happiness' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian sahhal [ʃɒxːɒl] 'with a shah' See Hungarian phonology
Irish deoch [dʲɔ̝̈x] 'drink' See Irish phonology
Kabardian дахэ     'pretty'
Korean 흠집/heumjip [xɯmd͡ʑip̚] 'flaw' Occurs only before /ɯ/. See Korean phonology
Limburgish[11][12][13][14] loch [lɔx] 'air' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lithuanian choras [ˈxɔrɐs̪] 'choir' Occurs only in loanwords (usually international words)
Lojban xatra [xatra] 'letter'
Macedonian Охрид/Ohrid     'Ohrid' See Macedonian phonology
Malay akhir [a:xir] 'last' can also be pronounced [h]
Manx aashagh [ˈɛːʒax] 'easy'
Persian خواهر [xɒːhær] 'sister' See Persian phonology
Polish[15] chleb [xlɛp] 'bread' Also (in great majority of dialects) represented by h. See Polish phonology
Portuguese Fluminense arte [ˈaxtɕi] 'art' In free variation with [χ], [ʁ], [ħ] and [h] before voiceless consonants
General Brazilian[16] arrasto [ɐ̞ˈxastu] 'I drag' Some dialects, corresponds to rhotic consonant /ʁ/. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਖ਼ਬਰ [xəbəɾ] 'news'
Romanian hram [xräm] 'patron of a church' Allophone of /h/. See Romanian phonology
Russian[17] хороший/khoroshiy     'good' See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[18] drochaid [ˈt̪ɾɔxɪtʲ] 'bridge' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian храст / hrast [xrâːst] 'oak' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak chlap [xlap] 'guy'
Somali khad [xad] 'ink' See Somali phonology
Spanish[19] Latin American[20] ojo [ˈo̞xo̞] 'eye' May be glottal instead;[20] in northern and central Spain it is often post-velar[20][21][22] or uvular.[22][23] See Spanish phonology
Southern Spain[20]
Northern Moroccan[24] Either velar or post-velar.[24] See Spanish phonology
Swedish Some speakers sju [xʷʉː] 'seven' Occurs in South Swedish dialects. It is also common in some immigrant-influenced sociolects. See Swedish phonology
Xhosa rhoxisa [xɔkǁiːsa] 'to cancel'
Ukrainian хлопець [ˈxɫɔ̝pɛt͡sʲ] 'boy' See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek[25] Post-velar.[25] Occurs in environments different than word-initially and pre-consonantally, otherwise it's pre-velar.[25]
Vietnamese[26] không [xəwŋ͡m˧] 'not' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian ch [tyx] 'dust' Allophone of /χ/, only occurring after close vowels ([i], [y] and [u])
Yaghan xan [xan] 'here'
Yi /he [xɤ˧] 'good'
Yiddish איך/ikh [ix] 'I' See Yiddish phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[27] mejor [mɘxoɾ] 'better' Used primarily in loanwords from Spanish

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "John Wells's phonetic blog: velar or uvular?". 5 December 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  2. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  3. ^ a b Hualde & Ortiz de Urbina (2003), pp. 16 and 26.
  4. ^ Hualde & Ortiz de Urbina (2003), p. 16.
  5. ^ van Reenen & Huijs (2000), p. ?.
  6. ^ Annexe 4: Linguistic Variables
  7. ^ "University of Essex :: Department of Language and Linguistics :: Welcome". Essex.ac.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  8. ^ Wells (1982:373)
  9. ^ http://scripta.kotus.fi visk sisallys.php?p=5
  10. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  11. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  12. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:110)
  13. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  14. ^ Verhoeven (2007:221)
  15. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  16. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), pp. 5–6.
  17. ^ Padgett (2003), p. 42.
  18. ^ Oftedal, M. (1956) The Gaelic of Leurbost. Oslo. Norsk Tidskrift for Sprogvidenskap.
  19. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  20. ^ a b c d Chen (2007), p. 13.
  21. ^ Hamond (2001:?), cited in Scipione & Sayahi (2005:128)
  22. ^ a b Lyons (1981), p. 76.
  23. ^ Harris & Vincent (1988), p. 83.
  24. ^ a b Scipione & Sayahi (2005), p. 128.
  25. ^ a b c Sjoberg (1963), pp. 11-12.
  26. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  27. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 109.

Bibliography

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208,  
  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232,  
  • Chen, Yudong (2007), A Comparison of Spanish Produced by Chinese L2 Learners and Native Speakers---an Acoustic Phonetics Approach 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association (University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies) 29: 155–166,  
  • Hamond, Robert M. (2001), The Sounds of Spanish: Analysis and Application, Cascadilla Press,  
  • Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (1988), "Spanish", The Romance Languages, pp. 79–130,  
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112,  
  •  
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107,  
  • Lyons, John (1981), Language and Linguistics: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press,  
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259,  
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114,  
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 21 (1): 39–87,  
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (1): 117–124,  
  • Scipione, Ruth; Sayahi, Lotfi (2005), "Consonantal Variation of Spanish in Northern Morocco", in Sayahi, Lotfi; Westmoreland, Maurice, Selected Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics (PDF), Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264,  
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar 
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language 35 (3): 454–476,  
  • van Reenen, Pieter; Huijs, Nanette (2000), "De harde en de zachte g, de spelling gh versus g voor voorklinker in het veertiende-eeuwse Middelnederlands" (PDF), Taal en Tongval (in Dutch) 52: 159–181 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247,  
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2007), "The Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 219–225,  
  • Watson, Kevin (2007), "Liverpool English" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 351–360,  
  • Watson, Janet C. E. (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Wells, J.C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
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