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Venezuelan general election, 1993

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Title: Venezuelan general election, 1993  
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Subject: Politics of Venezuela, Elections in Venezuela
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Venezuelan general election, 1993

Venezuelan presidential election, 1993
1988 ←
December 5, 1993
→ 1998

Nominee Rafael Caldera Claudio Fermín Oswaldo Álvarez Paz
Home state Yaracuy Barinas Zulia
States carried 9 7 4
Popular vote 1,710,722 1,326,287 1,276,506
Percentage 30.5% 23.6% 22.7%

President before election

Carlos Andrés Pérez

Elected President

Rafael Caldera

General elections were held in Venezuela on 5 December 1993.[1] The presidential elections were won by Rafael Caldera of National Convergence, who received 30.5% of the vote.[2] Democratic Action remained the largest party in the Chamber of Deputies and Senate, which were elected on separate ballots for the first time.[3] Voter turnout was 60.2%, the lowest since World War II.[4]


The election campaign was dominated by the corruption charges brought against sitting President Carlos Andrés Pérez, which led to his impeachment on 20 May 1993. He was replaced by Octavio Lepage as Acting President until Ramón José Velásquez was elected by Congress as interim President on 5 June. An atmosphere of economic and political crisis prevailed, with general economic problems compounded by a banking crisis, and a declining legitimacy of the traditional main parties, Democratic Action and Copei. The previous year had seen two coup attempts in February and November, reflecting widespread popular discontent with the political establishment.

Rafael Caldera, founder of Copei, rejected his old party and led a "National Convergence" of 17 smaller parties - including the Movement for Socialism, the Democratic Republican Union, the People's Electoral Movement and the Communist Party of Venezuela. His campaign promises included pardoning the 1992 coup plotters, including Hugo Chávez.

The Congressional elections were the first held under a mixed member proportional representation system,[5] modelled on the German system, with some variations.[6] The traditionally dominant Democratic Action and Copei "supported it because it looked the most like the system under which they had prospered".[5] The MMP system continued to use the old formula of assigning seats to states based on multiplying the total population by 0.55%, with a minimum of three deputies from each state (thus over-representing sparsely populated states).[5] Half each state's seats were then elected in single seat districts, and the remainder by closed party list. Parties could receive up to five additional seats based on their national vote total, to provide greater proportionality.[7]



Candidate Party Votes %
Rafael Caldera National Convergence 1,710,722 30.5
Claudio Fermín Democratic Action 1,326,287 23.6
Oswaldo Álvarez Paz Copei 1,276,506 22.7
Andrés Velásquez Radical Cause 1,232,653 21.9
Modesto Rivero Authentic Renewal Organisation 20,814 0.4
Nelso Ojeda Valenzuela FPI 18,690 0.3
Luis Alberto Machado RDLI 6,851 0.1
Fernando Bianco CEM 5,590 0.1
José Antonio Cova New Democratic Generation 4,937 0.1
Gabriel Puerta Aponte Movement for Popular Democracy 3,746 0.1
Rhona Otolina Formula 1 3,633 0.1
Romuló Abreu Duarte FEVO 1,554 0.0
Jesús Tang National Party 1,251 0.0
Blas García Núñez PEV 1,198 0.0
Juán Chacín PODIN 981 0.0
Carmen de González Nationalist Civic Crusade 866 0.0
Felix Díaz Ortega New Order 780 0.0
Temistocles Fernández IT 640 0.0
Invalid/blank votes 212,517
Total 5,829,216 100
Source: Nohlen


Party Votes % Seats +/-
Democratic Action 1,165,322 24.1 16 -6
Copei 1,103,896 22.8 14 -6
Radical Cause 1,005,816 20.8 9 +9
National Convergence 650,352 13.4 6 New
Movement for Socialism 526,197 10.9 5
Authentic Renewal Organisation 41,157 0.9 0 0
People's Electoral Movement 26,545 0.5 0 0
Democratic Republican Union 25,732 0.5 0 0
National Integration Movement 23,459 0.5 0 New
Communist Party of Venezuela 14,159 0.3 0 0
Emerging People 10,709 0.2 0 New
147 Other parties 242,000 5.0 0
Invalid/blank votes 1,117,998
Total 5,829,216 100 50 +4
Source: Nohlen

Chamber of Deputies

Party Votes % Seats +/-
Democratic Action 1,099,728 23.3 55 -42
Copei 1,065,512 22.6 33 -34
Radical Cause 974,190 20.7 40 +37
National Convergence 651,918 13.8 26 New
Movement for Socialism 509,068 10.8 24
Authentic Renewal Organisation 41,085 0.9 1 -1
National Integration Movement 29,433 0.6 1 New
People's Electoral Movement 27,635 0.6 1 -1
Democratic Republican Union 26,299 0.6 1 -1
Communist Party of Venezuela 21,180 0.4 0 -1
New Democratic Generation 264,996 5.6 1 -5
Other parties 0
Invalid/blank votes 1,117,998
Total 5,829,216 100 203 +2
Source: Nohlen


Andrés Velásquez of Radical Cause gained 22%, and "filed complaints of irregularities, saying that officials from his party were prevented from witnessing vote counting."[8]


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