World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0021623059
Reproduction Date:

Title: Uschla  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Glossary of Nazi Germany, Walter Buch, Otto Wagener
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


The Uschla[1] (Untersuchung und Schlichtungs-Ausschuss, roughly translated as the Committee for Investigation and Settlement[2]) was an internal Nazi tribunal[3] system that was established by Adolf Hitler in 1926 to settle intra-party problems and disputes.


The Uschla eventually evolved into a four-level system, organized on geographic lines.

The highest level, the Reichs-Uschla, presided in Munich, where the NSDAP (the Nazi Party) itself had begun.

Immediately below this level was the Gau-Uschla, with one such tribunal for each Gau.[4] Following the general geographic organization of the Gau system, below this Gau-level was the Kreis-Uschla, which in turn linked to the lowest level of tribunal, the Ort-Uschla. At the zenith of the system's development, a typical Gau might contain approximately 100 Ort-Uschlas. Grant, p. 57-8.

The initial chairman of the Uschla was a former Reichswehr Lieutenant General Heinemann, who failed to grasp the real purpose of the tribunal: namely, to settle disputes so as to keep them quiet, rather than to achieve substantive justice between the disputants or to enforce a moral code.[5]

Accordingly, he was soon replaced in 1927 by the politically more astute Major Walter Buch (also a former Reichswehr officer), who was in turn aided by two close and highly trusted Hitler cohorts, Ulrich Graf and Hans Frank.[6]

Buch remained as the chair of the Uschla until the end of World War II.[7]

Conflicts between the Sturmabteilung (SA) and the Uschla system were perhaps inevitable, reflecting in part the typical conflict between political and military functions in less pathological institutions. The SA leadership sought maximum autonomy within the Nazi system, and resented any infringement upon its free-wheeling style, especially if based (even theoretically) upon some principles of law.[8] The natural antagonism between the two loci of power peaked when the Uschla attempted to subject SA men to its jurisdiction.[9]

A particular case in January 1930 defined the jurisdictional issue between the rivals. After a hearing before an Ort-Uschla in Saxony, expulsion was ordered for an SA man, but his SA commander disagreed with the decision and claimed that the tribunal had no jurisdiction over SA men performing their functions in the line of duty. A rather feeble SA attempt at compromise in May 1930 stipulated that the Uschla lacked jurisdiction over "SA affairs" and could only intervene in those affairs if (a) the SA man's conduct did serious harm to the interests of the NSDAP and (b) his commanding officer agreed that serious harm had been done. While this bit of Nazi lawyering appeared to make Uschla jurisdiction, in effect, entirely contingent upon the consent of the SA commander,[10] it left the undefined term "SA affairs" open to interpretation and argument, so little progress in settling the jurisdictional squabble resulted.

Upon assuming control of the SA in January 1931, Ernst Röhm attempted a conciliation with Buch over SA-Uschla affairs.[11] However, these conciliatory attempts crashed upon the rock of the Stennes Revolt.[12]


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.