World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Abbreviation UNESCO
Formation 16 November 1945 or 4 November 1946[1]
Type Specialized agency
Legal status Active
Headquarters Place de Fontenoy, Paris, France
Head Irina Bokova
Director-General of UNESCO
Website .org.unescowww

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (

  • .orgUNESCO Official UNESCO website

External links

  1. ^ a b "UNESCO history". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  2. ^ UNESCO's General Conference voted on 31 October 2011 "to admit Palestine as a member State". However, it notes that, for "its membership to take effect, Palestine must sign and ratify UNESCO's Constitution". "UNESCO » Media Services » General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member State". UNESCO. 
  3. ^ "Member States | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". UNESCO. 
  4. ^ "The Faroes become associated  
  5. ^ "UNDG Members". United Nations Development Group. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  6. ^ "Introducing UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  7. ^ "UNESCO • General Conference; 34th; Medium-term Strategy, 2008–2013; 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  8. ^ League of Nations. Records of the Second Assembly. Plenary Meetings. 5 September-5 October 1921. Geneva. P. 313
  9. ^ "UNESCO. (1987). A Chronology of UNESCO: 1947–1987. Paris, December 1987. LAD.85/WS/4 Rev. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  10. ^ UNESCO. (1987). A Chronology.
  11. ^ THE WORK OF U.N.E.S.C.O. (Hansard, 26 January 1949). Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  12. ^ "United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Held at the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, from 1 to 16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  13. ^ "Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 16 November 1945. United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Held at the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, from 1 to 16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. P. 93. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  14. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 1st Session. (1947). General Conference, First Session, held at UNESCO House, Paris, from 20 November to 10 December 1946. UNESCO/C/30 [1 C/Resolutions]. (Paris.) Item 14, p. 73. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  15. ^ UNESCO. General Conference, 8th Session. (1955). Records of the General Conference, Eighth Session, Montevideo, 1954: Resolutions. 8 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution II.1.2, p.12. UNESDOC database
  16. ^ "UNESCO. (1950). Statement by experts on race problems. Paris, 20 July 1950. UNESCO/SS/1. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  17. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 20th Session. (1979). Records of the General Conference, Twentieth Session, Paris, 24 October to 28 November 1978. 20 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3/1.1/2, p. 61. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  18. ^ UNESCO. Executive Board, 42nd Session. (1955). Report of the Director-General on the Activities of the Organization (March–November 1955). Paris, 9 November 1955. 42 EX/43. Part I Relations with Member States, paragraph 3.
  19. ^ The Haiti pilot project: phase one, 1947–1949. (1951). Monographs on Fundamental Education IV. UNESCO: Paris.
  20. ^ "Debiesse, J., Benjamin, H. and Abbot, W. (1952). Report of the mission to Afghanistan. Educational Missions IV. ED.51/VIII.A. (Paris.) UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  21. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 2nd Session. (1948). Resolutions adopted by the General Conference during its second session, Mexico, November–December 1947. 2 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3.4.1, p. 17. UNESDOC database". Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  22. ^ "UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, and The World Bank. (1990). Final Report. World Conference on Education for All: Meeting Basic Education Needs. 5–9 March 1990, Jomtien, Thailand. (WCEFA Inter-agency Commission: New York). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  23. ^ "UNESCO. (2000). The Dakar Framework for Action. Education for All: meeting our collective commitments (including six regional frameworks for action). World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26–28 April 2000. ED.2000/WS/27. (Paris). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  24. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 21st Session. (1980). International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia: Report of the Executive Committee of the Campaign and of the Director-General. 26 August 1980. 21 C/82. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  25. ^ "Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris, 16 November 1972. UNESCO. General Conference, 17th Session. Records of the General Conference, Seventeenth Session, Paris, 17 October to 21 November 1972. Volume I: Resolutions, Recommendations. 17 C/Resolution 29. Chapter IX Conventions and Recommendations, p. 135. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  26. ^ "UNESCO. Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Second Session. Final Report. Washington, DC, 5–8 September 1978. CC-78/CONF.010/10 Rev. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  27. ^ "Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris, 17 October 2003. UNESCO. General Conference, 32nd Session. Records of the General Conference, Thirty-second Session, Paris, 29 September to 17 October 2003. Volume I: Resolutions. 32 C/Resolution 32. Chapter IV Programme for 2004–2005, Major Programme IV – Culture, p. 53. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  28. ^ "Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Paris, 20 October 2005. UNESCO. General Conference, 33rd Session. Records of the General Conference. Thirty-third Session, Paris, 3–21 October 2005. Volume I: Resolutions. 33 C/Resolution 41. Chapter V Programme for 2006–2007, p. 83. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  29. ^ "UNESCO. Executive Board, 26th Session. Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its twenty-sixth session. (7 June to 9 July 1951). Paris, 27 July 1951. 26 EX/Decisions. Item 7 Programme, Resolution, p. 9. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  30. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 3rd Session. (1949). Records of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Third Session. Beirut, 1948. Volume II: Resolutions. (UNESCO: Paris). 2 C/Resolution 3.7, page 23. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  31. ^ Use and conservation of the biosphere: Proceedings of the intergovernmental conference of experts on the scientific basis for rational use and conservation of the resources of the biosphere. Paris, 4–13 September 1968." (1970.) In Natural Resources Research, Volume X. SC.69/XIL.16/A. UNESDOC database""" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  32. ^ "UNESCO. (1955). International Expert Meeting on Professional Training for Journalism. Unesco House, 9–13 April 1956. Purpose and Scope. Paris, 18 November 1955. UNESCO/MC/PT.1. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  33. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 19th Session. (1977). Approved Programme and budget for 1977–1978. Paris, February 1977. 19 C/5, p. 332, paragraphs 4154 and 4155. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  34. ^ "MacBride, S. (1980). Many voices, one world: towards a new, more just, and more efficient world information and communication order. (UNESCO: Paris). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  35. ^ "UNESCO. (1996). UNESCO and an Information Society for All: a position paper. (UNESCO: Paris). CII-96/WS/4. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  36. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 32nd Session. (2003). Communiqué: Ministerial Round Table on "Towards Knowledge Societies." (UNESCO Headquarters, 9 and 10 October 2003). 14 October 2003. 32 C/INF.26. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  37. ^ "General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member". 31 October 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  38. ^ Blomfield, Adrian (31 October 2011). "US withdraws Unesco funding after it accepts Palestinian membership". The Telegraph. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  39. ^ Erlanger, Steven; Sayare, Scott (31 October 2011). "Unesco Approves Full Membership for Palestinians". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  40. ^ "After UNESCO vote, Israeli sanctions on Palestinian Authority anger U.S.". Haaretz. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  41. ^ "Israel freezes UNESCO funds". CNN. 3 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  42. ^ "U.S., Israel lose voting rights at UNESCO over Palestine row". Reuters. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  43. ^ Because Information Centre on Academic Mobility and Equivalence (CIMEA), Italy. and UNESCO "Alert: Misuse of UNESCO Name by Bogus Institutions"
  44. ^ Varga, Susan (2006). Edinburgh Old Town (Images of Scotland). The History Press Ltd.  
  45. ^ "Migration Institutions – Home". Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  46. ^ "Education | EDUCATION –". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  47. ^ "Quoted on UNESCO official site". Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  48. ^ "Full list of NGOs that have official relations with UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  49. ^ "UNESCO Headquarters Committee 107th session 13 Feb 2009". Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  50. ^ IBE official site
  51. ^ UIL official site
  52. ^ IIEP official site
  53. ^ IITE official site
  54. ^ IICBA official site
  55. ^ IESALC official site
  56. ^ UNEVOC official site
  57. ^ CEPES official site
  58. ^ UNESCO-IHE official site
  59. ^ ICTp official site
  60. ^ UIS official site
  61. ^ UNESCO Executive Board Document 185 EX/38, Paris, 10 September 2010
  62. ^ International Days | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. UNESCO. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  63. ^ "List of UNESCO members and associates". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 November 2011. 
  64. ^ "Summary update on Government progress to become a State Party to the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport" (PDF). WADA. p. 2. Retrieved 28 July 2009. 
  65. ^ "State Parties". UNESCO. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  66. ^ "Member States of the United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  67. ^ List of the voting countries
  68. ^ UNESCO official site: Directors-General
  69. ^ UNESCO official site: Previous Sessions of the General Conference
  70. ^ Charlotte L Joy (15 January 2012). The Politics of Heritage Management in Mali: From UNESCO to Djenné. Left Coast Press. pp. 79–.  
  71. ^ "List of All UNESCO Field Offices by Region with Descriptions of Member State Coverage". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  72. ^ "City of Quito – UNESCO World Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 
  73. ^ "UNESCO Gets Chummy With Equatorial Guinea's Dictator". 10 May 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  74. ^ Grahm, S. E. (April 2006). "The (Real)politiks of Culture: U.S. Cultural Diplomacy in UNESCO, 1946–1954". Diplomatic History 30 (2): 231–251.  
  75. ^ Singapore to withdraw from UNESCO, The Telegraph, 28 December 1984
  76. ^ Journal of Palestine Studies, Volume 4, No. 2, Winter 1975
  77. ^ "Hebron clashes over Israel's West Bank heritage list". BBC News. 26 February 2010. 
  78. ^ "Executive Board adopts five decisions concerning UNESCO's work in the occupied Palestinian and Arab Territories". UNESCO. 21 October 2010. 
  80. ^ Hillel Fendel (01.11.2010). "UNESCO Erases Israeli Protests from Rachel's Tomb Protocol". Arutz Sheva. 
  81. ^ Maayana Miskin (29 October 2010). "UN Org.: Rachel's Tomb is a Mosque". Arutz Sheva. 
  82. ^ "Ayalon: Israel will no longer cooperate with UNESCO". The Jerusalem Post. 03.11.2010. 
  83. ^ Shalom, Rabbi. "Cooperation with UNESCO only partially suspended". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  84. ^ "UNESCO censures Israel over Mughrabi Bridge – Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  85. ^ Berman, Lazar (January 17, 2014). "UNESCO cancels event on Jewish ties to Land of Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  86. ^ Ahren, Raphael (21 January 2014). "'"Author of UNESCO's nixed Israel exhibit decries ‘appalling betrayal. The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  87. ^ "Unesco cuts funding for Palestinian youth magazine over Hitler praise". The Daily Telegraph. 23 December 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  88. ^ "UNESCO Chair in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Sciences (964), established in 2012 at The Islamic University of Gaza (Palestine).". UNESCO. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  89. ^ "Israel shocked by UNESCO Chair at Gaza Islamic University" (Press release). Israel ministry of foreign affairs. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  90. ^ Higgins, Michael (12 July 2012). "UNESCO establishes chair at Gaza university accused of housing Hamas bomb labs". National Post. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  91. ^ "Fatah: Shalit was held at Gaza Islamic University". Yedioth Ahronot. 6 February 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  92. ^ Cambanis, Thanassis (28 February 2010). "Hamas University". Boston Globe. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  93. ^ Ravid, Barak (12 July 2012). "Israel furious at UNESCO decision to back science chair at Islamic University of Gaza". Haaretz. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  94. ^ Yaakov, Yifa (14 July 2012). "B'nai Brith slams UNESCO affiliation with Gaza University". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  95. ^ "News journalism in a digital world". UNESCO. 10 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  96. ^ "UNESCO-leaks to refute wikileaks accusation". UNESCO. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  97. ^ "The Guardian's hatchet job on Julian Assange". World Socialist Web Site. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  98. ^ "The WikiFreak: In a new book one author reveals how she got to know Julian Assange and found him a predatory, narcissistic fantasist". Daily Mail. 7 August 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  99. ^ "WikiLeaks denounces UNESCO after WikiLeaks banned from UNESCO conference on WikiLeaks". WikiLeaks. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 

References and notes

  • IDAMS – proprietary software package for processing and analysing numerical data developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO.

Products or services

On February 16 and 17 of 2012 UNESCO held a conference entitled, "The Media World after WikiLeaks and News of the World."[95] Despite all six panels being focused on WikiLeaks, no member of WikiLeaks staff were invited to speak. After receiving a complaint from WikiLeaks spokesman Kristinn Hrafnsson, UNESCO invited him to attend, but did not offer a place on any panels. [96] The offer also came only a week before the conference, which was held in Paris, France. Many of the speakers featured, including David Leigh and Heather Brooke, had spoken out openly against WikiLeaks and its founder Julian Assange in the past.[97][98] WikiLeaks released a press statement on February 15, 2012 denouncing UNESCO which stated, "UNESCO has made itself an international human rights joke. To use "freedom of expression" to censor WikiLeaks from a conference about WikiLeaks is an Orwellian absurdity beyond words. This is an intolerable abuse of UNESCO’s Constitution. It’s time to occupy UNESCO." [99] Included in the statement were the emails sent between WikiLeaks spokesman Kristinn Hrafnsson and organizers of the UNESCO conference.


The university has been linked to Hamas in the past. However, the university head, [94]

In 2012, UNESCO decided to establish a chair at the [89]

Islamic University of Gaza controversy

In February 2011, an article was published in a Palestinian youth magazine in which a teenage girl described one of her four role-models as Adolf Hitler. In December 2011, UNESCO, which partly funded the magazine, condemned the material and subsequently withdrew support.[87]

Palestinian Youth Magazine controversy

Palestinian Authority

In January 2014, days before it was scheduled to open, UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bokova, "indefinitely postponed" and effectively cancelled an exhibit created by the Simon Wiesenthal Center entitled, "The People, The Book, the Land: The 3,500-year relationship between the Jewish people and the land of Israel." The event was scheduled to run from January 21 through January 30 in Paris. Bokova cancelled the event after representatives of Arab states at UNESCO argued that its display would "harm the peace process".[85] The author of the exhibition, Professor Robert Wistrich of the Hebrew University's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism, called the cancellation an "appalling act," and characterized Bukova's decision as "an arbitrary act of total cynicism and, really, contempt for the Jewish people and its history."[86]

On 28 June 2011, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee, at Jordan's insistence, censured Israel's decision to demolish and rebuild the Mughrabi Gate Bridge in Jerusalem for safety reasons. Israel stated that Jordan had signed an agreement with Israel stipulating that the existing bridge must be razed for safety reasons; Jordan disputed the agreement, saying it was only signed under U.S. pressure. Israel was also unable to address the UNESCO committee over objections from Egypt.[84]

[83][82] In 2010, Israel designated the



Following a change of government in 1997, the UK rejoined. The United States rejoined in 2003, followed by Singapore on 8 October 2007. [75] UNESCO has been the centre of controversy in the past, particularly in its relationships with the United States, the United Kingdom, Singapore and the former

New World Information and Communication order

Controversy and reform

Carondelet Palace, Presidential Palace – with a double decker tourist bus. The Historic Center of Quito is one of the largest, least-altered and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas.[72] This center was, together with the historic centre of Kraków in Poland, the first to be declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 18 September 1978.

Latin America and the Caribbean

Europe and North America

Asia and Pacific

Arab States


The following list of all UNESCO Field Offices is organized geographically by UNESCO Region and identifies the members states and associate members of UNESCO which are served by each office.[71]

Field offices by region

UNESCO's field offices are categorized into four primary office types based upon their function and geographic coverage: cluster offices, national offices, regional bureaux and liaison offices.

UNESCO has offices in many locations across the globe; its headquarters are located at Place de Fontenoy in Paris, France, now called the World Heritage Centre.[70]


  • 1st session (Paris, 1946) – chaired by Léon Blum (France)
  • 2nd session (Mexico City, 1947) – chaired by Manuel Gual Vidal (Mexico)
  • 3rd session (Beirut, 1948) – chaired by Hamid Bey Frangie (Lebanon)
  • 1st extraordinary session (Paris, 1948)
  • 4th session (Paris, 1949) – chaired by Ronald Walker (Australia)
  • 5th session (Florence, 1950) – chaired by Count Stefano Jacini (Italy)
  • 6th session (Paris, 1951) – chaired by Howland Sargeant (United States)
  • 7th session (Paris, 1952) – chaired by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (India)
  • 2nd extraordinary session (Paris, 1953)
  • 8th session (Montevideo, 1954) – chaired by Justino Zavala Muñiz (Uruguay)
  • 9th session (New Delhi, 1956) – chaired by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (India)
  • 10th session (Paris, 1958) – chaired by Jean Berthoin (France)
  • 11th session (Paris, 1960) – chaired by Akale-Work Abte-Wold (Ethiopia)
  • 12th session (Paris, 1962) – chaired by Paulo de Berrêdo Carneiro (Brazil)
  • 13th session (Paris, 1964) – chaired by Norair Sissakian (Soviet Union)
  • 14th session (Paris, 1966) – chaired by Bedrettin Tuncel (Turkey)
  • 15th session (Paris, 1968) – chaired by Willian Eteki-Mboumoua (Cameroon)
  • 16th session (Paris, 1970) – chaired by Atilio Dell'Oro Maini (Argentina)
  • 17th session (Paris, 1972) – chaired by Toru Haguiwara (Japan)
  • 3rd extraordinary session (Paris, 1973)
  • 18th session (Paris, 1974) – chaired by Magda Jóború (Hungary)
  • 19th session (Nairobi, 1976) – chaired by Taaita Toweett (Kenya)
  • 20th session (Paris, 1978) – chaired by Napoléon LeBlanc (Canada)
  • 21st session (Belgrade, 1980) – chaired by Ivo Margan (Yugoslavia)
  • 4th extraordinary session (Paris, 1982)
  • 22nd session (Paris, 1983) – chaired by Saïd Tell (Jordan)
  • 23rd session (Sofia, 1985) - chaired by Nikolaï Todorov (Bulgaria)
  • 24th session (Paris, 1987) – chaired by Guillermo Putzeys Alvarez (Guatemala)
  • 25th session (Paris, 1989) – chaired by Anwar Ibrahim (Malaysia)
  • 26th session (Paris, 1991) – chaired by Bethwell Allan Ogot (Kenya)
  • 27th session (Paris, 1993) – chaired by Ahmed Saleh Sayyad (Yemen)
  • 28th session (Paris, 1995) – chaired by Torben Krogh (Denmark)
  • 29th session (Paris, 1997) – chaired by Eduardo Portella (Brazil)
  • 30th session (Paris, 1999) – chaired by Jaroslava Moserova (Czech Republic)
  • 31st session (Paris, 2001) – chaired by Ahmad Jalali (Iran)
  • 32nd session (Paris, 2003) – chaired by Michael Omolewa (Nigeria)
  • 33rd session (Paris, 2005) – chaired by Musa bin Jaafar bin Hassan (Oman)
  • 34th session (Paris, 2007) – chaired by George N. Anastassopoulos (Greece)
  • 35th session (Paris, 2009) – chaired by Davidson Hepburn (Bahamas)
  • 36th session (Paris, 2011) – chaired by Katalin Bogyay (Hungary)
  • 37th session (Paris, 2013) - chaired by Hao Ping (China)

This is the list of the sessions of UNESCO General Conference held since 1946:[69]

General Conference

  1. Julian Huxley (1946–1948)
  2. Jaime Torres Bodet (1948–1952)
  3. John Wilkinson Taylor (acting 1952–1953)
  4. Luther Evans (1953–1958)
  5. Vittorino Veronese (1958–1961)
  6. René Maheu (1961–1974; acting 1961)
  7. Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow (1974–1987)
  8. Federico Mayor Zaragoza (1987–1999)
  9. Koïchiro Matsuura (1999–2009)
  10. Irina Bokova (2009– )

The list of the Directors-General of UNESCO since its establishment in 1946 is as follows:[68]

Elections for the renewal of the position of Director-General took place in Paris from 7 to 23 September 2009. Eight candidates ran for the position, and 58 countries[67] voted for them. The Executive Council gathered from 7 to 23 September, the vote itself beginning on the 17th. Irina Bokova was elected the new Director-General.


Governing bodies

As of October 2011, UNESCO counts 196 member states and 8 associate members.[63] Some members are not dependent territories.[64] UNESCO state parties are most of the United Nations member states (except Liechtenstein), Cook Islands, Niue, and the State of Palestine.[65][66]

Member states


International Days observed at UNESCO

Inactive prizes

UNESCO currently awards 22 prizes[61] in education, science, culture and peace:

Official list of UNESCO prizes

The institutes are specialized departments of the organization that support UNESCO's programme, providing specialized support for cluster and national offices.

Institutes and centres

  1. International Baccalaureate (IB)
  2. Co-ordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service (CCIVS)
  3. Education International (EI)
  4. International Association of Universities (IAU)
  5. International Council for Film, Television and Audiovisual Communication (IFTC)
  6. International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (ICPHS) which publishes Diogenes
  7. International Council for Science (ICSU)
  8. International Council of Museums (ICOM)
  9. International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE)
  10. International Council on Archives (ICA)
  11. International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)
  12. International Federation of Journalists (IFJ)
  13. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)
  14. International Federation of Poetry Associations (IFPA)
  15. International Music Council (IMC)
  16. International Police Association (IPA)
  17. International Scientific Council for Island Development (INSULA)
  18. International Social Science Council (ISSC)
  19. International Theatre Institute (ITI)
  20. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)
  21. International Union of Technical Associations and Organizations
  22. Union of International Associations (UIA)
  23. World Association of Newspapers (WAN)
  24. World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO)
  25. World Federation of UNESCO Clubs, Centres and Associations (WFUCA)

UNESCO enjoys official relations with 322 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs).[47] Most of these are what UNESCO calls "operational", a select few are "formal".[48] The highest form of affiliation to UNESCO is "formal associate", and the 22 NGOs[49] with formal associate (ASC) relations occupying offices at UNESCO are:

Official UNESCO NGOs

UNESCO does not accredit institutions of higher learning.[43]

  • Education: UNESCO supports research in comparative education; and provides expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all. This includes the

UNESCO implements its activities through the five programme areas of Education, Natural Sciences, Social and Human Sciences, Culture, and Communication and Information.

UNESCO offices in Brasília


In 2011, Palestine became a UNESCO member following a vote in which 107 member states supported and 14 opposed.[37][38] Laws passed in the United States in 1990 and 1994 mean that it cannot contribute financially to any UN organisation that accepts Palestine as a full member. As a result, it withdrew its funding which accounted for about 22% of UNESCO's budget.[39] Israel also reacted to Palestine's admittance to UNESCO by freezing Israel payments to the UNESCO and imposing sanctions to the Palestinian Authority,[40] claiming that Palestine's admittance would be detrimental "to potential peace talks".[41] Two years after they stopped paying their dues to UNESCO, US and Israel lost UNESCO voting rights in 2013.[42]

In the field of communication, the free flow of information has been a priority for UNESCO from its beginnings. In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s.[32] In response to calls for a "New World Information and Communication Order" in the late 1970s, UNESCO established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems,[33] which produced the 1980 MacBride report (named after the Chair of the Commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Seán MacBride).[34] Following the MacBride report, UNESCO introduced the Information Society for All[35] programme and Toward Knowledge Societies[36] programme in the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 (Geneva) and 2005 (Tunis).

Arid Zone programming, 1948–1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO project in the field of natural sciences.[30] In 1968, UNESCO organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem which continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme.[31]

An intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO in Paris in December 1951 led to the creation of the handerpants, underwear for your fingers (CERN)[29] in 1954.

). [28]Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions) and 2005 ([27]Intangible Cultural Heritage Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the [26] in 1978.World Heritage List was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage Committee The [25] The purpose of the campaign was to move the [24] UNESCO's early activities in the field of culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960.

UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947.[19] This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.[20] In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal.[21] In 1990 the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults.[22] Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015.[23]

The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Nelson Mandela.

After the signing of the Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom.[11] At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established.[12] The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.[13]

UNESCO and its mandate for international co-operation can be traced back to the League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study the question.[8] The International Committee on Intellectual Co-operation (ICIC) was officially created on 4 January 1922, as a consultative organ composed of individuals elected based on their personal qualifications. The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) was then created in Paris on 9 August 1925, to act as the executing agency for the ICIC.[9] On 18 December 1925, the World War II.



  • History 1
  • Activities 2
  • Official UNESCO NGOs 3
  • Institutes and centres 4
  • Official list of UNESCO prizes 5
    • Inactive prizes 5.1
  • International Days observed at UNESCO 6
  • Member states 7
  • Governing bodies 8
    • Director-General 8.1
    • General Conference 8.2
  • Offices 9
    • Field offices by region 9.1
      • Africa 9.1.1
      • Arab States 9.1.2
      • Asia and Pacific 9.1.3
      • Europe and North America 9.1.4
      • Latin America and the Caribbean 9.1.5
  • Controversy and reform 10
    • New World Information and Communication order 10.1
    • Israel 10.2
    • Palestinian Authority 10.3
      • Palestinian Youth Magazine controversy 10.3.1
      • Islamic University of Gaza controversy 10.3.2
    • Wikileaks 10.4
  • Products or services 11
  • References and notes 12
  • External links 13

The broad goals and concrete objectives of the international community — as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) — underpin all UNESCO's strategies and activities.

Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.[7]

UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information".[6]

Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programmes; international science programmes; the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; regional and cultural history projects; the promotion of cultural diversity; translations of world literature; international cooperation agreements to secure the world cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.[5]

UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture, and communication/information.

Most of the field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; there are also national and regional offices.

UNESCO has 195 member states[2] and nine associate members.[3][4]

Its purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter.[1] It is the heir of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

(UN). United Nations of the specialized agency) is a

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.