World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Treaty of Moscow (1921)

Article Id: WHEBN0004146066
Reproduction Date:

Title: Treaty of Moscow (1921)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: History of Armenia, Timeline of the Turkish War of Independence, Treaty of Saadabad, French–Armenian Agreement (1916), Timeline of Armenian national movement
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Treaty of Moscow (1921)

The Treaty of Moscow or Treaty of Brotherhood was a friendship treaty between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM) under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and Bolshevist Russia under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, signed on 16 March 1921. Neither the Republic of Turkey, nor the Soviet Union was established at the time; the internationally recognized Turkish government at the time was that of sultan Mehmed VI, which was no party to the Treaty of Moscow and which had earlier signed the Treaty of Sèvres that had been repudiated by the Kemalists.

Under the Treaty of Moscow,[1] the two governments undertook to establish friendly relations between the countries; the Treaty stipulated that the term "Turkey" therein meant the territories included in the National Oath adopted by the Ottoman Parliament on 28 January 1920.

Article VI of the Treaty declared all the treaties theretofore concluded between Russia and Turkey to be Kars Oblast went to Turkey); Article III instituted an autonomous Nakhchivan oblast under Azerbaijan's protectorate; under Article V, the parties agreed to delegate the final elaboration of the status of the Black Sea and the Straits to a future conference of delegates of the littoral states, provided that the "full sovereignty" and security of Turkey and "her capital city of Constantinople" are not injured.

Turkey's borders, as well as those of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan, as defined by the Treaty of Moscow as well as the identical Treaty of Kars (signed on October 13, 1921) are still in existence.


  1. ^ Документы внешней политики СССР. Moscow, 1959, Vol. III, pp. 597-604.

External links

  • Full text of the Treaty of Moscow in original Russian
  • "Moscow, Treaty of." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 23 March 2007
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.