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Timeline of Montreal history

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Title: Timeline of Montreal history  
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Subject: Governor of Montreal, List of Montreal municipal elections, Outline of Quebec, Timeline of Quebec history, Canada East
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Timeline of Montreal history

The timeline of the history of Montreal shows the significant events in the history of Montreal that transformed it from a small fort into a big city of North America.

Pre-European period

  • The area known today as Montreal had been inhabited by the Algonquins, Huron, and Iroquois for some 2,000 years, while the oldest known artifact found in Montréal proper is about 2,000 years old.[1]
  • In the earliest oral history, the Algonquins were from the Atlantic coast. Together with other Anicinàpek, they arrived at the "First Stopping Place" (Montréal). There, the Nation found a "turtle-shaped island" marked by miigis (cowrie) shells.
  • The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee were centred from at least 1000 CE in northern New York, but their influence extended into what is now southern Ontario and the Montréal area of modern Quebec.[2]
  • 1142 – The Iroquois Confederacy is, from oral tradition, supposed to have been formed in 1142 CE.[3]
  • In the modern Iroquois language, Montréal is called Tiohtià:ke. Other native languages, such as Algonquin, refer to it as Moniang.[4]
  • The St. Lawrence Iroquoians established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal.[5]

16th Century

  • 1535 – Jacques Cartier renames the Saint Lawrence River in honour of the Deacon Lawrence on August 10 (Feast day of the Roman martyr). Prior to this, the Saint Lawrence River had been known by other names, including the Hochelaga River and the Canada River. Cartier penetrates far into the interior for the first time, via the river.
  • 1535 – September 19, Cartier starts his journey from Quebec City to Montréal, while in search of a passage to Asia.
  • 1535 – September 28, Cartier navigates Lac Saint-Pierre.
  • 1535 – Cartier visits Hochelaga on October 2, claiming the St. Lawrence Valley for France.[6] He becomes the first European to reach the area now known as Montréal when he enters the village of Hochelega. Cartier estimates the population to be "over a thousand".
  • 1535 – October 3, Cartier climbs up the mountain on the Île de Montréal and names it Mont Royal. He wrote: "Nous nommasmes icelle montaigne le mont Royal." (We named the said mountain Mont Royal.) The name Montréal is generally thought to be derived from "Mont Royal", the name given to the mountain by Cartier in 1535.
  • 1541 – Cartier returns to Sault-au-Récollet.
  • 1556 – On his map of Hochelega, Italian geographer Giovanni Battista Ramusio writes "Monte Real" to designate Mont Royal.
  • 1570 – The Algonquin people form an alliance with the Montagnais to the east.
  • 1575 – In his "Cosmographie Universelle de Tout le Monde", historiographer François de Belleforest is the first to use the form Montréal in reference to this area. Translated, it would read: "let us now look at Hochelaga, ... in the midst of the countryside is the village, or Cité royale, adjacent to a mountain on which farming is practiced. The Christians call this city Montreal...".
  • 1580 – As we will see below, the St. Lawrence Iroquoians seem to have simply vacated the Saint Lawrence River valley sometime prior to 1580.

17th Century





Maisonneuve is the city's first governor.
  • 1641 – Jean Bourdon's map shows the "abitation du Monreal".
  • 1641-42 – The colonists spend the winter at St Michel, near Sillery, in the house of Pierre de Puiseaux (1566–1647).
  • 1642 – On May 8, Maisonneuve leads his company - in a pinnace, a barge, and two rowboats - to the site of the new colony. Charles de Montmagny accompanies the mission.
  • 1642 – The arrival on May 17; the mission is named Ville-Marie and built at Place Royale.
  • 1642 – Barthélemy Vimont, the superior of the Jesuits, leads the first mass in Ville-Marie on May 18.
  • 1642 – The Algonquin Joseph Oumasasikweie and his wife, Mitigoukwe (later Jeanne) are the first Indians to be baptized and married with full church rites at Ville-Marie on July 28.
  • 1642 – The construction of Fort Ville-Marie begins around the initial hamlet as protection against Iroquois attacks. It is an impressive building by the time the palisade is completed in 1646.
  • 1642 – Construction of Fort Richelieu by Charles de Montmagny begins on August 13 when 40 men led by Montmagny arrive.
  • 1642 – Assumption of Mary celebrated on August 15; a large number of French and Indians are present. That evening, Maisonneuve visits Mont Royal. Two old Indians accompany him to the summit.
  • 1642 – Significant flooding on December 23.
  • 1643 – The first Mount Royal Cross is erected on January 6.
  • 1643 – In March, Tessouat arrives at the new settlement of Ville-Marie, where his nephew Joseph Oumasasikweie is then living. To the surprise of all, Tessouat requests baptism and a Christian marriage. His conversion is greatly prized because of his importance as chief and because of his former hostility. Great solemnity is therefore observed in the ceremonies on March 9. Maisonneuve grants land to Tessouat and provides him with two men to help cultivate it.
  • 1643 – On June 9, the first persons are killed at Montréal during an attack by the Iroquois. Forty Iroquois warriors surprise six Frenchmen hewing timber with gunshots to the fort. The Iroquois kill three men and take the remaining three prisoners.
  • 1643 – At the end of August, a vessel with a reinforcement commanded by Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge arrives at Ville-Marie; he plays a leading role there. His wife arrives with d'Ailleboust, accompanied by her sister, Mademoiselle Philippine de Boulogne.
  • 1643 – Marie-Madeline de Chauvigny de la Peltrie and Madame de Puiseaux leave Ville-Marie.
  • 1643 – Jean Boisseau's map indicates the "Sault de Montreal".
  • 1643 – La Dauversière publishes a book on Ville-Marie, The Purpose of Montreal, that raises support for the project in Paris. Written in 1643, it describes the settlement shortly after its founding: "There is a chapel there that serves as a parish, under the title of Notre Dame.… The inhabitants live for the most part communally, as in a sort of inn; others live on their private means, but all live in Jesus Christ, with one heart and soul."
  • 1643-45 – The Iroquois harass Montréal.
  • 1644 – Iroquois attack on March 16.
  • 1644 – Eighty Iroquois attack on March 30. Barthélemy Vimont says that two Frenchmen were made prisoners, and burned.
  • 1645 – The hospital is initially located within the fort. Maisonneuve grants the first concession outside the fortifications to Jeanne Mance so that she could build Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal; work begins on it on October 8, 1645. By 1659 Jeanne Mance brings from France three nuns from the Religious Hospitallers of Saint Joseph to act as staff.
  • 1645 – Treaty with the Iroquois. The peace is broken a few months later.
  • 1645 – In October, Huron and Algonquin Indians break into the house of Pierre Gadois (Gadoyes) (1594–1667) on several occasions to steal food from him and beat him. Pierre returns to the Quebec City area from 1646-1647.
  • 1645-46 – Tessouat spends the winter in Montréal where he planted corn. But he eventually withdraws to Trois-Rivières, urging others to do likewise, in the face of reports that Iroquois raids are imminent. This probably results from having heard that the French had abandoned non-Christian Algonquins in the 1645 treaty with the Iroquois.
  • 1646-53 – War with the Iroquois.
  • 1646 – The Fort Richelieu is abandoned at the end of the year and burned down by the Iroquois in February 1647. In 1665, the Carignan-Salières Regiment rebuilds the fort at the same location.
  • 1647 – Jacques de La Ferté from the Company of One Hundred Associates grants La Prairie to the Jesuits.
  • 1647 – The first ball in Montréal.
  • 1648 – First land concession, to the Pierre Gadois and Louise Mauger (1598–1690) household on January 4; the land consists of 40 arpents or approximately 300,000 square meters and the location of the property coincides with the present rue Saint Pierre in the east, Rue McGill in the west, Rue Saint-Paul in the south and rue Ontario in the north. Prior to this, the inhabitants of Ville Marie had lived a communal life working in the fields during the day and then returning within the fortified walls of the village at night.
  • 1648 – Adrienne Du Vivier arrives; she and her husband, Augustin Hébert, are often referred to as "Montreal's First Citizens."
  • 1648 – The first white child is born in Ville Marie, Barbe Meusnier, on November 24.
  • 1648 – Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge is appointed governor of New France, at the recomandation of Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve.
  • 1648 – The mill is built.
  • 1648 – The Iroquois invade Huronia and wipe out most of the Hurons and French missionaries living in the territory. The French settlers and Iroquois would fight many battles around the outskirts of New France.
  • 1640s – René Menard is the confessor of the family of Sieur Charles Dailleboust des Musseaux (1621–1700) in Ville-Marie.


  • 1650 - The first commercial brewery in New France is established in Montréal by Louis Prud'homme[9]
  • 1650 – November 18 – The first European inhabitant in Notre-Dame-de-Grâce is Jean Descarries (or Descaris), born in Igé en Perche.
  • 1650 – Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve builds a home for himself on Rue Saint-Paul.
  • 1651 – 40 arpents (34 acres; 14 ha) were granted to the settlers as common land. But the Iroquois threat makes living outside the fort so risky that everyone – including Jeanne Mance and her patients – come back inside the walls.
  • 1651 – The first play performed in Montréal is Le Cid on April 16.
  • 1651 – On June 6, 50 Iroquois attack the settlement.
  • 1651 – On July 26, 200 Iroquois attack the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal.
  • 1651 – Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve makes a land concession on Rue de la Commune for Jean de Saint-Père in October.
  • 1652 – May 26: A troop of 50 Iroquois kill a cowherd named Antoine Rob.
  • 1652 – "July 29: Two Iroquois, having slipped in under the cover of the corn, attacked Martine Messier, the wife of Antoine Primot who, by defending herself courageously, gave the soldiers of the fort time to come to her aid and put the enemy to flight. She received six shots, none of which are mortal," wrote a Jesuit priest in his diary.
  • 1653 – The Grande Recrue: Jeanne Mance takes money that was intended for the hospital and uses it to recruit a hundred people; the contingent arrives at Ville-Marie on November 16. Of the 95 who embark in Saint-Nazaire, 24 are massacred by Iroquois; 4 drown; one is burnt when his house catches fire.[10]
  • 1653 – Congregation of Notre Dame founded.
  • 1654 – A concession for Charles le Moyne at Pointe-Saint-Charles and on Rue Saint-Paul.
  • 1654 – Michel Messier (age 14) is captured in the autumn. He is set free the following summer.
  • 1654 – Outaouais came for the first time to Montréal to trade.
  • 1654 – Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve grants Jeanne Mance 112 arpents (95 acres; 38 ha) of land in Nazareth fief. She and her nuns convert the property to a farm known as 'Le Grange des Pauvres', using the proceeds of food sales to support the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal.
  • 1655 – Peace treaty with the Iroquois lasts only a few months.
  • 1656-58 – Sainte Marie among the Iroquois in use.
  • 1657 – On 28 January, returning from mass, Jeanne Mance falls on the ice, fractures her right arm, and dislocates her wrist. Although cured, Jeanne was unable to use her arm. Because of this infirmity she considers retiring as head of the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal. She waits for the return of Maisonneuve, who had set out for France again in 1655. He returns only at the end of July 1657, together with the first parish clergy for Ville-Marie, which consists of three Sulpicians under the leadership of Abbé Queylus.
  • 1657 – On 17 May, at Saint-Nazaire, Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve and Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge, as well as three Sulpicians (Gabriel Souart, Antoine d'Allet, and Dominique Galinier) under the leadership of Gabriel de Queylus, the first superior of Saint-Sulpice at Montréal (Vieux Séminaire de Saint-Sulpice), board the ship bound for Ville Marie. The travellers, after a stormy crossing, land on the Île d'Orléans, 29 July.
  • 1657 – In the middle of August, four priests (Gabriel de Queylus, Gabriel Souart, Antoine d'Allet, and Dominique Galinier) belonging to the Society of Saint-Sulpice in Paris land in Montréal to take over from the Jesuits.
  • 1657 – Jean de Saint-Père – the first town clerk (greffier) and first Notary public of the settlement, Nicolas Godé, and Jacques Noël are killed by Iroquois on October 25.
  • 1657 – Marguerite Bourgeoys – the town's first teacher, who would found a community of teachers - opens the first school in a former stable on November 25.
  • 1657 – Charles le Moyne is granted land on the South Shore of the St. Lawrence River, across from Saint Helen's Island.
  • 1658 – Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve signs a contract with Jacques Archambault to have him dig "a well in Fort Ville-Marie in the middle of the Court or parade ground."
  • 1658 – In November, a Ville-Marie tribunal convicts René Besnard dit Bourjoly of casting a spell of impotence over Pierre (Gadoyes) Gadois, a rival for the hand of a woman he had courted. Besnard is flogged, imprisoned, and sentenced to death, although the latter punishment was reduced to banishment. In August 1660 François de Laval annuls the still-barren marriage of Pierre Gadois and Marie Pontonnier on the grounds of "permanent impotence caused by witchcraft". In their later marriages to others, this "sterile" couple had a total of 25 children.





18th century


  • 1710 – The population of Montreal is now 3,500.
  • 1710-20 – Maison Quesnel (5010 boulevard Saint-Joseph, Lachine) is built by Olivier Quesnel.
  • 1711 – The court orders the construction of a stone wall around the city.
  • 1713 – Jurisdiction of the Government of Montreal begins to the west of Maskinongé, Quebec and Yamaska and ends at the extremity of the inhabited area, namely fort Saint-Jean, Châteauguay and Vaudreuil.
  • 1713 – Michel Bégon decides to erect stone fortifications. The wooden walls are replaced with stone due to the threat of British attack. The project is only completed in 1744.
  • 1713 – Pointe-Claire parish is first established in the name of St. Francis of Sales and dedicated to St. Joachim the following year.
  • 1716 – Jacques Talbot dit Gervais becomes a schoolmaster in Montréal.
  • 1717–1744 – Stone fortifications were erected according to plans by the architect Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry. The stone fortifications rise six metres in height and measure 3.5 km in circumference around the city. The fortifications correspond roughly to the present-day limits of Old Montreal, with Rue Berri to the east, Rue de la Commune to the south, Rue McGill to the west, and Ruelle de la Fortification to the north.
  • 1716 – Pierre de Lagrené is named Jesuit superior.
  • 1719 – Pointe-aux-Trembles windmill is built at the corner of Notre-Dame Street and Third Avenue. Its three storeys make it the tallest windmill in Quebec that still stands.
  • 1719-20 – Maison Jean-Gabriel Picard (5430 boulevard Saint-Joseph, Lachine) built. It is one of Lachine's two oldest houses.


  • 1720 – Foundation of the St. Lawrence parish.
  • 1721 – Louis XV of France grants the Sulpicians a new seigniory on the shore of the Lake of Two Mountains, where they open an Indian mission at Oka.
  • 1721 – The great fire. New wood constructions are prohibited inside city limits.
  • 1726 – A dam is built to link the river bank to the Île de la Visitation – one of the most impressive feats of civil engineering of the French regime. It remains in operation until 1960.



  • 1740 – 22,000 people live under the government of Montréal. The population is mostly rural, the city having a population of 4,200.[11]
  • 1744 – The appearance in August of the Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle-France; author Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix. Charlevoix writes much of his work in Montreal.
  • 1745-82 – Maison Jean-Baptiste-Mallet (5550 boulevard Saint-Joseph, Lachine) built.
  • 1749 – Fort de La Présentation built.
  • 1749 – Pehr Kalm visits Montreal, where he is hosted by the Baron de Longueuil. Kalm notes that "some of the houses of the town are built of stone, but most are of timber, though very neatly built."
  • 1749 – While planning further exploration of the Saskatchewan River and points west, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye dies in Montréal on December 5.
  • 1749-51 – De la Visitation Church (1747 Gouin Boulevard) is built to replace the small chapel at Fort Lorette. It is the oldest church in Montreal and the only one built during the old régime still standing. The church is consecrated by Henri-Marie Dubreil de Pontbriand in 1752.



  • 1760 – In the spring, a French army is collected in the neighbourhood of Montréal, under the command of Chevalier de Levis.
  • 1760 – Last meeting of New France Sovereign Council occurs on April 28, day of the Battle of Sainte-Foy.
  • 1760 – On May 9, British ships arrive at Quebec City, forcing the French Army to Montréal.
  • 1760 – Battle of the Thousand Islands.
  • 1760 – Henri-Marie Dubreil de Pontbriand dies at Saint-Sulpice Seminary (Montreal) on June 8.
  • 1760 – On September 6, Colonel William Haviland is on the South Shore.
  • 1760 – On September 6, Jeffrey Amherst arrives at Lachine.
  • 1760 – September 6 to September 7 - A council of war, at Montreal, favours capitulation.
  • 1760 – Monday September 8 - Jeffrey Amherst's, Murray's, and Haviland's commands, around Montreal, are about 17,000.
  • 1760 – The British, under General Jeffrey Amherst, march from Lachine through Nazareth Fief (the name used for Griffintown at this time), through the Recollet Gate and into the walled city of Montreal.
  • 1760 – The Articles of Capitulation of Montreal are signed on September 8, in the British camp before the city of Montréal. They are agreed upon between Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal and Jeffrey Amherst. Most of the North American fighting ends with the surrender of Montréal.
  • 1760 – The Charlotte, by naming the bell in the parish church after her.
  • 1760 – On September 21, Jeffrey Amherst appoints brigadier Thomas Gage as military governor of the Montreal district; he remains governor until 1763.
  • 1761 – July 30 - William Bewen, accused of having intoxicated soldiers and of selling rum without a licence, is found guilty, having been accessory to his associate, Isaac Lawrence, who has the habit of selling rum to the soldiers, - condemned to receive 200 stripes of the cat o'nine tails, and to be driven from the town at the beat of the drum.
  • 1761 – July 1 - Isaac Lawrence is similarly condemned.
  • 1761 – August 6 - Joseph Burgen, a hanger-on of the army, is accused and convicted of theft, and condemned to be hanged. The general approves the sentence, but pardons him on the condition that he leave town immediately.
  • 1761 – August 13 - George Skipper and Bellair, bakers, accused and arraigned by Captain Disney for having sold bread which had not the requisite weight, are acquitted.
  • 1761 – By an ordinance dated October 13, Thomas Gage divides the district of Montreal into six subdivisions, and sets up in each a "chamber of justice", composed of from five to seven militia officers, presided over by a captain. This chamber is to sit every fortnight; and it has the power of trying both civil and criminal offenders, and of inflicting corporal punishment, prison, or fine. All appeals, and all serious offences, such as theft or murder, were to go for trial before British courts-martial, one of which was to be constituted monthly for each two subdivisions. Every award was subject to the approval of the governor, who might lessen or commute, though he might not increase, the punishment.
  • 1762 – July 26 - Governor Thomas Gage orders that six livres tournois shall be equal to eight shillings, or ten sols of Montreal money.
  • 1762 – August 3 - Thomas Gage sees that different standards of measurements are being used, and to reduce fraud in commercial dealings, establishes that, in Montreal, the English standard yard measure should be used. He also has to decide on prices for bread.
  • 1763 – Treaty of Paris. Montreal was already the centre of the North American Fur Trade. After the British take possession, Montréal becomes the emporium of a great traffic in the fur-fields of the north and west.
  • 1763 – A big fire.
  • 1763 – Col. Ralph Burton becomes governor of Montreal on October 29; he remains governor until the end of the military regime the following year.
  • 1764 – August 10 - The end of military regime in Montreal.
  • 1764 – August 28 - A proclamation establishes a Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace in each district of Quebec.
  • 1764 – Thomas Walker is appointed a justice of the peace, and on December 6 he is the victim of an assault by the military in which one of his ears was cut off. The incident greatly embitters feeling in the colony, and Walker becomes the centre of a violent agitation.
  • 1764 – Between 1764 and 1837, there are only six justices of the peace for the district of Montreal, who govern Montreal's affairs, with the office dominated by three justices, John Burke (1764–87), John Reid (1787-1811), and John (Jean-Baptiste) Delisle (1814–38).
  • 1765 – There are 136 Protestants in Montreal, and 500 in Canada
  • 1765 – March 22 - The Stamp Act is passed.
  • 1765 – On Saturday May 18, a fire which started on Saint-Paul Street destroys 108 houses, rendering 215 families homeless.
  • 1765 – Governor James Murray authorizes the creation of the "Community of Lawyers" (Communauté des avocats) which grants commissions to its members that allow them to practice law in the triple capacity of lawyer, notary and land surveyor. The precursor of the present-day Bar of Montreal, the Community of Lawyers adopted the first-ever code of legal ethics and conduct.
  • 1765 – After a great deal of legal wrangling the trial in the Thomas Walker case is finally held in July, but the soldiers are acquitted and the suspicion between the military and the merchant class only deepens. Thomas Walker takes the merchants' complaints to London. Murray is instructed to reinstate Walker and to "support him in that unmolested pursuit of Trade, which as a British subject, he is entitled to."
  • 1766 – The attack on the merchant Thomas Walker on December 6, 1764 produces the chaos that resulted in the recall of both Ralph Burton and Murray to Britain.
  • 1766 – The Stamp Act is repealed.
  • 1766 – Brigadier-General Carleton becomes Lieutenant-Governor.
  • 1766 – The town is divided into districts.
  • 1766 – On June 23, governor Murray appoints Pierre du Calvet Justice of the Peace at the new Court of Common Pleas for the district of Montreal.
  • 1767 – Collège de Montréal, a classical college, is founded by Sulpician Curateau de la Blaiserie in the rectory at Longue Pointe.
  • 1768 – A big fire on April 11.
  • 1768 – Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of Montreal established.
  • 1769 – Many American merchants avoid business relations with British merchants.


  • 1771 – Reconstruction of the old Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours Chapel (burned 1754) is begun.
  • 1773 – The Fabrique of Montreal opens a college for instructing youths in arithmetic, geography, English and literature.
  • 1773 – 7 October – the erection in George III. It was the first monument to be erected in Montreal. It is no longer in existence, having suffered mutilation in May 1775.
  • 1774 – The British Parliament passes the Quebec Act that allows Quebec to maintain the French Civil Code as its judicial system and sanctions the freedom of religious choice, allowing the Roman Catholic Church to remain.
  • 1774 - Antoine Foucher (1717-1801), of Terrebonne, with various British officers, stages the first performance of a Molière play in Montreal at his home.[12][13][14]
  • 1775 – Invasion of Canada (1775); Montréal capitulates to the Americans on November 13.
  • 1775 – April 19 – The American Revolutionary War begins at Lexington, Massachusetts.
  • 1775 – May 1 – The bust of Place d'Armes, Montreal, is found defaced – adorned with beads, cross and mitre, with the words "Pope of Canada – Sot (fool) of England", in an act to denounce the Quebec Act, which guarantees the use of French language, culture and freedom of religion. A reward of 500 guineas does not lead to apprehension of the culprit.
  • 1775 – June 9 – Martial Law is declared in Canada.
  • 1775 – August 21 – Generals Hon Yost Schuyler and Richard Montgomery, with 1,000 Americans come to Canada and invite the inhabitants to rebel.
  • 1775 – September 17-November 3 – Siege of Fort St. Jean.
  • 1775 – September 25 – attempting to take Montreal, Ethan Allen and many of his 150 followers are captured at Longue Pointe, and are sent to England.
  • 1775 – October 18 – The Americans capture Chambly.
  • 1775 – Richard Montgomery occupies Saint Paul's Island on November 8.
  • 1775 – On November 9, Richard Montgomery crosses to Pointe-Saint-Charles, where he is greeted as a liberator.[15]
  • 1775 – November 12 – General Richard Montgomery tells Montrealers that, being defenceless, they cannot stipulate terms; but promises to respect personal rights. He demands the keys of public stores, and appoints the following morning for the army's entrance by the Recollet gate.
  • 1775 – Montreal falls without any significant fighting on November 13, as Carleton, deciding that the city was indefensible (and having suffered significant militia desertion upon the news of the fall of St. Johns), withdraws.
  • 1775 – November 13 – The Continental Army invades Montreal and appropriates royal stores. Richard Montgomery is joined by Benedict Arnold.
  • 1775 – Richard Montgomery uses some of the captured boats to move towards Quebec City with about 300 troops on November 28, leaving about 200 in Montreal under the command of General David Wooster.[16]
  • 1776 – April 29 – American colonists Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Chase and the Jesuit Charles Carroll stay in Thomas Walker's house in Montreal while trying to gain support from Montrealers against the British.
  • 1776 – Benjamin Franklin and Charles Carroll leaveMontreal on May 11, following news that the American forces at Quebec City aere in panicked retreat, to return to Philadelphia.
  • 1776 – May – With only 1,765 soldiers remaining in Montreal, the colonial force is overcome by the British.
  • 1776 – Within four hours, Benedict Arnold and the American forces garrisoned around Montreal abandon the city (but not before trying to burn it down), leaving it in the hands of the local militia. Carleton's fleet arrive in Montreal on June 17.[17]
  • 1776 – May 18–27 – Battle of the Cedars.
  • 1776 – Colonel Benedict Arnold destroys Fort Senneville.
  • 1777 – Opening of Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of Montreal.
  • 1778 – June 3 – The first issue of the Château Ramezay by Fleury Mesplet, a former employee of Benjamin Franklin.
  • 1779 – On June 2, the publication of the Gazette Littéraire is stopped.
  • 1779 – Fleury Mesplet and Valentin Jautard are arrested by order of the governor on June 4.


  • 1781 – Coteau-du-Lac canal completed. It is the first work of its kind in North America.
  • 1781-83 – Pierre-Louis Panet practices as a notary in Montreal.
  • 1782 – Councillor Finlay proposes to establish English schools in Canadian parishes, and to prohibit using the French language in the Law Courts after a certain time.
  • 1783 – The United Empire Loyalists settle in Canada.
  • 1783 – The North West Company of Montreal is officially created.
  • 1783 – A lottery is started in Montreal to defray the cost of a new jail.
  • 1783 – Fleury Mesplet gets out of prison in September.
  • 1785 – Fleury Mesplet founds the newspaper The Montreal Gazette / Gazette de Montréal on August 28.
  • 1785 – In February, the Beaver Club is formed by members of the North West Company.
  • 1785 – A dark day on October 10. Candles are lighted at noon.
  • 1785 – Maison Papineau (or Maison John-Campbell) is built at 440 Bonsecours Street. It will be modified in 1831 and 1965.
  • 1786 – John Molson founds the Molson Brewery.
  • 1787 – Prince William Henry, later William IV, arrives at Montreal on September 8.
  • 1787–1811 – John Reid is justice of the peace for the district of Montreal, which governs Montreal's affairs.
  • 1788 – The Gazette, formerly a French journal, appears in English.
  • 1789 – Lord Grenville proposes that land in Upper Canada be held in free and common soccage, and that the tenure of Lower Canadian lands be optional with the inhabitants.
  • 1789 – May 4 – The justices of the peace, who govern Montreal's affairs, order "the price and assize of bread, for this month" to be: "the white loaf of 4lbs. at 13d., or 30 sous", etc., and that bakers of the city and suburbs do conform thereto, and mark their bread with their initials.
  • 1789 – Christ Church opens for service on December 20.


  • 1790 – Lower Canada is divided into three districts,instead of two.
  • 1791 – Edmund Burke supports the proposed constitution for Canada, saying that "To attempt to amalgamate two populations, composed of races of men diverse in language, laws and habitudes, is complete absurdity. Let the proposed constitution be founded on man's nature, the only solid basis for an enduring government." Fox declares that England can retain Canada "through the good will of the Canadians alone."
  • 1791 – The last Jesuit at Montreal, Father Bernard Well, dies towards the end of March or the beginning of April. Jean-Joseph Casot comes to Montreal and donates the Montreal Jesuits' possessions to charity. After this the Jesuit residence is used for government purposes.
  • 1791 – On May 8, members of the Presbyterian congregation of Montreal gather to elect a committee to discuss the building of the first Presbyterian church in Canada, later to be known as the St. Gabriel Street Church.
  • 1791 – Thomas McCord leases Nazareth fief from the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal nuns for 99 years, but five years later, while he is away on business, the land is illegally sold by McCord's associate, Patrick Langan, to Mrs. Mary Griffin.
  • 1792 – On May 7, Lower Canada is divided into 21 counties.
  • 1792 – June – Of 50 members of the new assembly for Lower Canada, 15 are English.
  • 1792 – December 20 – a fortnightly mail is established between Canada and the United States.
  • 1792 – December – A bill to abolish slavery in Lower Canada does not pass.
  • 1792 – Opening of the first post office in Montréal on 20 December.
  • 1792 – Montrealer Joseph Bouchette is sent to Upper Canada to help survey Toronto Harbour and produces maps that include the Toronto Islands.
  • 1793 – Importation of slaves into Canada is prohibited on July 9.
  • 1794 – James Monk is appointed Chief Justice of the King's Bench of Montreal.
  • 1795 – James Monk purchases an estate in Montréal that had previously belonged to the Décarie family. The first Monk residence, built in 1803, and known as Monklands, is now the central section of the present-day Villa Maria.
  • 1795 – A Canadian regiment is raised but disbanded, owing to Britain's unfavourable experience of training colonists to use arms.
  • 1795 - Isaac Weld observes that the French have "an unconquerable aversion to learn English... But the English inhabitants are, for the most part, well acquainted with the French language." He also observes "the people of Montreal, in general, are remarkably hospitable and attentive to strangers; they are sociable also amongst themselves, and fond in the extreme of convivial amusements."
  • 1796 – The Habeas Corpus Act is suspended in Lower Canada.
  • 1796 – Attorney-General Jonathan Sewell reports the District of Montreal is satisfied with British rule, but that the French Minister to Washington, Pierre Adet, deludes the people with the statement that France had conquered Spain, Italy and Austria and will shortly attack Great Britain through her colonies.
  • 1796 – The Montreal Library, the first public library in the city, is founded.
  • 1796 – January – At a general election in Lower Canada, less than half the old members are returned. Some are defeated for preferring English as the language of Parliament.
  • 1797 – January 18 – A weekly mail is established between Canada and the United States.
  • 1797 – January 18 – This notice appears in the Quebec Gazette: "A mail for the upper counties, comprehending Niagara and Detroit, will be closed, at this office on Monday, 30th instant, at four o'clock in the evening, to be forwarded, from Montreal, by the annual winter express, on Thursday, 2nd February next."
  • 1799 – Mary Griffin obtains the lease to Griffintown from a business associate of Thomas McCord.
  • 1799 – The census of 1799 lists 9,000 inhabitants while that of 1761 lists 5,500.
  • 1799 – Citizens of Montreal petition to secure master's rights over slaves
  • 1799 – A measure respecting slavery in Lower Canada does not pass.
  • 1799 – Of twenty-one members of Council, in Lower Canada, six are French Canadians.
  • 1799 – The Court House is completed.
  • 1799 – January 3 – Parliament appropriates $5,000 for a new Montreal Court House.
  • 1800 – Alexander Skakel moves from Quebec City to Montréal and establishes the Classical and Mathematical School. This was the principal educational institution for the English-speaking population.
  • 1800 – Thomas Walker is elected to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada for Montreal County.
  • 1800 – Thomas Porteous (merchant) purchases the seigneury of Terrebonne.

19th century

  • 1801 – As part of their drive to improve urban planning, Montreal's commissioners decide to take the fortifications down.
  • 1801 – Joseph Frobisher and others are incorporated to supply Montreal with water.
  • 1802 – The King assents to the endowment of a college at Montreal.
  • 1802 – The first unofficial cavalry corps is formed in Montreal.
  • 1802 – Alexander MacKenzie is knighted for his achievements in the northwest on February 10.
  • 1803 – The central section of the present-day Villa Maria is built. It was the first residence of James Monk.
  • 1803 – June – Christ Church destroyed by fire.
  • 1803 – Aug 2 – As result of the war between France and England, Canada renews the Alien Act.
  • 1803-15 – With the Napoleonic Wars comes a demand for large amounts of squared timber for shipbuilding. Montreal is able to fulfil the demand, and this expansion of the city's economic base is reflected in a rise in population to 26,154 by the year 1825.
  • 1803 – The Fur Trade at Lachine National Historic Site built.
  • 1804-17 – The demolition of Montréal's fortifications takes 13 years, from 1804 to 1817. Vestiges of the fortifications can still be seen at Champs de Mars, and at the Pointe-à-Callière Museum.
  • 1804 – There are 142 slaves in the district of Montreal and more than twice as many in the province.
  • 1804 – Locks are placed at Coteau, Cascades and at Long Sault.
  • 1805 – Thomas McCord returns to Montreal and recovers his land, which has been divided by Mary Griffin into streets and lots. The name Griffintown sticks.
  • 1805 – Thomas Porteous (merchant) opens a store at Sainte-Thérèse-de-Blainville, where he also produces potash.
  • 1805 – The first water main is constructed.
  • 1806 – Parliament orders the publisher of the Montreal Gazette to be arrested for censuring the majority's vote on the jail.
  • 1806 – Maison du Pressoir built.
  • 1807 – May – The Canadian Courant and Montreal Advertiser are first issued; owner and editor: Nahum Mower.
  • 1807 – The brothers James and Charles Brown begin publishing the Canadian Gazette/Gazette canadienne in July.
  • 1807 – An Act provides for a new market house in Montreal.
  • 1808 – In early 1808, sick and in debt, Edward Edwards sells the Montreal Gazette to the Browns, who the following month announce their plan to revive it.
  • 1808 – Importation of slaves is banned.
  • 1808 – July 12 – 5 privates of the 100th Regiment, Montreal, are charged with desertion and are transported as felons to New South Wales for 7 years, afterwards to serve as soldiers in that colony.
  • 1808-11 – A new prison is built.
  • 1809 – August 17 – The foundation of Nelson's Column is laid in Montreal. Installed on Place Jacques-Cartier, this is the second monument to be erected in Montreal.
  • 1809 – November 3 – John Molson's steamboat PS Accommodation sails from Montreal to Quebec. It is 85 feet over all, has a 6 horse-power engine, makes the distance in 36 hours, but stops at night and reaches Quebec on the 6th. The PS Accommodation is the second steam-oat in America and probably in the world. The fare for an adult is £2.10s.od =$10.


  • 1810 – John Jacob Astor founds the Pacific Fur Company. (His great-grandson, John Jacob Astor IV died on the RMS Titanic).
  • 1810 – November 26 – John Molson requests the exclusive right to construct and navigate steamboats on the Saint Lawrence River for 15 years.
  • 1811 – Founding of the newspaper the Montreal Herald by William Grey and Mungo Kay, founders, owners and publishers.
  • 1812 – June 18 – The United States declares war against Great Britain over territorial disputes in Canada (War of 1812). There are 4,000 British troops in Canada. Four Canadian battalions are assembled.
  • 1812 – July 11 – U.S. troops invade Canada.
  • 1812 – August 20 – Launch of John Molson's second steamboat, the "Swiftsure", at Montreal.
  • 1812 – Jean-Marie Mondelet is named coroner for Montreal.
  • 1814 – The Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain.
  • 1814-38 – John (Jean-Baptiste) Delisle is justice of the peace for the district of Montreal.
  • 1815 – The Montreal General Hospital will result from a society formed this year.
  • 1815 - John Molson builds the luxurious Mansion House Hotel on Rue St. Paul.
  • 1815 – March – Parliament votes $25,000 for Lachine Canal.
  • 1816 – Population of Montreal is about 16,000.
  • 1816 – The National School is opened.
  • 1816 – May 14 – Thomas A. Turner and Robert Armour, Esq., are appointed commissioners for the improvement of internal navigation between Montreal and Lachine, under the Provincial Act 48 George III,c.19.
  • 1816-18 – John Coape Sherbrooke is the Governor General of British North America; Sherbrooke Street and the town of Sherbrooke are named after him.
  • 1817 – The Bank of Montreal begins operations in June. Mary Griffin's husband, Robert, is the first clerk.
  • 1817 – Guy Streetias named on August 30 for Étienne Guy, a notary who gave the city the land for the street.
  • 1818 – Saint Helen's Island was purchased by the British government. Fort de l'Île Sainte-Hélène was built on the island as defences for the city, in consequence of the War of 1812.
  • 1819 – Darkness at noon on November 9.


  • 1820 – January 29 – Death of George III in the 60th year of his reign. Parliament is dissolved.
  • 1820 – June 18 – Governor Earl of Dalhousie arrives.
  • 1820 – August 28 – The Montreal Bible Society is established.
  • 1821 – Merger of the North West Company of Montreal and Hudson's Bay Company.
  • 1821 – The Earl of Dalhousie presents Dalhousie Square to Montreal
  • 1821 – Population of Lower Canada is 397,600; of Upper Canada is 129,100
  • 1821 – March 17 – Act of incorporation of the Bank of Montreal passed.
  • 1821 – March 31 – McGill University established by Royal Charter.
  • 1821 – Beginning of Lachine Canal excavations on July 17.
  • 1821 – The British garrison starts the construction of the Fort de l'Île Sainte-Hélène. It is completed in 1823 and partially rebuilt in 1863 after a fire as a preventive measure against an eventual American attack. The garrison leaves the island in 1870.
  • 1821 - John Molson's Mansion House Hotel on Rue St. Paul, built 1815, is rebuilt after a fire.
  • 1822 – Board of Trade of Metropolitan Montreal founded.
  • 1822 – Parliament grants $50,000 for the Chambly Canal, and $12,000 for the Lachine Canal.
  • 1822 – Opening of the British and Canadian School.
  • 1822 – Montreal's population is 18,767.
  • 1822 – April 23 – First meeting of the Montreal Committee of Trade; Montreal Board of Trade was its successor.
  • 1822 – The first iron bridge is erected on March 8.
  • 1822 – May 1 – The Montreal General Hospital building is completed; Medical staff: Dr. John Stevenson, A.F. Holmes, William Robertson and William Caldwell.
  • 1822 – In September, a whale (42 feet 8 inches in length, 6 feet across the back, and 7 feet deep) finds its way up the Saint Lawrence River. It remains off the city for several days, the river being too shallow for it to go back downriver.
  • 1824 – Recollet Convent opens as a school for Irish children.
  • 1824 – First Saint Patrick's Day Parade organized on March 17.
  • 1824 – Construction on the new Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal) begins, designed by New York architect James O'Donnell, an Irish Protestant.
  • 1824 – Founding of the Medical Association of Montreal.
  • 1825 – The Lachine Canal is opened, and new industries spring up in the St. Antoine ward area as a direct outcome of the easier transport of goods. Shipping immediately increases and, along with the destruction of the city walls, Montreal comes to be an economic, rather than military, city. Gradually, the city's harbour facilities expand. In 1830 the wharves are rudimentary and stretched for only a short distance along De la Commune Street. By 1848 the wharves are made of dressed stone and extend for over two miles along the riverfront.
  • 1825 – Maison Joseph Dagenais built.
  • 1825 – First permanent theatre building in Montreal, Theatre Royal, is built by John Molson to attract bigger names to the city, which lacked such a venue. It costs the magnate $30,000. The building is demolished in 1844 and the site was used for the Bonsecours Market. Another venue, also called Theatre Royal, was built not far away in Old Montreal; this building, too, no longer exists.
  • 1826-37 and 1842-99 – La Minerve published.
  • 1827 – Fleming windmill (13, avenue Strathyre) built.
  • 1829 – Most of Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal) is now completed. Work continues for more than a decade on the two bell towers. A new skyline begins to develop.


Acte pour incorporer la Cité de Montréal


  • 1840 – Grand séminaire de Montréal founded by Sulpicians.
  • 1840 – The Sulpicians surrender their seigneurial rights to Île de Montréal.
  • 1840 – Peter McGill elected mayor of Montreal.
  • 1840 – Exports from Montreal total $419,281.
  • 1840 – The Act of Union combines Lower Canada and Upper Canada.
  • 1840 – April 6 – First meeting to organize the new Board of Trade, Montreal; Hon. Peter McGill in the chair. A committee is named to secure incorporation. Austin Cuvillier is the chairman and James Holmes the secretary at $100 per annum for services, room, fuel and lights.
  • 1840 – August 19 – Lachine Rapids first navigated in a steamboat.
  • 1841 – Lower Canada becomes Canada East.
  • 1841 – January – Provisional directors of the Mercantile Library Association, Montreal, elected.
  • 1841 – There are now at least 6,500 Irish Catholics in Montreal. Most of the immigrants to Montreal settle in Griffintown, particularly in the area west of McGill Street (Montreal). In this district, the area between the Lachine Railroad and the Lachine Canal becomes a slum.
  • 1841 – West Bell Tower of Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal), called "Perseverance" and housing the 10,900 kg bell "Le Gros Bourdon" / "Jean-Baptiste", completed.
  • 1842 – March 19 – The incorporation of the Montreal Board of Trade is proclaimed.
  • 1842 – Geological Survey of Canada formed.
  • 1842 – In May, Charles Dickens appears at Theatre Royal, in Montreal, surrounded by local talent. While Dickens is in Montreal he produces, directs and acts in three plays.
  • 1843 – A Museum of the Geological Survey is begun at Montreal.
  • 1843 – The Cornwall Canal and the Chambly Canal are opened.
  • 1843 – Survey of the boundary between the U.S. and Canada is begun.
  • 1843 – Montreal Police Service established on March 15.
  • 1843 – Joseph Bourret is elected Mayor of Montreal.
  • 1843 – June 12 – Lord Metcalfe comes to Montreal.
  • 1843 – The first labour strike in Canada occurs. The Lachine Canal was widened in the 1840s under conditions of bitter conflict between contractors and Irish labourers. Working 16 hours a day for low wages, labourers were paid in company scrip that could only be exchanged in company stores.
  • 1843 – After completion of the East Bell Tower of Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal), called "Temperance" and housing a ten-bell carillon, Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal) is finally completed.
  • 1843 – Superior Joseph-Vincent Quiblier authorizes construction of St. Patrick's Church for the city's English-speaking Roman Catholics. Pierre Louis Morin designs this church with the help of the Jesuit Félix Martin.
  • 1843 – Foundation of the religious congregation of the Sisters of Providence by Émilie Gamelin.
  • 1843 – Foundation of the religious congregation Saints-Noms-de-Jésus-et-de-Marie.
  • 1844 – The Mercantile Library Association purchases the "Montreal Library".
  • 1844 – Government moves from Kingston to Montreal.
  • 1844 – Institut canadien de Montréal founded on December 17.
  • 1845 – The Mechanics Institute, Montreal is incorporated
  • 1844 – The seat of the government of Canada East and Canada West is moved from Kingston to Montréal.
  • 1844 – Église Sainte-Geneviève (Montréal) completed.
  • 1845 – James Ferrier is elected Mayor of Montreal.
  • 1845 – Opening of the Canadian Baptist College
  • 1845 – Ottawa Hotel, Montreal built.
  • 1845 – Laurentian Bank.
  • 1847 – The Montreal Telegraph Company founded. In 1850, the year prior to Hugh Allan's presidency, Montreal Telegraph Co operated merely 500 miles of line, all in the province of Canada.
  • 1847 – Telegraph service between Montréal and Toronto, between Montréal and Quebec City, and between Montréal and New York City established.
  • 1847 – Bonsecours Market opened. It housed City Hall between 1852 and 1878.
  • 1847 – The first Bonaventure Station is built on Saint Jacques Street as the main terminal for railway from Montreal to Lachine.
  • 1847 – The railway from Montreal to Lachine is opened.
  • 1847 – Desbarats & Derbyshire (Georges-Édouard Desbarats and Stewart Derbyshire) start a glass factory at Vaudreuil.
  • 1847 – January 30 – Lord Elgin, Governor, arrives at Montreal.
  • 1847 – The first mass is celebrated in St. Patrick's Basilica on St. Patrick's Day, March 17.
  • 1847 – September 1 – Lord Elgin visits the fever sheds at Windmill Point.
  • 1847 – October 23 – 65 immigrants die in a week at Windmill Point.
  • 1847 – November 1–9, 634 deaths of immigrants since January 1.
  • 1847 – November – Death of John Easton Mills, mayor of Montreal, as he tends the sick in the fever sheds
  • 1847 – Bank of Montreal Head Office, Montreal built.
  • 1847 – Arrival of Brother of Saint-Viateur in Montreal.
  • 1847 – Formation of the Montreal Society of Artists.
  • 1847-48 – In all, between 3,500 and 6,000 Irish immigrants die of the Typhus epidemic of 1847 at Windmill Point.
  • 1848 – January 2 – Wellington and Commissioners streets flooded.
  • 1848 – June – Emulating the "Lord Sydenham's" success in 1838, several steamboats run the Lachine Rapids.
  • 1848 – July 5 – Run on the Savings Bank, Montreal, followed by re-deposit.
  • 1848 – August – Abraham de Sola becomes Professor of Hebrew at McGill University; Henry Aspinwall Howe becomes rector of the High School
  • 1848 – September 20 – Opening of the Jesuits' College in Montreal
  • 1848 – Montreal's road bill is $26,950
  • 1848 – Creation of Lachine village.
  • 1848 – Foundation of the religious congregation of Sisters of Mercy.
  • 1848 – Burt, Boulton Holdings Ltd. is founded in England; eventually it becomes Domtar.
  • 1849 – Burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal.
  • 1849 – Beauharnois Canal is opened.
  • 1849 – Road expenditure of Montreal is $14,054
  • 1849 – Édouard-Raymond Fabre is elected Mayor of Montreal.
  • 1849 – April 25 – For sanctioning the Rebellion Losses Bill, Lord Elgin is mobbed and the Parliament House in Montreal is burned. Parliament will now sit alternately in Quebec and Toronto.
  • 1849 – August – Montreal Annexation Manifesto published; it is opposed in Toronto.
  • 1849 – Rebellion Losses Bill.
  • 1849 – The Bar of Montreal became an independent corporation through the Act to incorporate the Bar of Lower Canada.


  • 1850 – The population of Montreal reaches 50,000.
  • 1850 – Anglican Diocese of Montreal established.
  • 1850 – Riots, extensive fires and general depression
  • 1850 – Montreal's road expenditure $10,631 – the lowest in 23 years
  • 1850 – Opening of the Ann Street School.
  • 1850 – Value of Montreal's trade $1,793,695.
  • 1850 – March 21 – First meeting of the Mount Royal Cemetery Company.
  • 1850 – Beginning of the dredging of the St. Lawrence to allow seagoing ships to reach to Montreal.
  • 1851 – Grand Trunk Railway Company formed.
  • 1851 – Population of Montreal 57,715.
  • 1851 – Charles Wilson, Mayor of Montreal, elected by the Council.
  • 1851 – Hon. James Morris becomes the first Canadian Post-Master General.
  • 1851 – July – The bloomer costume appears in Montreal.
  • 1851 – November 19 – First YMCA on the continent opened in Montreal.
  • 1851-53 – Église Saint-Pierre-Apôtre de Montréal built.
  • 1852 – Laval University is opened.
  • 1852 – Institut canadien de Montréal (founded 1844) is incorporated.
  • 1852 – Hon. Charles Wilson is re-elected Mayor of Montreal
  • 1852 – Opening of the Panet Street School
  • 1852 – February – The Mount Royal Cemetery Company buys grounds.
  • 1852 – July 8 – Beginning of Great Fire of 1852, which burns 11,000 houses in Montreal; 20% of the eastern side of the city is devastated.
  • 1852 – October – The Bank of Montreal issues notes like England's – denomination watermarked
  • 1852 – December – In one day the sum of $5,000 is raised for a Merchants' Exchange in Montreal.
  • 1853 – The first screw steamer up the Saint Lawrence River arrives from Liverpool. Canadian Steam Navigation Company runs regular services from Liverpool and Glasgow to Quebec City and Montreal, twice a month in summer and once a month in winter.
  • 1853 – Hon. C. Wilson is the last Mayor the Council of Montreal elects (until Michael Applebaum in 2012).
  • 1853 – The Montreal Board of Trade turns down Caughnawaga for the Saint Lawrence River terminus of a canal from Lake Champlain.
  • 1853 – May 23 – First charter for steamers from Montreal to Great Britain.
  • 1853 – June 9 – Alessandro Gavazzi's anticlerical speeches at Montreal's First Congregational Church (Zion Church) spark riots that kill 40 people.
  • 1853 – June 18 – The Grand Trunk Railway opens to Portland. Portland becones the primary ice-free winter seaport for Canadian exports.
  • 1853 – July 22 – Pier No.1 of the Victoria Bridge is begun.
  • 1853 – October 8 – William Molson Bank opens in Montreal, under the Free Banking Act.
  • 1853 – Canal de l'Aqueduc built.
  • 1853 – Notre-Dame-de-Grâce built.
  • 1854 – Villa Maria founded.
  • 1854 – Reciprocity between Canada and the U.S. is adopted
  • 1854 – Wolfred Nelson is the first mayor the people of Montreal elect.
  • 1854 – Institut canadien de Montréal enters its new building.
  • 1854 – March – 2,000 miles of Railway under contract in Canada.
  • 1854 – May – The new Montreal post office to have six delivery wickets.
  • 1854 – July – Six Nations Indians offer to fight the Queen's enemies anywhere
  • 1854 – July 20 – The first stone of the Victoria Bridge across the St. Lawrence is laid.
  • 1854 – August 1 – Messrs. Dorion, Holton, and Young are declared elected for Montreal.
  • 1854 – August 2 – First coffer-dam of Victoria Bridge ready for masonry.
  • 1854 – October 16 – Twenty-one vessels in port at Montreal.
  • 1854 – Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery opens.
  • 1854 – St. Ann's Church is consecrated, becoming the centre of Griffintown life; it opens on December 8 (Feast of the Immaculate Conception) and was designed by John Ostell. The Sulpicians donated the land for the church and provided the Irish-born pastors: Father Michael O'Brien, Father Michael O'Farrell and Father James Hogan (priest 1867–1884). Some residents of Griffintown claim that St. Ann's ("down the hill") was actually more of a center for the Irish in Montreal than St. Patrick's Basilica, Montreal's ("up the hill") was, since most of the city's Irish lived in Griffintown.
  • 1854 – Cholera kills more than 1,000 citizens.
  • 1854 – Canada Steamship Lines Inc. established.
  • 1855 – The Redpath Sugar Refinery opens.
  • 1855 – The Mechanics' Institute building opens.
  • 1855 – The post office building is completed.
  • 1855 – Sir Edmund Walker Head is Governor of British North America.
  • 1855 – Hugh Allan and Andrew Allan establish the Montreal Ocean Steamship Company, with four steamships fortnightly.
  • 1855 – April – Petition for a fixed seat in Parliament is signed.
  • 1855 – April 19 – Bank of Montreal's stock to be increased to $2,000,000.
  • 1855 – May 19 - The Molson Bank is incorporated.
  • 1855 – October 1 – Molson Bank begins business.
  • 1855 – October 19 – G.T. Railway is open to Brockville.
  • 1856 – The citizens of Montreal elect Henry Starnes Mayor.
  • 1856 – Montreal's Water Works made ready for use
  • 1856 – The Allan's four steamships, between Montreal and Liverpool bring 3,031 passengers, Westward (average voyage 13 days).
  • 1856 – June 9 – Twenty-six vessels in port at Montreal
  • 1856 – September 16 – Balloon ascension from Griffintown, in the "Canada"
  • 1856 – The Grand Trunk Railway begins through passenger service between Montreal and Toronto on October 27 with great celebrations being held in Kingston to celebrate this accomplishment. The first passenger train leaves Toronto and travels to Montréal in 14 hours.
  • 1856 – December 10 – Burning of Christ Church Cathedral (Montreal).
  • 1856 – Montreal Lacrosse Club established.
  • 1856 – The Old Montreal Courthouse, now known as the Lucien-Saulnier Building, designed by John Ostell, is inaugurated.
  • 1856 – Photographer William Notman opens his business.
  • 1857 – June 13–26 ocean steamships at Montreal today
  • 1857 – June 26 – Fire on board the steamer "Montreal" en route from Quebec to Montreal – 253 lives lost, including Stephen C. Phillips.
  • 1857 – Opening of the Saint-James club on July 14; it is still extant and the oldest private club in Montreal.
  • 1857 – September 7 – 500 of the 39th Regiment leave Montreal, possibly for the Crimea.
  • 1857 – Saint-Enfant-Jésus du Mile-End Church completed.
  • 1857 – The lower part of Griffintown entirely submerged by river flooding.
  • 1857 – An economic slump provokes numerous bankruptcies.
  • 1857–2000 – Seagram opens. The former Seagram headquarters in Montreal now belongs to McGill University under the name Martlet House.
  • 1858 – Formation of the Royal Canadian Regiment.
  • 1858 – The Natural History Society's Building in Montreal is completed
  • 1858 – The Merchants' Exchange Building in Montreal is completed.
  • 1858 – C.S. Rodier is elected Mayor of Montreal.
  • 1858 – January 5 – J.J.C. Abbott buys the Montreal Bytown and Prescott Railway for $5,300
  • 1858 – January 27 – The Queen names Ottawa the seat of government
  • 1858 – January 28 – Dorcas Society of the United Presbyterian Church is founded.
  • 1858 – February 20 – In Griffintown, beds stand in three feet of water
  • 1858 – A group of 158 members left the Institut canadien de Montréal to found the Institut Canadien-français de Montréal, which opted to obey the doctrine of the Catholic clergy and not to lend books judged immoral by it.
  • 1858 – Cathédrale Saint-Jacques (now part of UQAM) built.
  • 1858 – Édifice Edmonstone, Allan & Co. built.
  • 1858 – Riots and street fights run rampant through Griffintown on election day when D'Arcy McGee is chosen to represent the Montreal West riding, including Griffintown, in the federal government.
  • 1859 – Mgr Ignace Bourget condemns the Institut canadien de Montréal, excommunicating its members, and on July 7, 1869, Rome adds the institute's Annuaire for the year 1868 to the Catholic Church's Index of prohibited books.
  • 1859 – Montreal real estate assessed, $26,812,290; revenue $286,252.
  • 1859 – Montreal O.S.S. Co. brings 1,882 cabin and 2,941 steerage passengers.
  • 1859 – December 12 – The Victoria Bridge opens.
  • 1859 – December 17 – The first passenger train passes through the Victoria Bridge.
  • 1859 – The Black Rock is erected by canal workers on Bridge St. to honour the Windmill Point victims of cholera.
  • 1859 – Foundation of the National Bank of Canada.


  • 1860 – Victoria Square, Montreal opens.
  • 1860 – Maison Boucher built.
  • 1860 – Montreal's real estate valued $27,649,550; revenue $316,323
  • 1860 – 240 ocean ships bring 118,216 tons to Montréal
  • 1860 – February 20 – The wreck of the Allan Line steamship SS Hungarian with a number of Montrealers on board.
  • 1860 – April – Hon. Alexander Tilloch Galt's proposed Bank of Issue excites interest.
  • 1860 – Formation of the Art Association of Montreal on April 23. It assumed its present name, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, in 1948–49.
  • 1860 – May – Crystal Palace built for the Montreal Industrial Exhibition of 1860.
  • 1860 – August 25 – The Prince of Wales visits Montreal. The Prince holds a reception in Hon. Alexander Tilloch Galt's mansion at Sherbrooke.
  • 1860 – August 25 – Opening of the Victoria Railway Bridge.
  • 1860 – September 28 – Death of Hon. Peter McGill.
  • 1860 – November 27 – Opening of the Christ Church Cathedral (Montreal).
  • 1861 – Population of Montreal city is now 90,323 inhabitants.
  • 1861 – The street horsecar is introduced as public transportation on 27 November. It was operated by Montreal City Passenger Railway Company 1861–1886.
  • 1861 – Griffintown again flooded.
  • 1861 – Population of Montreal, with suburbs 101,602; of the city only, 91,169.; Montreal's increase in 30 years – 76%.
  • 1861 – January – British troops ordered to Canada.
  • 1861 – January 18 – A meeting in Montreal, respecting extradition of John Anderson, a slave charged with murder, is addressed by Hon. Messrs. Dorion, Drummond and Holton, Revds. W. Bond, Cordner, Benjamin Holmes and John Dougall, Esqrs., and Dr. Hingston, and opposes surrendering Anderson.
  • 1861 – February – John Anderson not to be surrendered without instructions from England.
  • 1861 – American Civil War begins in April.
  • 1861 – April 15 – Great inundation at Montreal.
  • 1861 – June 13 – Prince Alfred arrives in Montreal.
  • 1861 – June – John Anderson (escaped slave) reaches England.
  • 1861 – June 6 – Formation of the Canada Presbyterian Church by fusion of the Free Church and the United Presbyterian body.
  • 1861 – July – Montreal's M.P.P.s are Messrs. Cartier.
  • 1861 – December – Six steamers chartered to bring troops to Canada.
  • 1861 – St. John the Evangelist Anglican Church (Montreal) founded.
  • 1861 – The village of Saint-Jean-Baptist separates from the village of Côte-Saint-Louis on January 5.
  • 1862 – Numismatic and Antiquarian Society formed at Montreal.
  • 1862 – Jean-Louis Beaudry is elected Mayor.
  • 1862 – The Montreal Corn Exchange Association is organized.
  • 1862 – Montreal Sailor's Institute founded.
  • 1862 – Ocean steamers trading to Montreal have increased from 5,545 tons in 1854, to 62,912; other ocean vessels from 58,416 to 195,348 tons.
  • 1862 – January – Military companies are organizing throughout Canada.
  • 1862 – January 4 – Victoria Bridge is guarded to prevent its destruction, threatened from the USA.
  • 1862 – January – Lord Monck expects Canadians to wear mourning for Price Albert who died December 14.
  • 1862 – April 2 – By-law to establish a Montreal Fire Department.
  • 1862 – April 28 – The "Shandon" reaches Montreal.
  • 1862 – May 20 – The Montreal Water Works are commenced.
  • 1862 – May 24 – Ministry gazetted: Hon. J.S. MacDonald, L.V. Sicotte, J. Morris, A.A. Dorion, M.H. Foley, W. McDougall, W.P. Howland, N.J. Tessier, T.D. McGee, F. Evanturel, A. Wilson and J.J.C. Abbott, Q.C., solicitor general for Lower Canada
  • 1862 – August 28 – Burial at St. Andrew's of Simon Fraser, after whom the Fraser River is named.
  • 1863 – Bounties for USA recruits and substitutes often reach $2,000, inducing kidnapping and contraventions of the British Foreign Enlistment Act, for which heavy bail is exacted. The bonds are estreated, with profit to the Canadian Treasury.
  • 1863 – Shipbuilding at Montreal $150,000 in value.
  • 1863 – For 16 years Montreal's harbour has been open an average of 238 days: shortest season 224, longest 252 days.
  • 1863 – A report on the Ottawa and French River Project shows, Chicago to Liverpool, 760 miles less, by Montreal, than by New York.
  • 1863 – The Montreal Corn Exchange is incorporated. – T. Cramp, President, H. Lyman, Vice President, and D.A.P. Watt, Treasurer of the Board of Trade of Metropolitan Montreal.
  • 1863 – Daily capacity of Montreal's water-works increased from 5 to 9 million gallons by a new turbine wheel.
  • 1863 – Eight floating elevators at Montreal discharge 24,000 bushels hourly.
  • 1863 – Houses built this year in Montreal – 736; in 8 years – 4,014.
  • 1863 – Montreal's real estate assessed at $34,832,930; revenue $406,532.
  • 1863 – Fire Alarm established on January 19.
  • 1863 – May 12 – Protestant House of Refuge in Montreal incorporated.
  • 1863 – June 13 – Eighty-six vessels in port at Montreal
  • 1863 - The Lachine Rowing club is first established
  • 1863 – November 20 – Death of Lord Elgin, formerly Governor of Canada.
  • 1863 – Art Association of Montreal, a pioneer Canadian society of artists and art collectors, incorporated.
  • 1864 – Buildings erected in Montreal – 1,019.
  • 1864 – Since 1840 Montreal has expended $1,724,502 on roads.
  • 1864 – The Montreal City Passenger Railway Company has 10 miles of track, $240,000 paid capital and carries 1,485,725 passengers at 5 cents each.
  • 1864 – Power derived from the Lachine Canal only 5.124 horse power. It is estimated that nearly a thousand times that power runs to waste at Lachine Rapids.
  • 1864 – Ocean-going vessels at Montreal at one time – 82.
  • 1864 – Gold medals named after Anne Molson, Shakespeare and Sir William Edmond Logan are founded as prizes for McGill College students.
  • 1864 – The Montreal Ocean Steamship Line brings 10,425 passengers from Europe, in an average trip of 12 days and 19 hours.
  • 1864 – April 21 – In a published letter T.D. McGee says of Fenianism:- "Even the threat of assassination, covertly conveyed, and so eminently in keeping with the entire humbug, has no terrors for me. I trust I shall outlive these threats.
  • 1864 – St. James the Apostle Anglican Church was first opened for worship in May.
  • 1864 – June 9 – Absorption of short railways declared dangerous to trade.
  • 1864 – June 28 – repeal of the U.S. Fugitive Slave Act.
  • 1864 – September – Confederation under discussion; some prefer Union, as tending to community of sentiment.
  • 1864 – September 21 – Six companies of Scots Fusilier Guards leave Montreal. Present: Col Dyde, Col. Routh, Major Heward, Major Lyman, and Brigade Major McPherson.
  • 1864 – In October, delegates from across British North America developed the terms for Confederation at a three-week conference in Quebec City. After the Quebec Conference, there remained the task of selling Confederation to the citizens.
  • 1864 – October – C.J. Brydges passes Confederation delegates over the Grand Trunk Railway.
  • 1864 – October 29 – Photographer John G. Parks opens his business in Montreal.
  • 1864 – November 10 – Continued examination of raiders at Montreal.
  • 1864 – November 30 – Hon. Alexander Tilloch Galt addresses his constituents on Confederation.
  • 1864 – December – Mr. Hodges, who helped to build Victoria Bridge is pressing Bulstrode peat into bricks, which burn well.
  • 1864 – A committee of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York favours continued reciprocity because it has increased trade to $300,000,000 since 1854. They desire free navigation of the Saint Lawrence River and Great Lakes.
  • 1865 – Canadian Banks can now stipulate any rate of interest.
  • 1865 – The Parliament of Upper Canada and Lower Canada favors Confederation.
  • 1865 – Increased intercolonial trade is expected to follow Reciprocity, as it is, this year, over half a million less than in the year before the treaty.
  • 1865 – The Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada is Incorporated.
  • 1865 – The Montreal Board of Trade Building erected in 1855 is burned.
  • 1865 – William Robb (1836–1915), future treasurer of Montreal, enters Montreal's employ.
  • 1865 – The Elizabeth Torrance gold medal for McGill University students is founded.
  • 1865 – July 11–14 – Convention at Detroit to promote a new Reciprocity treaty. Montrealers attend, but only to give desired information. The Convention passes resolutions favouring a new Reciprocity treaty.
  • 1865 – September 27 – Delegation to Montreal to form an Intercolonial Board of Trade.
  • 1865 – December 3 – Church of the Gesu opened. It was built and designed by Irish architect Patrick Keely.
  • 1866–1966 – Montreal Technoparc was used as a landfill and dumpsite from 1866 until 1966, and then was paved to serve as a parking lot for Expo 67.
  • 1866 – The Montreal Ocean S.S. Co.'s 9 steamships are of 20,152 tons register.
  • 1866 – The International Bank and the Bank of Upper Canada disappear from official returns. The Union Bank and the Mechanics Bank is listed.
  • 1866 – The U.S. dollar is worth 96 cents.
  • 1866 – Molson Bank Building, Montreal built.
  • 1866 – Tonnage trading to Montreal – 199,053.
  • 1866 – Taxpayers elect Henry Starnes to be Mayor of Montreal.
  • 1866 – The Montreal Glass Co., at Hudson, makes chimneys, bottles and insulators.
  • 1866 – British and Canadian School is transferred to the Protestant School Board
  • 1866 – March 13 – The Prince of Wales Regiment and Battery of Artillery leave Montreal to repel Fenian invaders.
  • 1866 – March 17 – The Canadian-American Reciprocity Treaty terminates
  • 1866 – April 29 – The second building of Erskine Church is opened at the corner of Peel Street and Saint Catherine Street
  • 1866 – July 18 – The 47th Regiment reaches Montreal from Kingston.
  • 1866 – October 30 – Dinner for Sir George-Etienne Cartier at Montreal.
  • 1866 – Ogilvy (Montreal) founded.
  • 1866 – First successful transatlantic telegraph cable is laid.
  • 1867 – Canada East becomes the Province of Quebec.
  • 1867 – The Montreal Presbyterian College is organized and lectures are started at Erskine Church.
  • 1867 – The Canadian Bank of Commerce is listed.
  • 1867 – The Commercial Bank incorporated with the Merchants Bank.
  • 1867 – January 11 – Fenians sentenced at Toronto.
  • 1867 – March – Cornerstone of St. Patrick's Hall, Montreal, laid
  • 1867 – March 29 – The B.N.A. Act to confederate the provinces passes the British Imperial Parliament.
  • 1867 – July 1 – The Dominion of Canada is formed by the confederation of several provinces.
  • 1867 – August 1 – The 25th Regiment leaves Montreal.
  • 1867 – September 3 – The 69th Regiment arrives in Montreal.
  • 1867 – November 4 – Parish Church, Montreal, struck by lightning.
  • 1867 – November 6 – The Parliament of the Dominion first meets.
  • 1867 – November 18 – Sir John Rose becomes Minister of Finance.
  • 1867 – Quebec Liberal Party founded on July 1.
  • 1867 – Creation of the Saint-Henri parish starting from the territory of Notre-Dame de Grâce parish.
  • 1868 – Thomas D'Arcy McGee is assassinated by pistol shot in April. He is given a state funeral in Ottawa and interred in the Cimetière Notre-Dame-des-Neiges. Patrick J. Whelan, a Fenian sympathizer, is accused, tried, convicted, and hanged for the crime.
  • 1868 – Burial of Thomas D'Arcy McGee on April 13.
  • 1868 – September 11 – His Lordship Bishop Fulford, the first Bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Montreal, dies at his residence after a painful illness, and is buried in Mount Royal Cemetery.
  • 1869 – First Transcontinental Railroad completed on May 10.
  • 1869 – Red River Rebellion.
  • 1869 – Eaton's founded.
  • 1869 – Ignace Bourget refuses to let Henrietta Brown, widow of typographer Louis-Joseph Guibord (1809–1869), bury her husband's remains in the Côte-des-Neiges Catholic cemetery because he was a member of the Institut canadien de Montréal. Henrietta Brown's lawyer, Joseph Doutre, also member of the Institut canadien de Montréal, ultimately wins his case before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council on November 28, 1872. (See: Guibord case.)
  • 1869 – Collège Notre-Dame du Sacré-Cœur established.
  • 1869-83 – Canadian Illustrated News begins publication.
  • 1869 – Montreal Star founded.


  • 1870 – Second Fenian Raid
  • 1870 – Merchant's Bank building is built.
  • 1870 – Great Scottish Life Insurance building is built.
  • 1870 – The Shamrock Lacrosse Club wins a game played against the Indians of Caughnawaga. Father Hogan, pastor of St. Patrick's Basilica, Montreal, is leader of the Shamrock Lacrosse Club.
  • 1870 – Launch of Montrealers Journal: Opinion Publique, by Laurent-Olivier David.
  • 1870 – The village of Lachine becomes the town of Lachine.
  • 1871 – Population of Montreal city is now 107,225 inhabitants.
  • 1871 – Foundation of Sun Life by Matthew Hamilton Gault.
  • 1871 – Visit of the Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia in December. At Montreal, he has breakfast with the mayor of the city, and then visits Lachine.
  • 1872 – Montreal Exchange created.
  • 1872 – Montreal Royals founded.
  • 1872-78 – Montreal City Hall is built.
  • 1872 – November 21, Lord Dufferin, the Governor-General, formally presents the statue of Queen Victoria in Victoria Square to the city.
  • 1872 – Victoria Memorial (Montreal) unveiled on November 21.
  • 1873 – Sir George-Étienne Cartier dies in London, and his funeral in Montreal is the largest ever seen in the city. The expenses of his obsequies were borne by the Dominion Government.
  • 1873 – École Polytechnique de Montréal founded.
  • 1873-82 – Chapelle Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes de Montréal built.
  • 1874 – May – YWCA organized in Montreal.
  • 1874 – Édifice des Commissaires built.
  • 1874 – Saint Helen's Island becomes a fashionable park.
  • 1874 – Shaughnessy House built for Duncan McIntyre by architect William T. Thomas. McIntyre sells it to William Van Horne who in turn sells it to Thomas Shaughnessy. The house is declared a national historic site in 1974 and is now part of the Canadian Centre for Architecture. Shaughnessy Village was named for Shaughnessy House.
  • 1874-78 – The Harbour Commission Building is constructed.
  • 1875 – Creation of the town of Saint-Henri.
  • 1875 – The village of Outremont separates from the village of Côte-Saint-Louis.
  • 1875 – September 2 – The Guibord case occasions some ill feeling in Montreal, but by the energetic action of Dr. William Hales Hingston, the Mayor, there are no riots. The body of Louis-Joseph Guibord is brought to the Protestant cemetery.
  • 1875 – Hockey, in the form known today, is first played in Montreal in 1875, according to rules devised by McGill University student.
  • 1875 – Municipality of Verdun is created, detached from the parish of Notre-Dame of Montreal.
  • 1875 – June 15 – Formation of the Presbyterian Church in Canada.
  • 1875 – Montreal Academy of Music inaugurated.
  • 1875 – Montreal and New York City are now linked by train.
  • 1875 – Burial of Louis-Joseph Guibord finally accomplished under an armed military escort on November 16.
  • 1876 – Dorchester Square opened.
  • 1876 – Place du Canada opened.
  • 1876 – Inauguration of Mount Royal Park on May 24.
  • 1876 – Maison Racine built.
  • 1876 – Maison Fortin built.
  • 1877 – Montreal Victorias founded.
  • 1877 – Lister's antiseptic methods to the Montreal General Hospital.
  • 1877 – The first telephone conversation in Quebec.
  • 1878 – Université de Montréal is established.
  • 1878 – Windsor Hotel completed.
  • 1876 – Mount Royal Park opened.
  • 1878 – St. John the Evangelist Anglican Church (Montreal) built.
  • 1878 – Foundation of the Royal Golf Club of Montreal.
  • 1878 – The village Saint-Louis of Mile End separates from the village of Côte-Saint-Louis on March 9.
  • 1879 – Mary Gallagher is murdered by jealous rival Susan Kennedy on June 27. It is a sensational story. It's said Gallagher's ghost returns every seven years to haunt Griffintown. Kennedy was convicted and sentenced to be hanged on Dec. 5, 1879, but the sentence was commuted and Kennedy was transferred to the Kingston Penitentiary.
  • 1879 – In a strange turn of events, Michael Flanagan, cleared of all charges regarding the death of Mary Gallagher, is loading barges in the Wellington Basin when he falls and drowns on December 5, the very same day Susan Kennedy was supposed to be hanged. He is interred in Notre-Dame-des-Neiges Cemetery (section N, lot number 00764)
  • 1879 – The Art Association of Montreal is built as the result of private generosity.
  • 1879 – Robillard Block built.
  • 1879 – Printing of the first edition of the newspaper La Patrie by Honoré Beaugrand.



  • 1890 – In the hospital of the Kingston Penitentiary, Susan Kennedy, who had been found guilty of murdering Mary Gallagher in 1879, dies on September 26.
  • 1890 – Incorporation of Côte-Saint-Antoine.
  • 1890 – Sanctuaire du Saint-Sacrement built.
  • 1891 – Population of Montreal city is around 216,650 inhabitants.
  • 1891-94 – Monument-National built.
  • 1892 – February 1 – The Hon. James McShane is re-elected Mayor of Montreal.
  • 1892 – February 21 – Death of Ashton Oxenden, formerly Anglican Bishop of Montreal.
  • 1892 – March 8 – The followers of Hon. Honoré Mercier are defeated at the polls by large majorities. Montreal elects only Conservatives, Hon. J.S. Hall and Messrs. Martineau, Auge, Parizeau, Morris and Kennedy, with majorities from 132 to 2,307.
  • 1892 – March 28 – Publication of the late J.W. Tempest's will, bequeathing the Art Association of Montreal about $80,000
  • 1892 – April 2 – Secret college societies are condemned at the McGill convocation.
  • 1892 – April 3 – Bonsecours Market sustains its fourth serious fire. The uninsured loss is $20,000. Many firefighters are narrowly saved from death.
  • 1892 – Value of Canada's registered shipping $32,510,775
  • 1892 – April 9 – Charles Glackmeyer (1820–1892), for 40 years Montreal's City Clerk (1859–1891), dies.
  • 1892 – June 28- July 1 The Second Congress of Chambers of Commerce of the Empire, held in London, England, at which Sir Donald A. Smith and Peter Redpath, Esq., represent the Montreal Board of Trade, while favouring closer commercial relations between the Mother Country and dependencies, regards preferential protection as impolitic and inconsistent with economic principles. The Congress favors an imperial commercial code, higher commercial education, decimal money, common weights and measures, and penny postage throughout the Empire.
  • 1892 – July – Sir Donald Smith desires the inauguration of the Royal Hospital (costing Lord Mount-Stephen and himself $1,000,000) to be a simple taking of possession by the lame and the sick, for whom it is intended.
  • 1892 – July 19 Montreal grants thirty years' franchise to the Montreal Street Railway Company.
  • 1892 – November 30 The Montreal Board of Trade protests against civil contracts without tenders.
  • 1892 – December 16 Founding of the Montreal Women's Club.
  • 1892 – December 31 – Montreal's past year expediture on roads was $959,866.79
  • 1892 – December 31 – There have been 1,688 insolvencies with $13,766,191 of liabilities in Canada in twelve months.
  • 1892 – The era of public transportation in Montreal begins with the inauguration of the electric tram. The trams constitute a practical way to get from one end of the city to the other, especially for workers. They also make possible the development of new neighbourhoods, since workers can now live at some distance from their workplaces.
  • 1892 – Baron de Hirsch Cemetery (Montreal) established.
  • 1892 – Viauville established.
  • 1893 – Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal established.
  • 1893 – Redpath Library built.
  • 1893 – The Montreal Hockey Club is the first hockey team to win the newly donated Stanley Cup.
  • 1893 – Schulich Library (one of the 13 branches of the McGill Library) built.
  • 1893 – Jacques Cartier Monument unveiled.
  • 1894 – Pioneers Monument Obelisk (Montreal) unveiled on May 17.
  • 1894 – Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral consecrated.
  • 1894 – The Montreal Hockey Club win the Stanley Cup.
  • 1894 – The name of Côte-Saint-Antoine is officially changed to Westmount.
  • 1894 – Elizabeth Binmore is the first woman graduate of McGill University to obtain the degree of M.A.
  • 1895 – Jean-Olivier Chénier Monument unveiled on April 24.
  • 1895 – The Château Ramezay is turned into a museum.
  • 1895 – The Montreal Victorias win the Stanley Cup in 1895, 1896, 1897 and 1898.
  • 1895 – The Macdonald Monument in memory of John A. Macdonald is unveiled by Earl of Aberdeen, Governor General of Canada on June 6.
  • 1895 – The monument in memory of Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, by artist Louis-Philippe Hébert, was unveiled on July 1 on Place d'Armes.
  • 1895 – The village of Outremont becomes the town of Outremont.
  • 1895 – Birth of the "École Littéraire de Montréal" (AKA Literary School of Montreal).
  • 1895 – The village Saint-Louis of Mile-End becomes the town of Saint-Louis on November 21.
  • 1895 – The prison governor's residence was built and named after Charles-Amédée-Vallée, the last governor of the Montreal prison.
  • 1896 – Carmel de Montréal built.
  • 1896 – Creation of village of Villeray on October 30.
  • 1896 – Motion pictures are first shown in Canada for the first time at the Palace Theatre at 972 St. Lawrence, corner Viger, on June 27.
  • 1897 – Lion of Belfort (Montreal) unveiled on May 24.
  • 1897 – A survey of living conditions is conducted by Mr. Herbert Brown Ames. He points out the discrepancy in living conditions between wealthy areas of Montreal ('the upper city') and the areas inhabited by the working class ('the city below the hill'): "The sanitary accommodation of 'the city below the hill' is a disgrace to any nineteenth century city on this or any other continent. I presume there is hardly a house in all the upper city without modern plumbing, and yet in the lower city not less than half the homes have indoor water-closet privileges. In Griffintown only one home in four is suitably equipped, beyond the canal (in Pointe-Saint-Charles) it is but little better. Our city by-law prohibits the erection of further out-door closets, but it contains no provision for eradicating those already in use. With sewers in almost every street, no excuse for permitting this state of affairs to continue now exists, except it lies in neglect and in greed."
  • 1897 – Foundation of Builders' Exchange, which becomes the Montreal Construction Association,
  • 1897 – Paul Bruchési becomes bishop of Montreal.
  • 1897 – Canadian Car and Foundry's history goes back to 1897, but the main company is established in 1909 from an amalgamation of several companies and later becomes part of Hawker Siddeley Canada through the purchase of Avro Canada in the late 1950s.
  • 1898 – Place Viger constructed.
  • 1898 – Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal founded on June 1.
  • 1898 – Montreal Arena opens on December 31.
  • 1898 – London and Lancashire Life Building, Montreal completed.
  • 1898–1903 – Saint-Jean-Baptiste Church built.
  • 1899 – The Montreal Shamrocks win the Stanley Cup.
  • 1899 – Incorporation of Loyola College on March 10.
  • 1899 – October 30 – The First Canadian Contingent of the Boer War sets sail to South Africa on the SS Sardinian of the Allan Line, bearing Canada's initial quota of fighting men, including the men of "E Company" of Montreal.
  • 1899 – In the afternoon of November 21, Montrealers see their first car. At the wheel of this first steam-powered automobile is Ucal-Henri Dandurand, accompanied by Mayor Raymond Préfontaine. They descend steep Côte du Beaver Hall without difficulty and climb back up through the streets in the same fashion. The first car weighs between 500 and 600 pounds and reaches the dizzying speed of 15 to 20 km per hour.
  • 1899 – La Presse building is built.
  • 1899 – CCM (hockey) founded.
  • 1899 – Construction of a dam in the Old Port of Montreal: there will be no more flooding.
  • 1900 – Re-election of Raymond Préfontaine to Montreal City Hall on February 1.
  • 1900 – Desjardins Group founded.
  • 1900 – The Montreal Shamrocks win the Stanley Cup.

20th century










21st century



  • 2012 - Charbonneau Commission begins examining corruption in Montreal civic governance and collusion among major engineering and construction firms bidding for municipal contracts.
  • 2012 - Gérald Tremblay steps down as mayor in November after allegations of serious irregularities in party financing. Michael Applebaum becomes interim mayor until municipal elections in November 2013
  • 2013 - Michael Applebaum is arrested and indicted with 14 charges including fraud and corruption. He steps down. City councillors elect Laurent Blanchard to serve as mayor for the four months remaining before the municipal elections.
  • 2013 - Denis Coderre elected mayor of Montreal

See also


  1. ^ "Place Royale and the Amerindian presence". Société de développement de Montréal. September 2001. Retrieved 2007-03-09. 
  2. ^ IroquoisThe Canadian Encyclopedia,
  3. ^ Dating the Iroquois ConfederacyBruce E. Johanson,
  4. ^
  5. ^ Tremblay, Roland (2006). The Saint Lawrence Iroquoians. Corn People. Montreal, Qc: Les Éditions de l'Homme. 
  6. ^ "Jacques Cartier: New Land for the French King". Pathfinders & Passageways. Archived from the original on 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2007-02-26. 
  7. ^ (French) "La Première messe sur île de Montréal - 24 juin 1615"
  8. ^ "Ontario's Pioneer Priest" by John J. O'Gorman
  9. ^ Sneath, Allen Winn (2001). ""Brewing in the New Land"". Brewed in Canada. Toronto and Oxford: The Dundurn Group. pp. 21–22. 
  10. ^ Roland Auger, La Grande Recrue de 1653. Publications de la Société généalogique canadienne-française (Montreal, 1955).
  11. ^ NRC. "New France circa 1740", in The Atlas of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, 2003-10-06. Retrieved August 3, 2008.
  12. ^ Le Quebec et Bourgues
  13. ^ Societe d'Histoire de la Region de Terrebonne
  14. ^ Theatre and Politics in Modern Quebec (1989) by Elaine Nardoccio
  15. ^ Smith (1907), vol 1, p. 474
  16. ^ Shelton, pp. 122–127
  17. ^ Stanley, p. 131
  18. ^ "CRTC Origins". Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2009-11-15. 
  19. ^ Census of Canada, 1941, Census of Canada, 1951
  20. ^ Census of Canada, 1961
  21. ^ Census of Canada, 1971
  22. ^ "A Short History of Toronto".  
  23. ^ Statistics Canada (2002). "Community Highlights for Montréal". Retrieved 2007-02-22. 

External links

  • Historic FAQ - Centre d'Histoire de Montréal.
  • Web sites on the History of Montreal
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