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Soyuz 7K-T/A9

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Title: Soyuz 7K-T/A9  
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Subject: Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz 21, Soyuz 23, Soyuz 30, Soyuz 20
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Soyuz 7K-T/A9

Not to be confused with Soyuz-T.
Soyuz 7K-T or "ferry"
Soyuz 11 accident).
General information
Manufacturer Korolev
Country of origin  Soviet Union
Applications Carry two cosmonauts to orbit and back
Orbit regimes Low Earth orbit
Operator Soviet space program
Derived from Soyuz 7K-OKS
Derivatives Soyuz 7K-TM (ASTP)
Soyuz-T (successor)
Status Out of service
Launched 30
First launch Kosmos 496, 1972
Last launch Soyuz 40, 1981

The second generation of the Soyuz spacecraft, the Soyuz Ferry or Soyuz 7K-T, comprised Soyuz 12 through Soyuz 40 (1973-1981). In the wake of the Soyuz 11 tragedy, the spacecraft was redesigned to accommodate two cosmonauts who would wear pressure suits at all times during launch, docking, undocking, and reentry. The place of the third cosmonaut was taken by extra life-support systems. Finally, the 7K-T, being intended purely as a space station ferry, had no solar panels, instead sporting two large whip antennas in their place. As a result, it relied on batteries which only provided enough power for two days of standalone flight. The idea was that the Soyuz would recharge while docked with a Salyut space station, but in the event of a docking or other mission failure (which ended up happening on several occasions), the crew was forced to power off everything except communications and life support systems until they could reenter.

In addition, the standalone flights of Soyuz 13, Soyuz 16, Soyuz 19, and Soyuz 22 used a variant of the 7K-T with solar panels, and in the case of 13 and 22, special camera apparatus in place of the docking mechanism. A large Orion 2 astrophysical camera for imaging the sky and Earth were used on the former and an MKF-6 Zeiss camera on the latter.

Another modification was the Soyuz 7K-T/A9 used for the flights to the military Almaz space station. This featured the ability to remote control the space station and a new parachute system and other still classified and unknown changes.


Unmanned tests

External links

  • Russia New Russian spaceship will be able to fly to Moon - space corp
  • Mir Hardware Heritage
    • David S.F. Portree, Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA RP-1357, 1995
    • Mir Hardware Heritage ()
  • Soyuz 7K-T in Encyclopedia Astronautica
  • NASA - Russian Soyuz TMA Spacecraft Details
  • Space Adventures circum-lunar mission - details
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