World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Soyuz 7K-OK

Article Id: WHEBN0012162818
Reproduction Date:

Title: Soyuz 7K-OK  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Soyuz 7K-OKS, Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 1, Soyuz 5, Soyuz 6
Collection: Manned Spacecraft, Soyuz Program
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Soyuz 7K-OK

Soyuz 7K-OK
Soyuz 7K-OK(A) spacecraft with an active docking unit
Manufacturer Korolev
Country of origin  Soviet Union
Operator Soviet space program
Applications Carry three cosmonauts to orbit and back
Regime Low Earth orbit
Status No longer in service
Built 16
Launched 16
First launch Kosmos 133, 1966
Last launch Soyuz 9, 1970
Related spacecraft
Derived from Soyuz-A (concept only)

Soyuz 7K-OKS (Salyut 1 ferry) Soyuz 7K-L1 (lunar) Soyuz 7K-LOK (lunar)

Soyuz 7K-T (successor)
Soyuz family tree: Proposed Soyuz models in white, models that flew in blue and lunar models in green.

Soyuz 7K-OK was the first generation of Soyuz spacecraft in use from 1967 to 1971.[1] This first generation was used for the first ferry flights to in the Salyut space station program; Soyuz spacecraft in their current generation are still in use to ferry crew to and from the ISS.

This generation is notable for the only fatalities of the Soyuz programme as of 2014, with Soyuz 1 in 1967 (sole crew-member killed by parachute failure) and Soyuz 11 in 1971 (crew killed by depressurisation during reentry).

The first unmanned automated docking in the history of spaceflight, between Kosmos 186 and Kosmos 188 in 1967, was achieved with this generation of Soyuz spacecraft. The generation encompasses furthermore the first docking between two manned spacecraft (Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5), the longest manned flight involving only one spacecraft (the 18-day flight of Soyuz 9 in 1970) and the first successful manning of the first space station in the history of space flight (Soyuz 11 and Salyut 1 in 1971).

The Soyuz 7K-OK vehicles carried a crew of up to three without spacesuits. The craft can be distinguished from those following by their bent solar panels and their use of the Igla automatic docking navigation system, which required special radar antennas.

The 7K-OK was primarily intended as a variant of the 7K-LOK (the lunar mission Soyuz) for Earth orbital testing. Mostly the same vehicle, it lacked the larger antenna needed to communicate at lunar distance. The early Soyuz models also sported an external toroidal fuel tank surrounding the engines and meant to store extra propellant for lunar flights, but it was left empty on Soyuz 1-9. After the spacecraft was converted to a space station ferry, the tank was removed.

Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft had an docking mechanism of the original Soyuz "probe and drogue" type to dock to other spacecraft, in order to gather engineering data as an preparation for the Soviet space station program. There were two variants of Soyuz 7K-OK: Soyuz 7K-OK(A) featuring an active "probe" docking port, and Soyuz 7K-OK(P) featuring an passive "drogue" docking target. For unknown reasons, both the 7K-OK and 7K-LOK did not have docking mechanisms that opened or allowed internal transfer (this did not arrive until the 7K-OKS), thus cosmonauts had to spacewalk for this. The procedure was done successfully on the joint Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 missions, where Aleksei Yeliseyev and Yevgeny Khrunov transferred from their Soyuz 5 to the Soyuz 4 craft.

The first unmanned test of this version was Cosmos-133, launched on Nov. 28, 1966.


  • Soyuz 7K-OKS 1
  • Unmanned and test missions 2
  • Manned missions 3
  • External links 4
  • References 5

Soyuz 7K-OKS

The last two Soyuz space craft of this series were of the designation Soyuz 7K-OKS. In contrast to Soyuz 7K-OK, which docking mechanism lacked an hatch for internal crew transfer, the Soyuz 7K-OKS spacecraft were modified to utilize the new Soyuz "probe and drogue" docking mechanism that allowed internal crew transfer – this was done successfully with the manning of the Salyut 1 space station by Soyuz 11. This probe and drogue docking adapter is in use until today at the ISS.

Unmanned and test missions

Manned missions

  • Soyuz 1, the first manned Soyuz flight, commander and sole crew-member killed on re-entry
  • Soyuz 3
  • Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5, the first manned docking and first crew transfer in the history of spaceflight
  • Soyuz 6
  • Soyuz 7 and Soyuz 8: Intended docking, to be filmed by Soyuz 6 crew – docking failed due to malfunction
  • Soyuz 9
  • Soyuz 10 (Soyuz 7K-OKS), Salyut 1 ferry, the first docking to a space station in the history of spaceflight
  • Soyuz 11 (Soyuz 7K-OKS), Salyut 1 ferry, the first manning of a space station in the history of spaceflight – crew killed on re-entry

External links

  • Russia New Russian spaceship will be able to fly to Moon - space corp
  • RSC Energia: Concept Of Russian Manned Space Navigation Development
  • Mir Hardware Heritage
    • David S.F. Portree, Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA RP-1357, 1995
    • Mir Hardware Heritage (wikisource)
  • Information on Soyuz spacecraft
  • OMWorld's ASTP Docking Trainer Page
  • NASA - Russian Soyuz TMA Spacecraft Details
  • Space Adventures circum-lunar mission - details


  1. ^
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.