World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0025067513
Reproduction Date:

Title: Shitik  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Koch (boat), Bawley, Galway hooker, Trailer sailer, Galiot
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


The Shitik at Lena river
A Shitik on the Lena River in the 1890s
Class overview
Name: Shitik Russian: Шитик
Builders: Biryulka
General characteristics
Class & type: Riverboat
Notes: a river flat-bottomed sail and rowing vessel
Shitik in Russian North
Shitik in Russian north. Engraving

Shitik (Russian: Шитик) is a small broad-bottomed vessel in which parts of the hull have been sewed with belts or juniper and fir-tree rods (named vinya Russian: Виня). There are two basic explanations for the origins of the name of these boats:

  • The first is associated with the name with the verb "to sew" Russian: Сшивать and explains some design features of the boat.
  • The second variant associates it with the shape of the boat being similar to larva Trichoptera which also is called Russian: Шитик.


The term Shitik refers to two different vessel types:

Sea Cargo Ship

The Shitik was a keeled vessel, powered by sail and oars. It was used as a sea trade and transport ship. The ship has a rounded off bottom and therefore a considerable expansion of the hull and disorder of boards.

This improved the ship's performance.[1]
Some characteristics
Length 12 metres (39 ft) – 15 metres (49 ft)[2]
Width 3 metres (9.8 ft) – 4 metres (13 ft)[2]
Draft 0.18 metres (0.59 ft)[3]
Hull height at midships 0.8 metres (2.6 ft)[3]
load-carrying capacity 15 – 24 tons[2]

Shitik had a single mast with a direct sail, oars and a hinged wheel. The vessel had a canopy to protect cargo from the rain; below deck there was a bunkhouse.[2]

The underwater contours of the vessel allowed it to navigate in ice: when compressed it was squeezed out onto the surface. When docking the ship and hauling the anchor, there was an assisting vessel, which helped the crew with these tasks, an osinovka boat.[2]

It is considered that in the 13th century the Shitik was the most widespread coastal transport vessel.[2] Shitiks were mainly built between the 11th–17th centuries.[1] Initially Shitiks were built on the coast of the White sea, and the Northern Dvina, Sukhona, Vychegda, Vetluga, and Tikhvinka rivers.[3] Later the building of such courts preceded development in Siberia and the Far East, when Shitiks plied the Pacific Ocean.[1]

River boat

Shitiks were an important innovation on the Siberian rivers. Many shallows and reefs made a keel useless, and a shortage of nails made it necessary to improve techniques of sewing the planks. It was successfully operated throughout the 18th–20th centuries, being gradually replaced with new types of ship.

When artisan ship builders had the opportunity to use aluminium, the boat found a new niche. It is basically used by hunters and fishermen to reach inaccessible places in the taiga. Making Shitiks is popular on the Lena River in Siberia, Russia.[4]

The design of the boat has been retained, but they are now made of aluminium sheet. Shitiks now have pointed bows instead of sawn off ends. Sails are no longer used; they are powered by outboard motors.[4]

Shitiks are useful in overcoming shoals; they have speed and adequate capacity. The absence of a keel is a problem, as is poor stability. Such a boat does not transfer a wave, and every movement of a passenger risks capsizing the vessel. But this combination of features suits hunters and fishermen, who can use it to traverse rivers of 30 centimetres (0.98 ft) – 40 centimetres (1.3 ft) depth.[4]

Well known Shitiks: on the First Kamchatka expedition under the command of Vitus Bering, an auxiliary vessel "Fоrtuna" boat-shitik was used[1] (in other sources it was a two-masted Galiot[5])

See also


  1. ^ a b c d "# 31. "Fоrtuna" boat-shitik". Первая Камчатская экспедиция (in Russian).  
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Суда Севера России".  
  3. ^ a b c "# 59 Shitik 1 type". Открытие, освоение (in Russian).  
  4. ^ a b c Ivanova, Maria (2007). Река Лена: От истока до устья. Якутск вечерний (in Russian). Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  5. ^ Ostrovsky, Boris (1937). Великая северная экспедиция (in Russian). Первая камчатская экспедиция Беринга (2nd ed.).  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.