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Sao Feng

This is a list of characters appearing in the Pirates of the Caribbean film series.

Primary characters

Captain Jack Sparrow

Main article: Jack Sparrow

Captain Jack Sparrow is the protagonist of the film series, portrayed by Johnny Depp. First introduced in the film Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003), he later appears in the sequels Dead Man's Chest (2006), At World's End (2007), and On Stranger Tides (2011). Originally conceived as a supporting character, Jack Sparrow was brought to life by actor Johnny Depp, who based his characterization on The Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards and cartoon character Pepé Le Pew. He insists on being introduced as "Captain" Jack Sparrow.

Sparrow is one of the Brethren Court, the Pirate Lords of the Seven Seas, acting as Pirate Lord of the Caribbean. He can be treacherous and survives mostly by using wit and negotiation rather than weapons or force, preferring to flee most dangerous situations and fight only when necessary. Sparrow is introduced seeking to regain his ship, the Black Pearl, from his mutinous first mate, Hector Barbossa, and attempts to escape his blood debt to the legendary Davy Jones while battling the East India Trading Company.

In his quest of the Fountain of Youth, he becomes reacquainted with his love interest Angelica, who takes him aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge. Aboard the Revenge, Jack leads a mutiny that is eventually crushed by Blackbeard. Working with Blackbeard and Angelica, Jack leads them to the Fountain. Jack Sparrow is also the subject of a children's book series, Pirates of the Caribbean: Jack Sparrow, which chronicles his teenage years. The character has also appeared in numerous video games.

Will Turner

Main article: Will Turner

William "Will" Turner, Jr. is a main character of the first three films in the series, portrayed by Orlando Bloom as an adult and by Dylan Smith as a child at the beginning of the first film. The only son of pirate "Bootstrap" Bill Turner, Will is a blacksmith's apprentice working in Port Royal. He secretly loves the governor's daughter, Elizabeth Swann (Keira Knightley), although he occupies a lower social class. Will is an exceptional swordsman, though he lacks actual combat experience. Despite being mild-mannered, Will is brave, as seen when he confronts Captain Jack Sparrow in a sword fight and by his response to Barbossa's attack on Port Royal. He is loyal to those he cares about and would risk everything to protect them, especially Elizabeth. This trait is seen throughout the films as Will's character develops more by his reaction to unforeseen circumstances rather than his personal ambition or deliberate choices. Most likely he would have continued plying his trade, never presuming to rise above his current station, pining for the woman he believes he can never have. At his best, Will is clever, heroic, and courageous and never shirks responsibility or leaves an obligation unfulfilled. He can also be preoccupied and brooding and, early on, demonstrated rather simplistic and naïve views, although his character gradually matures and deepens into a more complex and worldly man as the films progress.

By the end of the third film, Will, now married to Elizabeth, has replaced Davy Jones as the immortal captain of the Flying Dutchman.

Elizabeth Swann

Main article: Elizabeth Swann

Elizabeth Swann (later Elizabeth Turner) is a main character of the first three films and the Leading lady of the film series, portrayed by Keira Knightley as an adult and by Lucinda Dryzek as a child in the first film's prologue. She is known to use the alias "Elizabeth Turner," but this later becomes her married name when she weds the character, Will Turner (Orlando Bloom).

Elizabeth is a spirited, intelligent, and independent-minded character. Her beauty attracted the attention of several men including William Turner, Hector Barbossa, Pintel and Ragetti, James Norrington, Sao Feng and Captain Jack Sparrow. Throughout the three films, she transforms from a proper lady into a courageous pirate. Piracy and life at sea have always fascinated Elizabeth, but she is revolted by pirates' aggressive, wild nature, especially Captain Jack Sparrow, who made his escape from Port Royal at her expense, though she is grateful to him for saving her life. Even after becoming a pirate, Elizabeth retains her refined manners and morals, as well as her loyalty and compassion for loved ones (including Will Turner, her father, and later, Jack Sparrow and James Norrington).

Elizabeth adapted easily to piracy, for instance, learning swordsmanship from William. She was able to defend herself against multiple opponents and could fight using two swords simultaneously. Elizabeth has natural leadership abilities, learned seamanship quickly, and possesses an innate talent for battle strategy, having devised defensive and offensive maneuvers against her opponents. She later uses a Chinese Jian sword and is seen carrying a multitude of other weapons on her person including knives, firearms, and what appears to be a small grenade.

She also would often speak her mind even if it meant offending others; for example she called a potentially dangerous enemy, Sao Feng, a coward right to his face. That is why Sao Feng replied, "Elizabeth Swann...there is more to you than meets the eye, isn't there? And the eye...does not go wanting." (2007) Elizabeth was a brave and resourceful woman. During her brief reign as Pirate King, Elizabeth proved to be very charismatic and encouraged the pirates to face off against Cutler Beckett's fleet which showed that she had a talent for leadership. However there was a darker side to Elizabeth's personality as shown when she handcuffed Jack Sparrow to the mast of the Black Pearl in order to give her and the others time to escape from the Kraken. However she felt extremely guilty for leaving Jack (though she told Jack that she was not sorry before leaving him to his doom) and was a member of the crew that went to rescue him from Davy Jones' Locker. Even thought she was not in the fourth film, it is most likely for Elizabeth to raise her son, while she waits for Will to return.

Captain Hector Barbossa

Main article: Hector Barbossa

Captain Hector Barbossa, portrayed by Australian actor Geoffrey Rush, appears in all of the films. Barbossa was first introduced in the series as the main antagonist in the events of the first film, and pirate captain of the Black Pearl after committing mutiny against the ship's former captain, Jack Sparrow. Having met his demise in the climax of the film, his character is revealed to have been resurrected at the end of the second film, becoming a supporting protagonist in At World's End. In the third film, it is revealed that Barbossa is also one of the nine pirate lords as Pirate Lord of the Caspian Sea. In the fourth film, On Stranger Tides, he has become a privateer in the British Royal Navy and is ordered to be Jack's guide on an expedition for the Fountain of Youth.

In the first film, Barbossa is captain of the pirate ship Black Pearl, and is the main antagonist of the film. His plan is to break the Aztec curse he and his crew are under and bring an end to Jack Sparrow, one of his arch rivals. Originally the ship's first mate under Captain Sparrow, Barbossa persuaded Jack to reveal the bearings to Isla de Muerta where the Chest of Cortez, containing 882 pieces of Aztec gold, was hidden. After Sparrow divulged the location, Barbossa and the crew mutinied and marooned Sparrow to starve on a tiny island. But he didn't know that Sparrow was still alive and seeking for revenge.

Barbossa and the crew found the Aztec treasure, but ran afoul of a curse placed upon the gold by the Aztec gods, which rendered the pirates undead. To lift the curse, the crew had to return all 882 coins to the chest and offer their blood. They still need their former shipmate Bootstrap Bill Turner's blood, who sent one coin to his son, Will. In retaliation, Barbossa tied Bootstrap to a cannon and threw him overboard. For years, Barbossa searched for the last coin, which was now possessed by Elizabeth, daughter of Governor Weatherby Swann. Barbossa sets sail for Port Royal after detecting a "signal" when the coin touched the sea.

Believing Elizabeth is Bootstrap's daughter, Barbossa makes off with her and the medallion. He reveals their cursed state en route to Isla de Muerta. Elizabeth's blood is offered, but the ritual fails. Will, aided by Sparrow, rescues Elizabeth and escapes with the medallion. Sparrow is taken prisoner aboard the Pearl, and Barbossa pursues the Interceptor. Catching them, Barbossa learns Will's true identity and tricks Will into believing that Jack, the crew, and Elizabeth will be freed. He instead maroons Jack and Elizabeth on a deserted island (the same one he marooned Jack on years before) while, inspired by an idea of one of his crew, he takes Will to Isla de Muerta to be killed to break the curse. Before the final battle, as Barbossa is about to kill Will, Sparrow makes another unexpected return to Barbossa's astonishment at his escape. When he threatens to kill Jack too, Jack reveals to Barbossa that he has led the British Royal Navy to the island and he convinces Barbossa to capture the HMS Dauntless, leaving Jack the Black Pearl. While the pirates battle the Royal Navy, Jack reveals his trickery and duels Barbossa. Barbossa stabs Jack during a duel, but Jack reveals that he holds a coin and is now also cursed. When Barbossa attempts to kill Elizabeth, Jack fatally shoots Barbossa with the pistol after Will tosses his coin with his blood on it into the chest, breaking the curse.

Following the events of the second film, Barbossa is revealed to have been resurrected by Tia Dalma in order to save Jack Sparrow from Davy Jones' Locker. Returning in the third installment, he plays a much more positive role and joins forces with Will, Elizabeth and the Black Pearl crew in their attempt to rescue Jack from the Locker. After defeating Davy Jones and Lord Beckett, Barbossa reclaims the Pearl from Jack and sails in search of the Fountain of Youth. By the events of the fourth film, it is learned that Barbossa has lost the Black Pearl to the pirate Blackbeard, and has become a privateer in service of the King as part of his plan to take revenge on Blackbeard. After killing Blackbeard during the film's climax, he becomes the new captain of Blackbeard's ship, the Queen Anne's Revenge.

Joshamee Gibbs

Main article: Joshamee Gibbs

James Norrington

Main article: James Norrington


Antagonists

Davy Jones

Davy Jones, portrayed by Bill Nighy, appears as the main antagonist of Dead Man's Chest and the secondary antagonist of At World's End. Davy Jones is the captain of the Flying Dutchman (based on the feared ghost ship of the same name featured in nautical lore), roaming the seas in search of souls to serve upon his vessel for a century. In the story, his original purpose was to carry souls of those who died at sea from this world to the next on his vessel. He was charged with this duty by his one true love, a sea goddess named Calypso. For every ten years at sea he could spend one day ashore to be with her. Ten years after first being charged with the duty, Jones prepared to be reunited with his true love on land, but became enraged and saddened when she didn't show. Unable to deal with Calypso's betrayal, he ripped out his heart and placed it in a chest, burying it on land. This chest became known as the Dead Man's Chest, the primary object being sought after in the second film. Jones then abandoned his duties, and instead ruled the seas as a tyrant with a damned crew bound by oath to serve aboard the Dutchman for one hundred years each. Bound to the duties of the Flying Dutchman both he and his crew slowly transformed into sea monsters.

Cutler Beckett

Main article: Cutler Beckett

Lord Cutler Beckett, portrayed by Tom Hollander, is introduced as a secondary antagonist of the Dead Man's Chest and serves as the primary antagonist during the events of the At World's End. A devious, ruthless, manipulative, elegant and treacherous mastermind, Beckett is the chairman of the East India Trading Company and a representative of King George II of Great Britain.

Angelica

Angelica, played by Penélope Cruz in Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides, is the daughter of Blackbeard and a love interest for Jack Sparrow. She met Jack just before she was to take a vow of celibacy in a Spanish convent; she later blames Jack for her corruption.

Angelica is first mate of the Queen Anne's Revenge. She claims to be Blackbeard's daughter, and constantly is shown to care for his well-being yet is on the edge of betraying him for her own desires and usually manipulating him into doing what she wants. After the battle at the Fountain of Youth she unintentionally poisons herself while trying to remove Barbossa's poison-laced sword from Blackbeard's chest, Jack tricks Blackbeard into sacrificing his life to save Angelica's. Although Blackbeard intended to let her die so he could survive, Angelica holds Jack responsible for her father's death, though he angrily pointed out that he was doing what a good father would've done. Jack then maroons her on a deserted island, and gives her a pistol loaded with one shot to shoot herself rather than starve to death. Seeing that he still loves her, Angelica tries to convince Jack not to leave her on the island by claiming she has knowledge of several artifacts that can give him control of the ocean and that she is pregnant with his child, but he doesn't fall for either of them. It was then Angelica finally admits her love for Jack, who is somewhat touched by this, but he still leaves to row away, as he knows she still cannot be trusted. Angered, Angelica then uses the sole round from her pistol in an attempt to kill Jack as he rows away, but misses, inciting Jack to taunt her of having done so. This left Angelica to rant out in Spanish against Jack as he rows away from her.

In a post-credits scene, Angelica finds Blackbeard's voodoo doll made in Jack's image, and smiles, hoping that she would finally get some revenge against Jack (it is unknown if that doll still works or not).

Blackbeard

Edward Teach, commonly referred to as Blackbeard, is portrayed by Ian McShane,[1] is based on the historical figure of the same name and appears as the main antagonist of Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides. Blackbeard is a notorious pirate and Jack's most recent nemesis. He is one element retained from the novel On Stranger Tides by Tim Powers, from which Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides draws inspiration.[2][3][4] Blackbeard is the heartless pirate captain of the Queen Anne's Revenge and a master of black arts, who wants to find the Fountain of Youth to escape a prophecy of his death by a one-legged man. Blackbeard's prophetic murderer is later revealed to be Hector Barbossa, who amputated his leg to escape Blackbeard's attack on the Black Pearl, which Blackbeard then shrunk and placed in a bottle with countless other ships. With the exception of Angelica, who has a blind familial loyalty to him, Blackbeard has zombified his entire staff of officers to follow his every order to ensure their loyalty. Said by Jack to be "the one pirate all pirates fear", Blackbeard practices voodoo and appears to have the power to literally command ships using his sword. The origin of Blackbeard's sword and crew is unknown, but it is thought that he is not a part of the Brethren Court.

Blackbeard's history prior to On Stranger Tides is slightly different than in real-world history. He is still alive in 1750, though the story about his death at the battle of Ocracoke Inlet in 1718 still circles the Caribbean. As stated by Jack Sparrow, people believe that Blackbeard was beheaded, and that his headless body swam three times around his ship before climbing back on board.

In the film's climax, Blackbeard and Barbossa engage in an intense battle at the Fountain of Youth, with Barbossa ultimately stabbing Blackbeard with a poison-laced sword and Angelica accidentally cutting herself on the sword when trying to remove it from her father. As Blackbeard and Angelica learned earlier in the film, the nature of the fountain requires two people to drink from the fountain with two silver chalices belonging to Juan Ponce de León, with the person drinking an additional mermaid tear gaining the life from the other person. As both Blackbeard and Angelica lay dying, Blackbeard asks his daughter to sacrifice herself to save him, which Angelica willingly agrees to, but Jack secretly switches the cups to give her the one containing the mermaid Syrena's tear, thus sparing her life and killing Blackbeard. Meanwhile, Barbossa claims Blackbeard's magical sword, and, assuming command, leaves with Blackbeard's crew. Joshamee Gibbs then delivers all of Blackbeard's bottled ships to Jack.

Supporting characters

Bootstrap Bill Turner

William "Bootstrap Bill" Turner, Sr., portrayed by Stellan Skarsgaard, is a crewmember on Davy Jones' Flying Dutchman and Will Turner's father. He was once an associate of Jack Sparrow's who remembers him fondly as a "good pirate and a good man" in the first film. When Sparrow's first mate, Hector Barbossa, led a mutiny against Sparrow and left him stranded on a small island, Bootstrap was the only one who did not participate, and when the crew uncovered the cursed Aztec Gold, Bootstrap avenged Sparrow and atoned for not defending him by sending his coin to his young son, so that he and the crew would not be able to find it and thus remain cursed forever. This act enraged Barbossa greatly, and he punished Bootstrap by tying his bootstraps to a cannon and throwing him overboard. Due to the curse, Bootstrap could not die, and was forced to suffer constantly due to the lack of oxygen and crushing water on the seabed.

Ten years later, sometime before the curse was lifted and Barbossa defeated by Sparrow and William, Bootstrap is found by Davy Jones, captain of the Flying Dutchman, and offered to be rescued from his fate in exchange for one hundred years working on his ship. Bootstrap agrees, and is depicted as any other crewmember on Jones' ship, with oceanic flora and fauna growing from his body. Eventually, Bootstrap is sent by Jones to remind Sparrow of his debt to him, since it was Jones who raised the Black Pearl from the bottom of the sea for Sparrow in the first place, and Bootstrap brands Sparrow with the Black Spot, a sign that the Kraken, Jones's leviathan, is hunting him.

Bootstrap is eventually reunited with his son on the Dutchman following a confusion regarding their surnames, and Bootstrap is given the horrible task of whipping Will in the back (so that Jimmy Legs will not do Will any worse harm). Despite the flogging, Bootstrap and Will bond rather uneasily, and Bootstrap eventually aids Will in stealing the key to the Dead Man's Chest from a sleeping Jones, although at the cost of surrendering his soul to Jones for eternity during a game of Liar's Dice. Despite Bootstrap admitting that he abandoned him at an early age and does not deserve salvation, Will promises to free his father no matter what. However, Jones discovers this and punishes Bootstrap by forcing him watch the Kraken destroy the Edinburgh Trader, the ship which is harbouring Will. Following the devastation, Jones orders Bootstrap locked in the brig. Bootstrap, however, remains unaware that Will survived, and is too devastated to resist his imprisonment.

While in the brig, Bootstrap begins to lose his humanity due to the grief of the loss of his son, and becomes slightly delusional, shown when Elizabeth Swann, Will's lover, is locked in the same brig as Bootstrap and briefly tells him that Will survived. Within a few minutes, Bootstrap forgets their conversation completely. Later, when Admiral James Norrington helps Elizabeth and the other prisoners escape, Bootstrap follows and corners Norrington on the edge of the ship, alerting the other crewmen. In his delusion, Bootstrap impales Norrington through the stomach, killing him. This apparently wins him Jones's trust, as Jones does not order him imprisoned again. In the final battle against Jones and Cutler Beckett, Bootstrap, still delusional, encounters and fights Will, not recognising him. He is subdued by Will, and only recognises his son after seeing Jones stab Will and catching a glimpse of Will's dagger. In a fit of rage, Bootstrap attacks Jones and is nearly killed before Sparrow uses Will to stab Jones' heart. With their captain gone, Bootstrap and the other crewmen cut out Will's heart and place it in the Dead Man's Chest, restoring him as the new captain of the Dutchman. Following the battle's end, Will offers the now-free Bootstrap to leave the Dutchman and live a normal life, but Bootstrap, desiring to make up for having abandoned Will when he was a boy, chooses to stay with his son aboard the Dutchman.

Pintel and Ragetti

Main article: Pintel and Ragetti

Cotton

Cotton, played by David Bailie, is a mute pirate, having lost his tongue before the film series began.[5] Unable to speak, he trained his Blue-and-yellow Macaw, voiced by Christopher S. Capp, to use a large number of phrases to essentially speak for him. No one was able to figure out how he did this. He is hired by Jack and Gibbs in The Curse of the Black Pearl to retrieve the Black Pearl from Barbossa. He returns in the two sequels, loyally serving Jack. At the climax of the third film, he leaves Tortuga on the Black Pearl, now commandeered by Barbossa. Cotton's parrot, along with Jack the Monkey, often serve as comic relief. It is unknown what became of Cotton before the events of On Stranger Tides, but his parrot is seen trapped alongside Jack the Monkey inside the bottle that Blackbeard had shrunk the Pearl into.

Mr. Cotton's Parrot is voiced by Christopher S. Capp. After Cotton ended up losing his tongue and could not speak anymore, he bought his parrot from Tortuga and trained it to speak different pirate sentences such as yes, no, "Walk the plank", and "Dead men tell no tales", for him. Cotton's parrot was nearly shot by Jack Sparrow when it said "Walk the plank," and in At World's End it left Cotton, squawking "Abandon ship! Abandon ship!", after it saw the hundreds of ships in Beckett's armada, but joined Cotton again, after Beckett's defeat.

Marty

Marty, played by Martin Klebba, is a dwarf pirate hired by Jack and Gibbs to search for the Black Pearl in The Curse of the Black Pearl. He has only one line of dialogue in the first film, but he becomes more prominent in the second and third films as one of the main crew members. At the end of At World's End, he leaves with Barbossa on the stolen Black Pearl. Marty often provides comic relief such as being blown off his feet after firing a blunderbuss in At Worlds End.

Jack the Monkey

Jack is Barbossa's pet capuchin monkey, named after Jack Sparrow to mock him after Sparrow was marooned on a deserted island. During The Curse of the Black Pearl, Jack, like the rest of the crew, is cursed, turning undead in lunar light and bestowed with indestructibility. Jack temporarily becomes mortal again when Will lifts the curse, though he later steals another coin and becomes cursed again. During Dead Man's Chest, he resides on the Black Pearl and torments the crew (and gets tormented back, if Jack Sparrow didn't start it first) until he is bartered to Tia Dalma for the location of the Flying Dutchman and the jar of dirt she gives to Jack Sparrow. He is shown wandering near a boot, which with hindsight is revealed as Barbossa's, and later rejoins the resurrected captain. In At World's End, Jack serves mainly as a comic relief character. It is shown throughout the second and third films that the crew members of the Black Pearl, particularly Jack Sparrow, like to shoot at Jack the monkey. Jack has stolen several objects, such as Will's medallion and Ragetti's wooden eye, though their owners were able to retrieve them. Most of the crew is not partial to Jack, with the exception of Barbossa, who is also the person he is most loyal to. In a scene at the end of At World's End, Barbossa cheerfully declares that Jack is a 'daddy's boy'.

In On Stranger Tides the Black Pearl only appears as a shrunken ship in a bottle, after Blackbeard captured it and presumably used his voodoo magic. Barbossa is the only one to escape the vessel before its capture and the fate of all human characters aboard is unknown. However, both Jack the monkey and Cotton's parrot are still present on a miniature version of the ship, to which Jack Sparrow comments that the monkey is even more annoying that way. At the end of the film, Sparrow reclaims the bottle with the Pearl and is discussing with Gibbs the plan to return it to normal size.

In Curse of the Black Pearl, Jack is played by Tara, a ten-year-old female capuchin, and Levi, an eight-year-old male. The skeletal monkey was added in post-production by Industrial Light and Magic. In Dead Man's Chest and At World's End, Jack is played by Boo Boo, a twelve-year-old male and Mercedes, a ten-year-old female. Keira Knightley stated that the capuchins were very difficult to work with because of their short attention spans, adding "Oh, and that monkey! I want...to stuff...the monkey!". Geoffrey Rush would often have to wait for them to look in his direction before delivering his lines, and they often had to spray them with squirt guns to grab their attention. Rush was accidentally struck a few times as well.

Several plush toys have been developed by Disney, including both as a regular monkey and as a skeleton. Other toys, such as figurines and Mega Bloks also include Jack.


Governor Swann

Governor Weatherby Swann, portrayed by Jonathan Pryce, is the governor of Port Royal and the father of Elizabeth Swann. In contrast to his strong-willed daughter, he is something of a milquetoast. Both Elizabeth and the Governor sailed from England to the Caribbean eight years prior to Curse of the Black Pearl, along with then Lieutenant James Norrington, presumably when Swann assumed the governor's post. Swann is a doting father, and he wishes for his daughter to accept Commodore Norrington's marriage proposal. However, he eventually comes to accept that she truly loves Will Turner. According to the Pirates of the Caribbean Visual Guide, Elizabeth's mother died when Elizabeth was a young child. It is possible that Governor Swann holds some sort of peerage, as his butler refers to him as M'Lord. Many Colonial Governors held peerages or knighthoods, however, it is not directly stated in the films whether Swann holds one. In Dead Man's Chest he opposed Will and Elizabeth's arrest by Lord Beckett for freeing Sparrow. After Beckett freed Will so he could go search for Jack Sparrow, Elizabeth escapes jail with help from her father Weatherby Swann but he is captured by Ian Mercer while Elizabeth is sent off by Beckett to offer Letters of Marque to Jack in return for the compass after threatening Beckett with his life. Later on Port Royal Beckett informs Governor Swann about his daughter's status and that EITC ship are in chase of the Black Pearl and that Elizabeth, if caught, will be saved and Weatherby will be freed as long as he gives good reports to England about Beckett's presence.

In At World's End, Weatherby Swann is forced to use his authority to allow Beckett to execute several pirates. In a deleted scene, Swann comes on board the Flying Dutchman when Beckett confronts Davy Jones about the attack on pirates fleets, Swann asks Jones if he offered the pirates a chance to surrender as Swann was concerned if his daughter was on board one of them, Jones informed him that his daughter is dead as she apparently went under with the Black Pearl which it was pulled down to the bottom of the sea by the Kraken. Weatherby attempted to stab the heart of Davy Jones with a knife but Admiral Norrington stopped him and Jones informed him about the consequences of stabbing his heart, Beckett and Ian Mercer informed Swann that his daughter was still alive, and finally after Norrington plead dropped the knife and walked away [1]. After this however due to him having a fairly good knowledge of the Dead Man's Chest and his attempt at stabbing it Beckett ordered Swann to be killed and informed others such as Admiral Norrington that Swann was going back to England. He later appeared in Davy Jones' locker informing the crew of the Black Pearl about the chest and ignored Elizabeth's request to come aboard the Pearl, saying he was proud of her and that he will give her love to her mother.

Tia Dalma

Main article: Tia Dalma

Sao Feng

Template:Infobox Chinese/HeaderTemplate:Infobox Chinese/ChineseTemplate:Infobox Chinese/Footer

Sao Feng (Traditional Chinese: 嘯風; Simplified Chinese: 啸风; pinyin: Xiào Fēng; literally "Howling Wind") is portrayed by Chow Yun-fat. Sao Feng is the pirate lord of the South China Sea and his character is based on the legendary Chinese pirate Cheung Po Tsai. Feng owns a bathhouse that caters to the highest paying clients. He also has two known ships at his disposal, the Empress and the Hai Peng. Sao Feng is tall and has a moustache that is about a foot long. His head is shaven. Extensive scars cover him, especially his scalp. He wears black clothing and speaks English proficiently, but with a slight Chinese accent. Chinese characters adorn his robes; it is unclear what they specifically are, but appear to match his name. He is also heard reciting a few lines of a Chinese poem in Cantonese. His weapon of choice is a dao. Personality-wise, Feng is depicted as unscrupulous, honour-less, and will do anything to join with the winning side (which he considers to be "just good business"), even if it means betraying his best friends.

In At World's End, Barbossa and Elizabeth intend to rescue Jack Sparrow from Davy Jones' Locker. They visit Feng at his bathhouse in Singapore, requesting a ship and a crew. Feng is suspicious and informs them that earlier that day someone broke into his uncle's temple and attempted to steal the navigational charts to World's End. He reveals the thief to be Will Turner. Barbossa and Elizabeth deny knowing Will, but when Feng threatens to kill him, Elizabeth reacts, confirming they are allies. Barbossa explains that the Brethren Court has been summoned to convene on Shipwreck Cove and Feng, being one of the nine Pirate Lords, is honor bound to attend. Feng demands to know why they want to sail to the Locker. When Will admits they want to rescue Jack, Feng becomes enraged and declares that he would only resurrect Sparrow to kill him in person. Barbossa reminds Feng that Jack is one of the nine Pirate Lords and still in possession of his "piece of eight," a pirate lord's insignia and didn't have a successor to give it to before his "death." Feng then notices a fake tattoo dissolving on a servant's shoulder and, assuming he is Barbossa's spy, seizes him.

Hidden below, Gibbs and the Black Pearl crew toss up swords through the floorboards to Barbossa and Elizabeth. Feng commands they drop their weapons, threatening to kill their man. When Barbossa replies that he is not with them, Will asks "If he's not with you [Feng], and he's not with us, then who's he with?", then, Mercer and East India Trading Co. marines burst in and open fire. Feng joins the fight against the E.I.T.C. troops, and leads Barbossa and the others through an exit. During the battle, Feng and Will confront each other while Mercer secretly listens in. Will tells Feng that if he wishes to make a deal with the E.I.T.C. then he needs what Will offers — the two strike a deal. Will wants the Black Pearl to free his father from Davy Jones. In exchange, Feng can have Jack Sparrow to barter to the East India Trading Company for his own freedom. Feng agrees and provides Will with a ship and crew, then covers Will and the others' escape from Singapore. Unbeknownst to Will, however, Feng makes his own deal with the East India Trading Company to turn over all the pirates, including Will, in exchange for the Black Pearl and his own freedom.

After Jack and the Black Pearl are rescued and the crew escapes the Locker, Will leads them to an island where he and Feng arranged to meet. Jack, Barbossa and the crew are taken captive when Feng arrives in the Empress. After a brief confrontation between the parties, Feng directs Sparrow's attention to Lord Cutler Beckett's approaching ship, the Endeavour. Feng hands over Sparrow and the crew to the East India Trading Company, but learns Beckett is keeping the Black Pearl. Barbossa then sways Feng to their side by revealing that he intends to release Calypso from her human form to help them battle Beckett and his minions. Feng, mistaking Elizabeth for Calypso, aids their escape in exchange for her. Seeing no other option and to save the crew, Elizabeth agrees to go with Feng.

In his quarters, Feng reveals that he believes Elizabeth is Calypso. He tells Elizabeth it was the first Brethren Court who imprisoned the sea goddess, Calypso, in human form. Elizabeth pretends to be Calypso, and discusses with Feng what she might do for him if freed. When she asks what would happen if she refused to grant her favors, he suggests he would take them by force. He then forcefully kisses her, but she pushes him away. While angrily approaching her once more, he is caught by cannon fire as the Flying Dutchman suddenly attacks. When the smoke clears Elizabeth finds Feng under a small pile of rubble, impaled with a huge piece of drift wood. Dying, Feng pronounces Elizabeth the captain of the Empress, and gives her his "piece of eight", a jade stone on a necklace, telling her that she must take his place at the Brethren Court. Elizabeth becomes the Pirate Lord of the South China Sea. His last words are, "Forgive me, Calypso."

In the film, Sao Feng recites part of a Qing as the most popular Tang poems).

Spaniard

The Spaniard, portrayed by Óscar Jaenada, is King Ferdinand's most trusted agent. Introduced in On Stranger Tides as the secondary antagonist, the Spaniard leads a Spanish force to the Fountain of Youth to destroy it. His men find the silver Chalices of Juan Ponce de León on the wreck of his ship, though they were later stolen by Jack Sparrow. In the final battle at the Fountain, the Spaniard remorselessly killed Theodore Groves, who tried to stop them by proclaiming the Fountain as the property of the British Empire, though he would later tell one of his men to take note of Groves' bravery, showing that he has a sense of honor.

Philip Swift

Philip Swift, portrayed by Sam Claflin, is a stalwart missionary who was captured by Blackbeard. Introduced as a captive missionary in On Stranger Tides, Philip's life was spared thanks to Angelica's belief that her father's soul can be saved. Along the journey to find the Fountain of Youth, Philip meets Syrena, a beautiful mermaid with whom he develops a close bond. Acting as Syrena's protector, he risks his own life for the mermaid, eventually falling in love with her. After being mortally wounded during the film's climatic battle, Philip returns to Syrena and frees her. Begging Syrena for her forgiveness, Philip is taken underwater and healed by Syrena by her kiss, as stated earlier in the film that a mermaid's kiss can "save a man from drowning." His further fate is unknown but it can be assumed that after Syrena healed him, he is somewhere else living with her.

The character of Philip Swift, along with the characters of Angelica and the mermaid Syrena, was introduced with the departure of Will Turner (Orlando Bloom) and Elizabeth Swann (Keira Knightley) following the events of the third film.

Syrena

Syrena, portrayed by Àstrid Bergès-Frisbey, is a mermaid captured by Blackbeard's crew, who need a mermaid's tear when they reach the Fountain of Youth. Philip notices that she can not breathe and he opens the glass tank a little to allow air to flow through. When the glass tank Syrena is being carried in shatters, the character changes to a human form, causing missionary Philip Swift to remove his shirt and cover Syrena's naked body. Philip then carries her the rest of the way due to her inability to walk and names her in an attempt to make Blackbeard realize she is a person and not a creature as he used to call her. Philip and Syrena develop a strong bond and eventually they fall in love, which Blackbeard exploits by apparently killing Philip, revealing that he is alive, and using it to obtain Syrena's tears of joy. Syrena is left to die, but a mortally wounded Philip returns to cut her loose. She swims off, and after returning the chalices needed for the ritual at the Fountain of Youth to Jack Sparrow, Syrena offers to save Phillip, but he only asks her forgiveness. She kisses Philip, as a mermaid kiss can prevent one from drowning, and pulls him underwater with her to heal him.

William Turner III

Son of Will Turner and Elizabeth Swann first appears in Pirates of the Caribbean 3 At World's End, where he and his mother is waiting for his father on the beach and when there is a flash on the horizon, he sees Will aboard the Flying Dutchman. Will also appear in Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men do not tell tales, where it will become a legend.

Other characters

Anamaria

Anamaria, played by Zoe Saldana, is a pirate whose ship was stolen, some years in the past, by Jack Sparrow. She joins Mr. Gibbs and Will Turner in order to get a chance to confront Sparrow, at which time Anamaria slaps him repeatedly, whereupon Will intervenes and promises her the Interceptor (the ship Jack had "borrowed" to chase the Pearl) in exchange for her cooperation on the journey. Reluctantly, Anamaria agrees. In the end, she allows Jack to captain the Pearl. She doesn't appear in any further films, and her final fate is unknown.

Brethren Court

The Brethren Court comprises nine pirate lords from the different seas. There have been four meetings over the centuries. The First Court met when they mutually agreed that the goddess, Calypso, should no longer rule the seas and oceans. With help from Davy Jones, her lover, they entrapped her within human form. Many years later, the Fourth Court meets to address Lord Cutler Beckett's assault on piracy. When Captain Barbossa proposes releasing Calypso to help them fight Beckett and the East India Trading Company, the other pirate lords initially refuse, fearing Calypso's vengeful wrath.

Each pirate lord always carries a "piece of eight" insignia. The "pieces" are actually various small trinkets, used as the original court members were so poor that they lacked any money among them, Gibbs sarcastically commenting that "the nine pieces of whatever we happened to have in our pockets at the time" wasn't considered "piratey" enough. Each "piece of eight" must be presented to verify a pirate lord's identity, and it is handed down to that lord's successor when he or she dies.

The Fourth Court includes main characters Jack Sparrow, Hector Barbossa, and Elizabeth Swann (Sao Feng's successor), as well as Chinese Mistress Ching, Indian Sri Sumbhajee Angria, African Gentleman Jocard, Turkish Ammand the Corsair, Spanish Eduardo Villanueva, and French Capitaine Chevalle. Jack Sparrow's father, Captain Teague, is a former pirate lord, although he is now the keeper of the Pirata Codex and the prison dog which supposedly escaped Pelegosto by using sea turtles, mirroring Jack's lie about escaping the deserted island. After every other lord votes for him or herself to be the "pirate king", Jack votes for Elizabeth, giving her the plurality.

Captain Teague

Captain Edward Teague,[6] played by Keith Richards of The Rolling Stones,[7] is Jack's father who was also formerly the pirate lord of Madagascar, before he became keeper of the code. He first appeared in At World's End.

Teague was once the most feared pirate in the world and as such receives respect and fear from all of the pirates in the Brethren Court. At one point Teague was the Pirate Lord of Madagascar but later resigned to become the Keeper of the Pirate Code, the Pirata Codex, which he keeps with him at Shipwreck Cove. He firmly believes that the pirate code is law and will kill anyone who claims otherwise, which happens in the film when, at the Brethren Court, the first mate of the Pirate Lord of India says to "Hang the code" (colloquially saying to "Ignore" the code). Teague immediately guns him down. Despite his gruff demeanor, he does have a sense of humor as well as musical skill though he said recently he forgets some tunes when on his ship, and he does seem to be fond of his son, calling him "Jackie". During a conversation with Jack, who asks about his mother, Teague shows him a shrunken head. Jack then comments, "She looks great!".

Jack references the fact that Teague has "seen it all, done it all", hinting that Teague has experienced a great deal during his pirating career. Likewise, his crew seems to be made up of older pirates. It is possible that Teague was at one of the three previous meetings of the Brethren Court (he seems to have an awareness of how the meetings go), or has fought in a battle or war of the like that the current Brethren face. He also seems to have a knowledge of immortality as he warns his son "It's not just about living forever, Jackie, the trick is living with yourself forever." He may be lonely as he spends his time at Shipwreck Cove and it appears his wife died at some point in the past, possibly killed by Amazonians or Melanesians who shrunk her head, which he carries with him everywhere. It is clear that his relationship with his son is strained, highlighted by Jack's negative facial expression when Barbossa calls for Teague.

Captain Teague seems to be the new master of the jailhouse dog that was last seen on Pelegosto about to be devoured by the natives (it was later explained in Pirates of the Caribbean: The Price of Freedom that Teague was the original owner of the dog). Teague explains the dog's apparent escape to Pintel and Ragetti by merely shrugging his shoulders and commenting, "Sea turtles, mate" mirroring to how his son Jack lies about his escape from the rumrunners' island.

After Jack escaped from St James's Palace, he was chased through the streets of London by the Royal Guard. Just as one of the soldiers aimed his musket at Jack, he was shot in the back by Teague. Later, inside the Captain's Daughter pub, Teague gave Jack a significant amount of information about the Fountain of Youth. When Jack asked him, "Have you ever been there?", Teague sarcastically replied, "Does this face look like it's been to the Fountain of Youth?". Teague then vanished when Jack looked away.

Murtogg and Mullroy

Mullroy and Murtogg, played by Giles New and Angus Barnett, are two Royal Marines in Port Royal. They serve as comic relief characters, easily becoming distracted from their duties by getting into arguments, and are the 'civilized' equivalent of Pintel and Ragetti. Like their pirate counterparts, they display a dichotomy of a fat, blustering, dominant figure versus a thin, semi-perceptive, reticent figure. They are first the guards of the H.M.S. Interceptor until one of their arguments over seeing the Black Pearl (Murtogg says he saw the Pearl but Mullroy didn't) allows Jack Sparrow to board it. Afterwards, they serve on the H.M.S. Dauntless and survive the final battle. They reappear in At World's End, put in service to the East India Trading Company's forces. They are posted as the main guards of the Dead Man's Chest, but it is stolen by Jack during another argument. They later stow away on the Black Pearl, casting their lot with the pirates, and join Barbossa after the battle is over. Since they were on the Black Pearl after Blackbeard shrinks it into a bottle, it is presumed that they, along with the rest of the crew are trapped on it.

Lieutenant/Lieutenant Commander Theodore Groves

Lieutenant Commander Theodore Groves, played by Greg Ellis, is a British Royal Navy Officer under Commodore Norrington's command in The Curse of the Black Pearl. He is present when Jack Sparrow steals the Interceptor and notes Sparrow's cleverness, saying "That's got to be the best pirate I have ever seen", the opposite of Norrington's oft-stated opinion that Sparrow is "without a doubt the worst pirate I have ever heard of". He is absent in Dead Man's Chest but reappears in the third movie. Between the events of "Dead Man's Chest" and "At World's End", Lieutenant Groves is appointed as Lord Cutler Beckett's second-in-command aboard the H.M.S. Endeavour. He stars in At World's End aboard the Endeavour and is present when Captain Jack Sparrow makes a daring escape from Cutler Beckett's grasp. He admiringly wonders if Jack plans everything out or just makes it up as he goes along but is scared off by a glare from Beckett. During the final battle, he asks Cutler Beckett for orders as the H.M.S. Endeavour was being pounded by The Black Pearl's and the Flying Dutchmann's cannons. Beckett remains in a state of shock during the entire battle, forcing Lieutenant Groves to order the crew to abandon ship. Somehow he is picked up by the Armada and saved by the British soldiers. Groves later resurfaces in the events of On Stranger Tides, and is promoted to Lieutenant Commander while working under Captain Barbossa to find the Fountain of Youth aboard the H.M.S. Providence. He accompanies Barbossa on the shores of Whitecap Bay, only to be stranded there with the beach party as flesh-eating mermaids tear the Providence apart along with its crew. He scolds Barbossa for not helping the crew as the Providence is attacked but Barbossa warns him to remain silent.

While Captain Jack Sparrow and Barbossa were held captive by the Spaniards, Lieutenant Commander Groves snuck through the Spanish picket lines (aided by a distraction Jack Sparrow made in a daring escape) and freed Barbossa from his bonds, although he lost his wig during the venture. He reached the Fountain of Youth with Barbossa and fought off Blackbeard's crew seeing his fellow generals and soldiers being rapidly killed by the crew. The fight is stopped by the sudden arrival of the Spanish. Trying one last time to get a British victory in the quest, Groves stood defiantly on top of the fountain claiming the Fountain to be property of the British Empire while holding a British flag. But at the same moment, the Spaniard shot Groves. When the Spanish began destroying the Fountain of Youth, Groves' body was being carried away by two British officers.

Lieutenant Gillette

Lieutenant Gillette, played by Damian O'Hare, is Commodore Norrington's Flag Lieutenant in Port Royal. He is left in H.M.S. Dauntless during Norrington's absence and loses the ship to Jack Sparrow. He accompanies Commodore Norrington on the H.M.S Dauntless in pursuit of both the Black Pearl and the Interceptor. When they rescue Elizabeth, she warns Lieutenant Gillette about the curse of the pirate crew aboard the Black Pearl but he refuses to believe her. When the cursed pirates ambush the H.M.S. Dauntless, Gillette, who was left in charge of the Dauntless at the time, fights off the cursed pirates with the remainder of his crew before Norrington and his Royal Marines arrive to reinforce the dwindling resistance against the pirates. He survives the final battle of Curse of the Black Pearl. It was at first believed that he perished during Norrington's ill-fated pursuit of Jack Sparrow between the events of Curse of the Black Pearl and Dead Man's Chest, but he returns unharmed in On Stranger Tides as one of Captain Barbossa's Lieutenants aboard the H.M.S Providence. He assists Barbossa in claiming the Fountain of Youth before Blackbeard and the Spaniards do. He was killed in a duel with Blackbeard by Blackbeard's sword.

Mercer

Ian Mercer,[8] played by David Schofield, is Lord Beckett's facially scarred, loyal personal assistant in Dead Man's Chest and At World's End. Despite serving faithfully in his official capacity as a clerk, Mercer often executes Beckett's more sinister agendas as an assassin and spy. He is eventually put aboard the Dutchman to serve as Davy Jones's keeper after the death of Admiral James Norrington. He also can be seen dueling Barbossa when the Pearl is being taken over from the E.I.T.C.. Mercer sees his marines are mostly beaten, jumps ship, and is presumably picked up by the Endeavour. During the maelstrom battle, Mercer is shielded by Davy Jones from a cannon blast. Seeing several corpses of marines, Jones takes advantage of Mercer's distraction and uses his tentacles to strangle him and constrict his throat from the inside. Mercer falls to the deck, dead, as Jones takes the key to the Dead Man's Chest from around his neck.

Mercer is named after actor Ian Mercer, who would later portray Blackbeard's Quartermaster in On Stranger Tides.

Flying Dutchman crew

The Flying Dutchman's crew are captured sailors who willingly surrender to Davy Jones to avoid death for 100 years. Originally, those who joined helped ferry souls to the next world; but after Davy Jones abandons his duty, he uses them for his own purposes. This has caused Davy Jones and every crewman to gradually transform into deformed creatures resembling sea life. Along with Bootstrap Bill Turner, the crew complement includes Amlanto, Angler, Broondjongen, Bunglash, Clanker, Crash, Driftwood, Emealle, Finnegan, Greenbeard, Giant Clam, Hadras, Jelly, Jimmy Legs, Koleniko, Maccus, Manray, Morey, Ogilvey, Old Haddy, Palifico, Penrod, Piper, Quittance, Ratlin, Roam, Turtleman, Two-Head, Urchin, Weedey, Wheelback, Wyvern, and Yanker. Several of them (including Hadras) are apparently killed when they fall into the maelstrom at the climax of the third film. Most of the crew use swords and other weapons in combat, but one crewman named Morey (having a moray eel for a head) is seen biting a man's head off. These men seem to hold stronger ties to the ship than its captain, as shown when they abandoned all duties when Davy Jones was killed, but not to grieve for their fallen captain. Instead the crew members, almost instinctively, made Will the new captain, after which they resumed their normal human forms. Some were apparently killed during the final battle, but due to their very violent nature, they may have survived and just been defeated (though this seems unlikely for some, such as Morey, who was decapitated by Barbossa). Maccus and Ratlin are Davy Jones' two most trusted men. Maccus has four eye sockets, but only two of them are empty. He also has the head of a hammerhead shark. Jimmy Legs controls the Dutchman's wheel. Hadras is a crewman whose head is half shell and the other half is his face. Hadras was carrying his head while he captured Norrington. When Norrington gave Hadras the Dead Man's Chest, Hadras dropped his own head. In order to catch up with the crew, Hadras' head burys itself into the shell and the head becomes a crab. Penrod is a crewman who has six legs on his torso. He has four legs and a shell for a back. Palifico seems to be made almost completely out of coral, and Weedey has two arms and legs, but he is actually hiding 10 tentacles within his body. Wyvern is the most bizarre of the crew- his body is actually attached to the Flying Dutchman's framework, resembling more a coral reef or underwater rock face than a man. This is apparently the fate of all the crew, eventually.

Black Pearl cursed pirate crew

The Black Pearl crew was originally captained by Jack Sparrow. A decade prior to The Curse of the Black Pearl, Barbossa led a mutiny and marooned Sparrow. Soon after, Barbossa and the crew became cursed after stealing coins from an ancient Aztec chest. They became immortal, but the curse rendered them unable to feel, taste, or satisfy their desires. The lunar light exposed them as skeletal beings. Later, the curse was broken, and the ship once again fell under Jack's command. At the end of the third film, At World's End, the Pearl briefly returns to Barbossa's hands before losing it and his leg prior to the events of "On Stranger Tides".

Crew members that appear in The Curse of the Black Pearl include Bo'sun (played by Isaac C. Singleton Jr., a large African man that acts as Barbossa's second in command), Clubba (played by David Patykewich, a large bald man with facial tattoos and a large earring), Grapple (played by Trevor Goddard, a sailor who fights with a large grappling iron), Jacoby (played by Vince Lozano, a man with a long black beard and uses hand grenades), Koehler (played by Treva Etienne, a slender African man with dreadlocks), Mallot (played by Brye Cooper, who wields a large mallet), Scratch (played by Finneus Egan, sporting blond dreadlocks who wields a dagger), and Twigg (played by Michael Berry Jr., an Irish sailor who is often paired with Koehler). In the film, five of them (Clubba, Grapple, Jacoby, Mallot and Monk) are knocked apart by either explosion or impact and died instantly when the curse was lifted. Koehler is also killed in the final battle by James Norrington, revealing to the pirates that they are mortal once again; it is unknown what happened to Bo'sun, Twigg, and the rest of the crew, although it is likely they were arrested by the British and executed.

Bo'sun, Twigg and Jacoby appear in Kingdom Hearts II as cursed pirates. They are voiced by Beau Billingslea, Adam Leadbeater, and John DiMaggio respectively.


East India Trading Company

Main article: East India Company

East India Company From World Heritage Encyclopedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the 17th-19th-century English and British trading company. For other uses, see East India Company (disambiguation). East India Company (EIC) Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg Company flag after 1801 Former type Public Industry International trade Fate Dissolved Founded 1600 Defunct 1 June 1874 Headquarters London, England Colonial India British Indian Empire Imperial Entities of India Dutch India 1605–1825 Danish India 1620–1869 French India 1769–1954 Portuguese India 1505–1961 Casa da Índia 1434–1833 Portuguese East India Company 1628–1633 British India 1612–1947 East India Company 1612–1757 Company rule in India 1757–1858 British Raj 1858–1947 British rule in Burma 1824–1948 Princely states 1721–1949 Partition of India 1947

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The East India Company (EIC), originally chartered as the Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies, and more properly called the Honourable East India Company, was an English and later (from 1707)[1] British joint-stock company[2] formed for pursuing trade with the East Indies but which ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent, North-West Frontier Province and Balochistan.

Commonly associated with trade in basic commodities, which included cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea and opium, the Company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth in 1600,[3] making it the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies. Shares of the company were owned by wealthy merchants and aristocrats.[4] The government owned no shares and had only indirect control. The Company eventually came to rule large areas of India with its own private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions.[5] Company rule in India effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey and lasted until 1858 when, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown assuming direct control of India in the era of the new British Raj.

The company was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by then rendered it vestigial, powerless and obsolete. Its functions had been fully absorbed into the official government machinery of British India and its private presidency armies had been nationalised by the British Crown. Contents

   1 Founding
   2 Foothold in India
   3 Expansion
       3.1 Mughal convoy piracy incident of 1695
   4 Forming a complete monopoly
       4.1 Trade monopoly
       4.2 Saltpetre trade
   5 Basis for the monopoly
       5.1 Colonial monopoly
       5.2 Military expansion
       5.3 Opium trade
   6 Regulation of the company's affairs
       6.1 Writers
       6.2 Financial troubles
       6.3 Regulating Acts of Parliament
   7 Indian Rebellion of 1857
   8 Establishments in Britain
   9 Legacy
   10 Flags
   11 Ships
   12 Records
   13 See also
   14 Notes and references
   15 External links

Founding Sir James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage in 1601

Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean.[6] The permission was granted and on 10 April 1591 three ships sailed from Torbay England around the Cape of Good Hope to the Arabian Sea on one of the earliest English overseas Indian expeditions. One of them, the Edward Bonventure, then sailed around Cape Comorin and on to the Malay Peninsula and subsequently returned to England in 1594.[6]

In 1596, three more ships sailed east; however, these were all lost at sea.[6] Two years later, on 24 September 1598, another group of merchants having raised 30,133[clarification needed] in capital, met in London to form a corporation. Although their first attempt was not completely successful, they nonetheless sought the Queen's unofficial approval, bought ships for their venture, increased their capital to 68,373[clarification needed], and convened again a year later.[6]

This time they succeeded, and on 31 December 1600, the Queen granted a Royal Charter to "George, Earl of Cumberland, and 215 Knights, Aldermen, and Burgesses" under the name, Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading with the East Indies.[7] For a period of fifteen years the charter awarded the newly formed company a monopoly on trade with all countries east of the Cape of Good Hope and west of the Straits of Magellan.[7] Sir James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage in 1601[8] and in March 1604 Sir Henry Middleton commanded the second voyage.

Initially, the Company struggled in the spice trade due to the competition from the already well established Dutch East India Company. The Company opened a factory in Bantam on the first voyage and imports of pepper from Java were an important part of the Company's trade for twenty years. The factory in Bantam was closed in 1683. During this time ships belonging to the company arriving in India docked at Surat, which was established as a trade transit point in 1608.

In the next two years, the Company built its first factory in south India in the town of Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. The high profits reported by the Company after landing in India initially prompted King James I to grant subsidiary licences to other trading companies in England. But in 1609 he renewed the charter given to the Company for an indefinite period, including a clause which specified that the charter would cease to be in force if the trade turned unprofitable for three consecutive years.

The Company was led by one Governor and 24 directors, who made up the Court of Directors. They, in turn, reported to the Court of Proprietors which appointed them. Ten committees reported to the Court of Directors. Foothold in India See also: Establishment of English Trade in Bengal (1600–1700) The Red Dragon fought the Portuguese at the Battle of Swally in 1612, and made several voyages to the East Indies.

English traders frequently engaged in hostilities with their Dutch and Portuguese counterparts in the Indian Ocean. The Company achieved a major victory over the Portuguese in the Battle of Swally in 1612. The Company decided to explore the feasibility of gaining a territorial foothold in mainland India, with official sanction of both countries, and requested that the Crown launch a diplomatic mission.[9] Jahangir investing a courtier with a robe of honour watched by Sir Thomas Roe, English ambassador to the court of Jahangir at Agra from 1615–18, and others

In 1612, James I instructed Sir Thomas Roe to visit the Mughal Emperor Nuruddin Salim Jahangir (r. 1605 – 1627) to arrange for a commercial treaty that would give the Company exclusive rights to reside and build factories in Surat and other areas. In return, the Company offered to provide the Emperor with goods and rarities from the European market. This mission was highly successful as Jahangir sent a letter to James through Sir Thomas Roe:[9]

   "Upon which assurance of your royal love I have given my general command to all the kingdoms and ports of my dominions to receive all the merchants of the English nation as the subjects of my friend; that in what place soever they choose to live, they may have free liberty without any restraint; and at what port soever they shall arrive, that neither Portugal nor any other shall dare to molest their quiet; and in what city soever they shall have residence, I have commanded all my governors and captains to give them freedom answerable to their own desires; to sell, buy, and to transport into their country at their pleasure.
   For confirmation of our love and friendship, I desire your Majesty to command your merchants to bring in their ships of all sorts of rarities and rich goods fit for my palace; and that you be pleased to send me your royal letters by every opportunity, that I may rejoice in your health and prosperous affairs; that our friendship may be interchanged and eternal"
   —Nuruddin Salim Jahangir, Letter to James I.

Expansion [icon] This section requires expansion. (June 2009) East India House, London, painted by Thomas Malton in c.1800.

The Company, benefiting from the imperial patronage, soon expanded its commercial trading operations, eclipsing the Portuguese Estado da India, which had established bases in Goa, Chittagong and Bombay (which was later ceded to England as part of the dowry of Catherine de Braganza). The East India Company also launched a joint effort attack with the Dutch United East India Company on Portuguese and Spanish ships off the coast of China, which helped secure their ports in China.[10] The Company created trading posts in Surat (where a factory was built in 1612), Madras (1639), Bombay (1668), and Calcutta (1690). By 1647, the Company had 23 factories, each under the command of a factor or master merchant and governor if so chosen, and had 90 employees in India. The major factories became the walled forts of Fort William in Bengal, Fort St George in Madras, and the Bombay Castle.

In 1634, the Mughal emperor extended his hospitality to the English traders to the region of Bengal, and in 1717 completely waived customs duties for the trade. The company's mainstay businesses were by then in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre and tea. The Company's future, however, was braked by the signing of the Treaty of Münster in 1648, which freed the Netherlands from Spanish control allowing it to turn its full attention to expanding its trade both in home and distant waters[11] and enter a period recognised as Holland's 'Golden Age'. The Dutch were aggressive competitors, and had meanwhile expanded their monopoly of the spice trade in the Malaccan straits by ousting the Portuguese in 1640–41. With reduced Portuguese and Spanish influence in the region, the EIC and Dutch East India Company (VOC) entered a period of intense competition, resulting in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th and 18th centuries.

Meanwhile, in 1657, Oliver Cromwell renewed the charter of 1609, and brought about minor changes in the holding of the Company. The status of the Company was further enhanced by the restoration of monarchy in England.

In an act aimed at strengthening the power of the EIC, King Charles II provisioned the EIC (in a series of five acts around 1670) with the rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops and form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas.[12]

William Hedges was sent in 1682 to Shaista Khan, the Mughal governor of Bengal in order to obtain a firman, an imperial directive that would grant England regular trading privileges throughout the Mughal empire. However, the company's governor in London, Sir Josiah Child, interfered with Hedges's mission, causing Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb to break off the negotiations.

In 1689 a Mughal fleet commanded by Sidi Yaqub attacked Bombay. After a year of resistance the EIC surrendered in 1690, and the company sent envoys to Aurangzeb's camp to plead for a pardon. The company's envoys had to prostrate themselves before the emperor, pay a large indemnity, and promise better behaviour in the future. The emperor withdrew his troops and the company subsequently reestablished itself in Bombay and set up a new base in Calcutta.[13] Mughal convoy piracy incident of 1695

In September 1695, Captain Henry Every, an English pirate on board the Fancy, reached the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, where he teamed up with five other pirate captains to make an attack on the Indian fleet making the annual voyage to Mecca. The Mughal convoy included the treasure-laden Ganj-i-Sawai, reported to be the greatest in the Mughal fleet and the largest ship operational in the Indian Ocean, and its escort, the Fateh Muhammed. They were spotted passing the straits en route to Surat. The pirates gave chase and caught up with the Fateh Muhammed some days later, and meeting little resistance, took some £50,000 to £60,000 worth of treasure.[14]

Every continued in pursuit and managed to overhaul the Ganj-i-Sawai, who put up a fearsome fight but it too was eventually taken. The ship carried enormous wealth and, according to contemporary East India Company sources, was carrying a relative of the Grand Mughal, though there is no evidence to suggest that it was his daughter and her retinue. The loot from the Ganj-i-Sawai totalled between £325,000 and £600,000, including 500,000 gold and silver pieces, and has become known as the richest ship ever taken by pirates.

In a letter sent to the Privy Council by Sir John Gayer, then governor of Bombay and head of the East India Company, Gayer claims that "it is certain the Pirates...did do very barbarously by the People of the Ganj-i-Sawai and Abdul Ghaffar's ship, to make them confess where their money was." The pirates set free the survivors who were left aboard their emptied ships, to continue their voyage back to India.

When the news arrived in England it caused an out-cry. In response, a combined bounty of £1,000 (considered massive by the standards of the time) was offered for Every's capture by the Privy Council and East India Company, leading to the first worldwide manhunt in recorded history. The plunder of Aurangzeb's treasure ship had serious consequences for the English East India Company. The furious Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb ordered Sidi Yaqub and Nawab Daud Khan to attack and close four of the company's factories in India and imprison their officers, who were almost lynched by a mob of angry Mughals, blaming them for their countryman's depredations, and threatened to put an end to all English trading in India. To appease Emperor Aurangzeb and particularly his Grand Vizier Asad Khan, Parliament exempted Every from all of the Acts of Grace (pardons) and amnesties it would subsequently issue to other pirates.[15]

   An 18th-century depiction of Henry Every, with the Fancy shown engaging its prey in the background
   British pirates that fought during the Child's War engaging the Ganj-i-Sawai.
   A British pirate encounters Muslim women from the Mughal Empire on board a captured vessel.

Forming a complete monopoly Trade monopoly Rear view of the East India Company's Factory at Cossimbazar

The prosperity that the officers of the company enjoyed allowed them to return to Britain and establish sprawling estates and businesses, and to obtain political power. The Company developed a lobby in the English parliament. Under pressure from ambitious tradesmen and former associates of the Company (pejoratively termed Interlopers by the Company), who wanted to establish private trading firms in India, a deregulating act was passed in 1694.[16]

This allowed any English firm to trade with India, unless specifically prohibited by act of parliament, thereby annulling the charter that had been in force for almost 100 years. By an act that was passed in 1698, a new "parallel" East India Company (officially titled the English Company Trading to the East Indies) was floated under a state-backed indemnity of £2 million. The powerful stockholders of the old company quickly subscribed a sum of £315,000 in the new concern, and dominated the new body. The two companies wrestled with each other for some time, both in England and in India, for a dominant share of the trade.[16]

It quickly became evident that, in practice, the original Company faced scarcely any measurable competition. The companies merged in 1708, by a tripartite indenture involving both companies and the state. Under this arrangement, the merged company lent to the Treasury a sum of £3,200,000, in return for exclusive privileges for the next three years, after which the situation was to be reviewed. The amalgamated company became the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies.[16]

In the following decades there was a constant see-saw battle between the Company lobby and the Parliament. The Company sought a permanent establishment, while the Parliament would not willingly allow it greater autonomy and so relinquish the opportunity to exploit the Company's profits. In 1712, another act renewed the status of the Company, though the debts were repaid. By 1720, 15% of British imports were from India, almost all passing through the Company, which reasserted the influence of the Company lobby. The licence was prolonged until 1766 by yet another act in 1730.

At this time, Britain and France became bitter rivals. Frequent skirmishes between them took place for control of colonial possessions. In 1742, fearing the monetary consequences of a war, the British government agreed to extend the deadline for the licensed exclusive trade by the Company in India until 1783, in return for a further loan of £1 million. Between 1756 and 1763, the Seven Years' War diverted the state's attention towards consolidation and defence of its territorial possessions in Europe and its colonies in North America.[17]

The war took place on Indian soil, between the Company troops and the French forces. In 1757, the Law Officers of the Crown delivered the Pratt-Yorke opinion distinguishing overseas territories acquired by right of conquest from those acquired by private treaty. The opinion asserted that, while the Crown of Great Britain enjoyed sovereignty over both, only the property of the former was vested in the Crown.[17]

With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, Britain surged ahead of its European rivals. Demand for Indian commodities was boosted by the need to sustain the troops and the economy during the war, and by the increased availability of raw materials and efficient methods of production. As home to the revolution, Britain experienced higher standards of living. Its spiralling cycle of prosperity, demand, and production had a profound influence on overseas trade. The Company became the single largest player in the British global market. William Henry Pyne notes in his book The Microcosm of London (1808) that:

   "On the 1 March 1801, the debts of the East India Company to £5,393,989 their effects to £15,404,736 and their sales increased since February 1793, from £4,988,300 to £7,602,041."

Saltpetre trade Saltpetre used for gunpowder was one of the major trade goods of the Company

Sir John Banks, a businessman from Kent who negotiated an agreement between the King and the Company, began his career in a syndicate arranging contracts for victualling the navy, an interest he kept up for most of his life. He knew Samuel Pepys and John Evelyn and founded a substantial fortune from the Levant and Indian trades.

He became a Director and later, as Governor of the East Indian Company in 1672, he arranged a contract which included a loan of £20,000 and £30,000 worth of saltpetre — also known as potassium nitrate, a primary ingredient in gunpowder – for the King 'at the price it shall sell by the candle'[citation needed] — that is by auction — where an inch of candle burned and as long as it was alight bidding could continue. The agreement included with the price 'an allowance of interest which is to be expressed in tallies.'[citation needed] This was something of a breakthrough in royal prerogative because previous requests for the King to buy at the Company's auctions had been turned down as 'not honourable or decent.'[citation needed]

Outstanding debts were also agreed and the Company permitted to export 250 tons of saltpetre. Again in 1673, Banks successfully negotiated another contract for 700 tons of saltpetre at £37,000 between the King and the Company. So urgent was the need to supply the armed forces in the United Kingdom, America, and elsewhere that the authorities sometimes turned a blind eye on the untaxed sales. One governor of the Company was even reported as saying in 1864 that he would rather have the saltpetre made than the tax on salt.[18] Basis for the monopoly Colonial monopoly Further information: Great Britain in the Seven Years War Robert Clive, became the first British Governor of Bengal after he had instated the schismatic Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal.

The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) resulted in the defeat of the French forces, limited French imperial ambitions, and stunting the influence of the industrial revolution in French territories. Robert Clive, the Governor General, led the Company to a victory against Joseph François Dupleix, the commander of the French forces in India, and recaptured Fort St George from the French. The Company took this respite to seize Manila[19] in 1762.

By the Treaty of Paris (1763), France regained the five establishments captured by the British during the war (Pondichéry, Mahe, Karikal, Yanam, and Chandernagar) but was prevented from erecting fortifications and keeping troops in Bengal (art. XI). Elsewhere in India, the French were to remain a military threat, particularly during the War of American Independence, and up to the capture of Pondichéry in 1793 at the outset of the French Revolutionary Wars without any military presence. Although these small outposts remained French possessions for the next two hundred years, French ambitions on Indian territories were effectively laid to rest, thus eliminating a major source of economic competition for the Company.

In contrast, the Company, fresh from a colossal victory, and with the backing of a disciplined and experienced army, was able to assert its interests in the Carnatic region from its base at Madras and in Bengal from Calcutta, without facing any further obstacles from other colonial powers.[citation needed] Military expansion Main article: Company rule in India The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, who with his allies fought against the East India Company during his early years (1760–1764), only accepting the protection of the British in the year 1803, after he had been blinded by his enemies and deserted by his subjects.

The Company continued to experience resistance from local rulers during its expansion. Robert Clive led company forces against Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, Bihar, and Midnapore district in Odisha to victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, resulting in the conquest of Bengal. This victory estranged the British and the Mughals, since Siraj Ud Daulah was a Mughal feudatory ally.

With the gradual weakening of the Marathas in the aftermath of the three Anglo-Maratha wars, the British also secured Ganges-Jumna Doab, the Delhi-Agra region, parts of Bundelkhand, Broach, some districts of Gujarat, fort of Ahmmadnagar, province of Cuttack (which included Mughalbandi/the coastal part of Odisha, Garjat/the princely states of Odisha, Balasore Port, parts of Midnapore district of West Bengal), Bombay (Mumbai) and the surrounding areas, leading to a formal end of the Maratha empire and firm establishment of the British East India Company in India.

Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, the rulers of the Kingdom of Mysore, offered much resistance to the British forces. Having sided with the French during the war, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the Company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. Mysore finally fell to the Company forces in 1799, with the death of Tipu Sultan. The fall of Tipu Sultan and the Sultanate of Mysore, during the Battle of Seringapatam in the year 1799.

The last vestiges of local administration were restricted to the northern regions of Delhi, Oudh, Rajputana, and Punjab, where the Company's presence was ever increasing amidst infighting and offers of protection among the remaining princes. Coercive action, threats, and diplomacy aided the Company in preventing the local rulers from putting up a united struggle. The hundred years from the Battle of Plassey in 1757 to the Indian Rebellion of 1857 were a period of consolidation for the Company, which began to function more as a nation and less as a trading concern.

A cholera pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by 1820. 10,000 British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic.[20] Between 1736 and 1834 only some 10% of East India Company's officers survived to take the final voyage home.[21]

In the early 19th century the Indian question of geopolitical dominance and empire holding remained with the East India Company. .[22]

This empire-size company pretended to expand its territory throughout India. The pretext was the threat of French invasion. The EIC used India as a reservoir for recruiting soldiers into its private army. Indian soldiers could never be commissioned and had a ceiling of Non Commissioned Officer (NCO) status at all times. Although NCO’s never received training in administration or leadership, they were considered the backbone of the army.

The EIC was considered a military despot by the way it ruled countries into which it expanded. The EIC used these Indian NCO’s to occupy Insulindia, the former European colonial possessions within the Maritime Southeast Asia. The EIC seized whole islands, including Réunion and Mauritius

The expansion extended from the Himalayas to central India within the first 14 years of the 19th century.

The EIC never integrated into any society in which it operated and prevented integration of local cultures into its company. The company created the myth that it was perpetuating the Mughal Empire in Delhi, but in fact it was never a legitimate authority of any kind, just an invading foreign, private company with its own private army. It recruited and used its Indian soldiers, sepoys for its expansion and taxation exploitation of the subcontinent.

There was a systemic disrespect in the company for the spreading of Protestantism although it fostered respect for Hindu and Muslim, castes and ethnic groups. The growth of tensions between the EIC and the local religious and cultural groups grew in the 19th century as the Protestant revival grew in Great Britain. These tensions erupted at the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the company ceased to exist when the company dissolved through the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act 1873.[23] Opium trade Main articles: First Opium War and Second Opium War The Nemesis destroying Chinese war junks during the Second Battle of Chuenpee, 7 January 1841, by Edward Duncan

In the 18th century, Britain had a huge trade deficit with Qing Dynasty China and so in 1773, the Company created a British monopoly on opium buying in Bengal. As the opium trade was illegal in China, Company ships could not carry opium to China. So the opium produced in Bengal was sold in Calcutta on condition that it be sent to China.[24]

Despite the Chinese ban on opium imports, reaffirmed in 1799 by the Jiaqing Emperor, the drug was smuggled into China from Bengal by traffickers and agency houses such as Jardine, Matheson & Co and Dent & Co. in amounts averaging 900 tons a year. The proceeds of the drug-smugglers landing their cargoes at Lintin Island were paid into the Company's factory at Canton and by 1825, most of the money needed to buy tea in China was raised by the illegal opium trade.

The Company established a group of trading settlements centred on the Straits of Malacca called the Straits Settlements in 1826 to protect its trade route to China and to combat local piracy. The Settlements were also used as penal settlements for Indian civilian and military prisoners.

In 1838, with the amount of smuggled opium entering China approaching 1,400 tons a year, the Chinese imposed a death penalty for opium smuggling and sent a Special Imperial Commissioner, Lin Zexu, to curb smuggling. This resulted in the First Opium War (1839–1842). After the war Hong Kong island was ceded to Britain under the Treaty of Nanking and the Chinese market opened to the opium traders of Britain and other nations. A Second Opium War fought by Britain and France against China lasted from 1856 until 1860 and led to the Treaty of Tientsin. Regulation of the company's affairs This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2011) Writers

The Company employed many junior clerks, known as "writers", to record the details of accounting, managerial decisions, and activities related to the Company, such as minutes of meetings, copies of Company orders and contracts, and filings of reports and copies of ship's logs. Several well-known British scholars and literary men had Company writerships, such as Henry Thomas Colebrooke in India and Charles Lamb in England. Two ships in a harbour, one in the distance. On board, men stripped to the waist and wearing feathers in their hair are throwing crates overboard. A large crowd, mostly men, is standing on the dock, waving hats and cheering. A few people wave their hats from windows in a nearby building. Monopolistic activity by the company triggered the Boston Tea Party. The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor, 1773 Financial troubles

Though the Company was becoming increasingly bold and ambitious in putting down resisting states, it was getting clearer that the Company was incapable of governing the vast expanse of the captured territories. The Bengal famine of 1770, in which one-third of the local population died, caused distress in Britain. Military and administrative costs mounted beyond control in British-administered regions in Bengal due to the ensuing drop in labour productivity.

At the same time, there was commercial stagnation and trade depression throughout Europe. The directors of the company attempted to avert bankruptcy by appealing to Parliament for financial help. This led to the passing of the Tea Act in 1773, which gave the Company greater autonomy in running its trade in the American colonies, and allowed it an exemption from tea import duties which its colonial competitors were required to pay.

When the American colonists, who included tea merchants, were told of the act, they tried to boycott it, claiming that although the price had gone down on the tea when enforcing the act, it also would help validate the Townshend Acts and set a precedent for the king to impose additional taxes in the future. The arrival of tax-exempt Company tea, undercutting the local merchants, triggered the Boston Tea Party in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, one of the major events leading up to the American Revolution. Regulating Acts of Parliament East India Company Act 1773

By the Regulating Act of 1773 (later known as the East India Company Act 1773), the Parliament of Great Britain imposed a series of administrative and economic reforms and by doing so clearly established its sovereignty and ultimate control over the Company. The Act recognised the Company's political functions and clearly established that the "acquisition of sovereignty by the subjects of the Crown is on behalf of the Crown and not in its own right."

Despite stiff resistance from the East India lobby in parliament and from the Company's shareholders the Act was passed. It introduced substantial governmental control and allowed the land to be formally under the control of the Crown, but leased to the Company at £40,000 for two years. Under this provision governor of Bengal Warren Hastings became the first Governor-General of Bengal, and had administrative powers over all of British India. It provided that his nomination, though made by a court of directors, should in future be subject to the approval of a Council of Four appointed by the Crown – namely Lt. General Sir John Clavering, The Honourable Sir George Monson, Sir Richard Barwell, and Sir Philip Francis.[25]

Hastings was entrusted with the power of peace and war. British judicial personnel would also be sent to India to administer the British legal system. The Governor General and the council would have complete legislative powers. The company was allowed to maintain its virtual monopoly over trade in exchange for the biennial sum and was obligated to export a minimum quantity of goods yearly to Britain. The costs of administration were to be met by the company. These provisions were initially welcomed by the Company, but with the annual burden of the payment to be met, its finances continued steadily to decline.[25] East India Company Act 1784 (Pitt's India Act)

The East India Company Act 1784 (Pitt's India Act) had two key aspects:

   Relationship to the British government: the bill differentiated the East India Company's political functions from its commercial activities. In political matters the East India Company was subordinated to the British government directly. To accomplish this, the Act created a Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India, usually referred to as the Board of Control. The members of the Board were the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Secretary of State, and four Privy Councillors, nominated by the King. The act specified that the Secretary of State "shall preside at, and be President of the said Board".
   Internal Administration of British India: the bill laid the foundation for the centralised and bureaucratic British administration of India which would reach its peak at the beginning of the 20th century during the governor-generalship of George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Baron Curzon.

Pitt's Act was deemed a failure because it quickly became apparent that the boundaries between government control and the company's powers were nebulous and highly subjective. The government felt obliged to respond to humanitarian calls for better treatment of local peoples in British-occupied territories. Edmund Burke, a former East India Company shareholder and diplomat, was moved to address the situation and introduced a new Regulating Bill in 1783. The bill was defeated amid lobbying by company loyalists and accusations of nepotism in the bill's recommendations for the appointment of councillors. Act of 1786

The Act of 1786 (26 Geo. 3 c. 16) enacted the demand of Earl Cornwallis that the powers of the Governor-General be enlarged to empower him, in special cases, to override the majority of his Council and act on his own special responsibility. The Act enabled the offices of the Governor-General and the Commander-in-Chief to be jointly held by the same official.

This Act clearly demarcated borders between the Crown and the Company. After this point, the Company functioned as a regularised subsidiary of the Crown, with greater accountability for its actions and reached a stable stage of expansion and consolidation. Having temporarily achieved a state of truce with the Crown, the Company continued to expand its influence to nearby territories through threats and coercive actions. By the middle of the 19th century, the Company's rule extended across most of India, Burma, Malaya, Singapore, and British Hong Kong, and a fifth of the world's population was under its trading influence. East India Company Act 1793 (Charter Act)

The Company's charter was renewed for a further 20 years by the Charter Act of 1793. In contrast with the legislative proposals of the past two decades, the 1793 Act was not a particularly controversial measure, and made only minimal changes to the system of government in India and to British oversight of the Company's activities. East India Company Act 1813 (Charter Act)

The aggressive policies of Lord Wellesley and the Marquis of Hastings led to the Company gaining control of all India(except for the Punjab and Sindh), and the kingdom of Nepal. The Indian Princes had become vassals of the Company. But the expense of wars leading to the total control of India strained the Company's finances. The Company was forced to petition Parliament for assistance. This was the background to the Charter Act of 1813 which, among other things:

   asserted the sovereignty of the British Crown over the Indian territories held by the Company;
   renewed the charter of the company for a further twenty years, but
       deprived the company of its Indian trade monopoly except for trade in tea and the trade with China
       required the company to maintain separate and distinct its commercial and territorial accounts
   opened India to missionaries

One Rupee coin issued by the East India Company, 1835 (reverse) Government of India Act 1833

The Industrial Revolution in Britain, the consequent search for markets, and the rise of laissez-faire economic ideology form the background to the Government of India Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. 4 c. 85). The Act:

   removed the Company's remaining trade monopolies and divested it of all its commercial functions
   renewed for another twenty years the Company's political and administrative authority
   invested the Board of Control with full power and authority over the Company. As stated by Professor Sri Ram Sharma,[26] "The President of the Board of Control now became Minister for Indian Affairs."
   carried further the ongoing process of administrative centralisation through investing the Governor-General in Council with, full power and authority to superintend and, control the Presidency Governments in all civil and military matters
   initiated a machinery for the codification of laws
   provided that no Indian subject of the Company would be debarred from holding any office under the Company by reason of his religion, place of birth, descent or colour
   vested the Island of St Helena in the Crown

British influence continued to expand; in 1845, Great Britain purchased the Danish colony of Tranquebar. The Company had at various stages extended its influence to China, the Philippines, and Java. It had solved its critical lack of cash needed to buy tea by exporting Indian-grown opium to China. China's efforts to end the trade led to the First Opium War (1839–1842). English Education Act 1835 Main article: English Education Act 1835

The English Education Act by the Council of India in 1835 to reallocated funds from the East India Company to spend on education and literature in India. Government of India Act 1853

This Act (16 & 17 Vict. c. 95) provided that British India would remain under the administration of the Company in trust for the Crown until Parliament should decide otherwise. Indian Rebellion of 1857 Main article: Indian Rebellion of 1857

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 resulted in widespread devastation in India; many condemned the East India Company for permitting the events to occur.[citation needed] One of the consequences of the Indian Mutiny was that the British Government nationalised the Company. The Company lost all its administrative powers; the Crown, pursuant to the provisions of the Government of India Act 1858, took over its Indian possessions, including its armed forces.

The Company continued to manage the tea trade on behalf of the British Government (and the supply of Saint Helena) until the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act 1873 came into effect, on 1 January 1874. The Act provided for the dissolution of the company on 1 June 1874, after a final dividend payment and the commutation or redemption of its stock.[27] The Times reported, "It accomplished a work such as in the whole history of the human race no other company ever attempted and as such is ever likely to attempt in the years to come." The expanded East India House, Leadenhall Street, London, as reconstructed in 1796–1800. A drawing by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd of c.1817. Establishments in Britain

The Company's headquarters in London, from which much of India was governed, was East India House in Leadenhall Street. After occupying premises in Philpot Lane, Fenchurch Street, from 1600 to 1621; in Crosby House, Bishopsgate, from 1621 to 1638; and in Leadenhall Street from 1638 to 1648, the Company moved into Craven House, an Elizabethan mansion in Leadenhall Street. The building had become known as East India House by 1661. It was completely rebuilt and enlarged in 1726–9; and further significantly remodelled and expanded in 1796–1800. It was finally vacated in 1860 and demolished in 1861–62. The site is now occupied by the Lloyd's building.

In 1607, the Company decided to build its own ships and leased a yard on the River Thames at Deptford. By 1614, the yard having become too small, an alternative site was acquired at Blackwall: the new yard was fully operational by 1617. It was sold in 1656, although for some years East India Company ships continued to be built and repaired there under the new owners.

In 1803, an Act of Parliament, promoted by the East India Company, established the East India Dock Company, with the aim of establishing a new set of docks (the East India Docks) primarily for the use of ships trading with India. The existing Brunswick Dock, part of the Blackwall Yard site, became the Export Dock; while a new Import Dock was built to the north. In 1838 the East India Dock Company merged with the West India Dock Company. The docks were taken over by the Port of London Authority in 1909, and closed in 1967.

The East India College was founded in 1806 as a training establishment for "writers" (i.e. clerks) in the Company's service. It was initially located in Hertford Castle, but moved in 1809 to purpose-built premises at Hertford Heath, Hertfordshire. In 1858 the college closed; but in 1862 the buildings reopened as a public school, now Haileybury and Imperial Service College. Addiscombe Seminary, photographed in c.1859, with cadets in the foreground.

The East India Company Military Seminary was founded in 1809 at Addiscombe, near Croydon, Surrey, to train young officers for service in the Company's armies in India. It was based in Addiscombe Place, an early 18th-century mansion. The government took it over in 1858, and renamed it the Royal Indian Military College. In 1861 it was closed, and the site was subsequently redeveloped.

In 1818, the Company entered into an agreement by which those of its servants who were certified insane in India might be cared for at Pembroke House, Hackney, London, a private lunatic asylum run by Dr George Rees until 1838, and thereafter by Dr William Williams. The arrangement outlasted the Company itself, continuing until 1870, when the India Office opened its own asylum, the Royal India Asylum, at Hanwell, Middlesex.[28]

The East India Club in London was formed in 1849 for officers of the Company. The Club still exists today as a private Gentlemen's club with its club house situated at 16 St. James's Square, London.[29] Legacy

The East India Company has had a long lasting impact on the Indian Subcontinent. Although dissolved following the rebellion of 1857, it stimulated the growth of the British Empire. Its armies after 1857 were to become the armies of British India and it played a key role in introducing English as an official language in India.

The East India Company was the first company to record the Chinese usage of orange-flavoured tea in which it led to the development of Earl Grey tea.[30]

The East India Company introduced a system of merit-based appointments that provided a model for the British and Indian civil service[31]

Although the EIC used Indian soldiers, these soldiers never could reach a title higher than Non-commissioned officer, such as sergeant or corporal but never an officer in command of his own unit.[23] Flags

   Downman (1685)
   Lens (1700)
   Rees (1820)
   Laurie (1842)
   National Geographic (1917)
   Prior to the Acts of Union which created the Kingdom of Great Britain, the flag contained the St George's Cross in the canton representing the Kingdom of England
   The flag had a Union Flag in the canton after the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707
   After 1801 the flag contained the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the canton (1810)

The English East India Company flag changed over time. From the period of 1600 to the 1707 Acts of Union between England and Scotland the flag consisted of a St George's cross in the canton and a number of alternating Red and White stripes. After 1707 the canton contained the original Union Flag consisting of a combined St George's cross and a St Andrew's cross. After the Acts of Union 1800 that joined Ireland with Great Britain to form the United Kingdom, the canton of the East India Company's flag was altered accordingly to include the new Union Flag with the additional Saint Patrick's Flag. There has been much debate and discussion regarding the number of stripes on the flag and the order of the stripes. Historical documents and paintings show many variations from 9 to 13 stripes, with some images showing the top stripe being red and others showing the top stripe being white.

At the time of the American Revolution the East India Company flag was identical to the Grand Union Flag. Sir Charles Fawcett argued that the East India Company Flag inspired the Stars and Stripes.[32] Ships

Ships of the East India Company were called East Indiamen or simply "Indiamen".[33] Some examples include:

   Red Dragon (1595)
   Doddington (East Indiaman) Lost 1755
   Royal Captain (before 1773)
   HMS Grosvenor Lost 1782
   General Goddard (1782)
   Earl of Abergavenny (1797)
   Earl of Mornington (1799); packet ship
   Lord Nelson (1799)
   Kent (1820): Lost on her third voyage
   Nemesis (1839): first British built ocean-going iron warship
   Agamemnon (1855)

During the period of the Napoleonic Wars, the East India Company arranged for letters of marque for its vessels such as the Lord Nelson. This was not so that they could carry cannons to fend off warships, privateers and pirates on their voyages to India and China (that they could do without permission) but so that, should they have the opportunity to take a prize, they could do so without being guilty of piracy. Similarly, the Earl of Mornington, an East India Company packet ship of only six guns too sailed under a letter of marque.

The company also had its own navy, the Bombay Marine, equipped with warships such as the Grappler. These vessels often accompanied vessels of the Royal Navy on expeditions, such as the Invasion of Java (1811).

At the Battle of Pulo Aura, which was probably the company's most notable naval victory, Nathaniel Dance, Commodore of a convoy of Indiamen and sailing aboard the Warley, led several Indiamen in a skirmish with a French squadron, driving them off. Some six years earlier, on 28 January 1797, five Indiamen, the Woodford, under Captain Charles Lennox, the Taunton-Castle, Captain Edward Studd, Canton, Captain Abel Vyvyan, and Boddam, Captain George Palmer, and Ocean, Captain John Christian Lochner, had encountered Admiral de Sercey and his squadron of frigates. On this occasion the Indiamen also succeeded in bluffing their way to safety, and without any shots even being fired. Lastly, on 15 June 1795, the General Goddard played a large role in the capture of seven Dutch East Indiamen off St Helena.

The HEIC's ships were well built, with the result that the Royal Navy bought several Company ships to convert to warships and transports. The Earl of Mornington became HMS Drake. Other examples include:

   HMS Calcutta (1795)
   HMS Glatton (1795)
   HMS Hindostan (1795)
   HMS Hindostan (1804)
   HMS Malabar (1804)
   HMS Buffalo (1813)

The company had many ports of call, some of which have seen their names changed over time. Main article: List of ports of call of the British East India Company Records

Unlike all other British Government records, the records from the East India Company (and its successor the India Office) are not in The National Archives at Kew, London, but are stored by the British Library in London as part of the Asia, Pacific, and Africa Collection: see India Office Records. The catalogue is searchable online in the Access to Archives catalogues.[34] Many of the East India Company records are freely available online under an agreement that the Families in British India Society have with the British Library. Published catalogues exist of East India Company ships’ journals and logs, 1600–1834;[35] and of some of the Company's daughter institutions, including the East India Company College, Haileybury, and Addiscombe Military Seminary.[36] See also Portal icon British Empire portal

East India Company:

   List of BEIC directors
   Governor-General of India
   East India Company Cemetery in Macau
   India Office Records

East India Company – UK:

   East India House
   Addiscombe Military Seminary 1809–1861
   East India Company College 1805–1858
   East India Docks, London
   Blackwall Yard, London

UK administration of India:

   Commander-in-Chief, India
   Presidencies
       Madras Presidency
       Bengal Presidency
       Bombay Presidency
   Presidency armies
       Madras Army
       Bengal Army
       Bombay Army
       British Raj (British Indian Empire 1858–1947)

Other East India Companies:

       Assada Company, English, founded 1635 and ceased 1657
       Austrian East India Company, a series of companies going under the names of Société impériale asiatique de Trieste et Anvers, or Société asiatique de Trieste, based in Ostend and Trieste, founded 1775 by William Bolts and ceased 1785
       Dutch East India Company, founded 1602 and ceased 1798
       Danish East India Company, founded in 1616 and ceased 1846
       French East India Company, founded 1664 and ceased 1769
       Portuguese East India Company, founded 1628 and ceased 1633
       Swedish East India Company, founded 1731 and ceased 1813

General:

   Chartered companies
   Spice trade
   Carnatic Wars
   British Imperial Lifeline
   Commercial Revolution
   Political warfare in British colonial India

Notes and references

Notes

   Jump up ^ See Treaty of Union.
   Jump up ^ The Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock.
   Jump up ^ The Register of Letters &c. of the Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies, 1600–1619. On page three, a letter written by Elizabeth I on 23 January 1601 ("Witnes or selfe at Westminster the xxiiijth of Ianuarie in the xliijth yeare of or Reigne.") states, "Haue been pleased to giue lysence vnto or said Subjects to proceed in the said voiadgs, & for the better inabling them to establish a trade into & from the said East Indies Haue by or tres Pattents vnder or great seale of England beareing date at Westminster the last daie of december last past incorporated or said Subjecte by the name of the Gournor & Companie of the merchaunts of London trading into the East Indies, & in the same tres Pattents haue geven them the sole trade of theast Indies for the terme of XVteen yeares ..."
   Jump up ^ Baladouni, Vahe (1983). "Accounting in the Early Years of the East India Company". The Accounting Historians Journal 10 (2): 63–80. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
   Jump up ^ This is the argument of Robins 2006.
   ^ Jump up to: a b c d Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II 1908, p. 454[full citation needed]
   ^ Jump up to: a b Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II 1908, p. 6
   Jump up ^ Gardner, Brian (1972). The East India Company: a History. McCall Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8415-0124-6.
   ^ Jump up to: a b The battle of Plassey ended the tax on the indian goods. Indian History Sourcebook: England, India, and The East Indies, 1617 A.D
   Jump up ^ Tyacke, Sarah (2008). "Gabriel Tatton's Maritime Atlas of the East Indies, 1620–1621: Portsmouth Royal Naval Museum, Admiralty Library Manuscript, MSS 352". Imago Mundi 60 (1): 39–62.
   Jump up ^ Bernstein, William J.,A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2008, p. 238.
   Jump up ^ "East India Company" (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Volume 8, p.835
   Jump up ^ Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopaedia of the Early Modern World
   Jump up ^ Burgess, Douglas R. (2009). The Pirates' Pact: The Secret Alliances Between History's Most Notorious Buccaneers and Colonial America. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-147476-4
   Jump up ^ Fox, E. T. (2008). King of the Pirates: The Swashbuckling Life of Henry Every. London: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7524-4718-6.
   ^ Jump up to: a b c The British East India Company—the Company that Owned a Nation. George P. Landow
   ^ Jump up to: a b Thomas, P. D. G. (2008) "Pratt, Charles, first Earl Camden (1714–1794)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, online edn, accessed 15 February 2008 (subscription or UK public library membership required)
   Jump up ^ SALTPETER the secret salt – Salt made the world go round
   Jump up ^ Company incursion, Manila 1762–1763. See the Bib. for the citation of Sirs Draper and Cornish; see also Cushner's citation.
   Jump up ^ Cholera's seven pandemics. CBC News. 2 December 2008
   Jump up ^ Holmes, Richard (2005). Sahib: the British soldier in India, 1750–1914. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-713753-2.
   Jump up ^ Note: as of December 30, 1600, the official name: Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading with the East Indies
   ^ Jump up to: a b Tolan, John; Veinstein, Gilles and Henry Laurens (2013). "Europe and the Islamic World: A History". Princeton University Press. pp. 275–276. ISBN 978-0-691-14705-5.
   Jump up ^ EAST INDIA COMPANY FACTORY RECORDS Sources from the British Library, LondonPart 1: China and Japan
   ^ Jump up to: a b Anthony, Frank. Britain's Betrayal in India: The Story of the Anglo Indian Community. Second Edition. London: The Simon Wallenberg Press, 2007 Pages 18- 19, 42, 45.
   Jump up ^ Kapur
   Jump up ^ East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act 1873 (36 & 37 Vict. 17) s. 36: "On the First day of June One thousand eight hundred and seventy-four, and on payment by the East India Company of all unclaimed dividends on East India Stock to such accounts as are herein-before mentioned in pursuance of the directions herein-before contained, the powers of the East India Company shall cease, and the said Company shall be dissolved." Where possible, the stock was redeemed through commutation (i.e. exchanging the stock for other securities or money) on terms agreed with the stockholders (ss. 5–8), but stockholders who did not agree to commute their holdings had their stock compulsorily redeemed on 30 April 1874 by payment of £200 for every £100 of stock held (s. 13).
   Jump up ^ Farrington 1976, pp. 125–32.
   Jump up ^ East India Club
   Jump up ^ Bringing back John Company
   Jump up ^ "The Company that ruled the waves", in The Economist, 17–30 December 2011, p. 111.
   Jump up ^ The Striped Flag Of The East India Company, And Its Connexion With The American "Stars And Stripes"
   Jump up ^ Sutton, Jean (1981) Lords of the East: The East India Company and Its Ships. London: Conway Maritime
   Jump up ^ A2A – Access to Archives Home
   Jump up ^ Farrington (ed.), Anthony (1999). Catalogue of East India Company ships’ journals and logs: 1600–1834. London: British Library. ISBN 0-7123-4646-5.
   Jump up ^ Farrington 1976.

Bibliography

   Andrews, Kenneth R. (1985). Trade, Plunder, and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480–1630. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25760-3.
   Bowen, H. V. (1991). Revenue and Reform: The Indian Problem in British Politics, 1757–1773. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40316-2.
   Bowen, H. V.; Margarette Lincoln, and Nigel Rigby, eds. (2003). The Worlds of the East India Company. Rochester, NY: Brewer. ISBN 0-85115-877-3.
   Brenner, Robert (1993). Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London’s Overseas Traders, 1550–1653. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05594-7.
   Carruthers, Bruce G. (1996). City of Capital: Politics and Markets in the English Financial Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-04455-2.
   Chaudhuri, K. N. (1965). The English East India Company: The Study of an Early Joint-Stock Company, 1600–1640. London: Cass.
   Chaudhuri, K. N. (1978). The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company, 1660–1760. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21716-4.
   Chaudhury, S. (1999). Merchants, Companies, and Trade: Europe and Asia in the Early Modern Era. London: Cambridge University Press.
   Farrington (ed.), Anthony (1976). The Records of the East India College, Haileybury, & other institutions. London: H.M.S.O.
   Farrington, Anthony (2002). Trading Places: The East India Company and Asia, 1600–1834. London: British Library. ISBN 0-7123-4756-9.
   Furber, Holden (1976). Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600–1800. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0787-7.
   Harrington, Jack (2010), Sir John Malcolm and the Creation of British India, New York: Palgrave Macmillan., ISBN 978-0-230-10885-1
   Keay, John (2010). The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company. HarperCollins UK. ISBN 978-0-00-739554-5. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
   Lawson, Philip (1993). The East India Company: A History. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-07386-3.
   O'Connor, Daniel (2012). The Chaplains of the East India Company, 1601–1858. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-1-4411-7534-2.
   Riddick, John F. The history of British India: a chronology (2006) excerpt and text search, covers 1599–1947
   Riddick, John F. Who Was Who in British India (1998), covers 1599–1947
   Risley (ed.), Sir Herbert H. et al. (1908), The Indian Empire: Historical, Imperial Gazetteer of India 2, Oxford: Clarendon Press, under the authority of H.M. Secretary of State for India
   Risley (ed.), Sir Herbert H. et al. (1908), The Indian Empire: Administrative, Imperial Gazetteer of India 4, Oxford: Clarendon Press, under the authority of H.M Secretary of State for India
   Robins, Nick (2006). The Corporation that Changed the World: How the East India Company Shaped the Modern Multinational. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 0-7453-2524-6.
   Sen, Sudipta (1998). Empire of Free Trade: The East India Company and the Making of the Colonial Marketplace. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3426-8.
   Steensgaard, Niels (1975). The Asian Trade Revolution of the Seventeenth Century: The East India Companies and the Decline of the Caravan Trade. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-77138-5.
   Sutherland, Lucy S. (1952). The East India Company in Eighteenth-Century Politics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
   Dirks, Nicholas (2006). The Scandal of Empire: India and the creation of Imperial Britain. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-02166-5.

External links Commons has media related to British East India Company.

   Charter of 1600
   East India Company on In Our Time at the BBC. (listen now)
   The Twilight of the East India Company: The Evolution of Anglo-Asian Commerce and Politics, 1790–1860[dead link]: Boydell & Brewer, Woodbridge, 2009
   From Trade to Colonization: Historical Dynamics of the East India Companies[dead link]
   Seals and Insignias of East India Company
   The Secret Trade The basis of the monopoly.
   Trading Places – a learning resource from the British Library
   Trading Places: The East India Company and Asia, a free seminar from the British Library on the history of the British East India Company.
   Port Cities: History of the East India Company
   Ships of the East India Company
   Plant Cultures: East India Company in India
   Library of Congress Federal Research Division Country Studies
   The British East India Company
   History and Politics: East India Company
   English Expansionism
   Nick Robins, New Statesman, 13 December 2004, "The world's first multinational"[dead link]
   Karl Marx, New York Tribune, 1853–1858, The Revolt in India
   East India Company: Its History and Results article by Karl Marx, MECW Volume 12, p. 148 in Marxists Internet Archive
   East India Club Gentlemen's club originally for officers and former officers of the Company, now open to others.
   Text of East India Company Act 1773
   Text of East India Company Act 1784
   John Stuart Mill and The East India Company, Vinay Lal's review of Lynn Zastoupil's 1994 book
   The Richest East India Merchant: The Life and Business of John Palmer of Calcutta, 1767–1836 (Worlds of the East India Company) by Anthony Webster
   "The East India Company – a corporate route to Europe" on BBC Radio 4’s In Our Time featuring Huw Bowen, Linda Colley and Maria Misra
   A timeline of India in the 1800s
   HistoryMole Timeline: The British East India Company

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Chartered companies British

   Company of Merchant Adventurers of London
   Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands
   London and Bristol Company
   African Company of Merchants
   Guinea Company
   Muscovy Company
   Spanish Company
   Eastland Company
   Barbary Company
   East India Company
   Levant Company
   Virginia Company
   French Company
   Massachusetts Bay Company
   Providence Island Company
   Royal West Indian Company
   Hudson's Bay Company
   Royal African Company
   Greenland Company
   South Sea Company
   Sierra Leone Company
   New Zealand Company
   Eastern Archipelago Company
   Royal British Bank
   North Borneo Company
   Royal Niger Company
   South Africa Company
   South Australian Company

French

   Company of One Hundred Associates
   Compagnie de l'Occident
   Compagnie du Mississippi
   Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique
   Compagnie des Indes Occidentales
   Compagnie des Indes Orientales

German

   Brandenburg African Company
   Emden Company
   West African Company
   New Guinea Company
   East Africa Company

Portuguese

   Companhia da Guiné
   Companhia de Moçambique
   Companhia do Nyassa
   Portuguese East India Company
   Grão Pará and Maranhão Company
   Pernambuco and Paraíba Company
   House of India

Low Countries

   Dutch East India Company
   Nordic Company
   New Netherland Company
   Dutch West India Company
   Ostend Company

Scandinavian

   Danish East India Company
   Danish West India Company
   Royal Greenland
   New Sweden Company
   Swedish Africa Company
   Swedish East India Company
   Swedish West India Company
   Swedish Levant Company

World Heritage Encyclopedia book Book · Category Category

Categories:

   British East India Company
   British India
   British rule in Singapore
   British Malaya
   Colonial Indian companies
   History of England
   Monopolies
   Chartered companies
   1600 establishments in England
   Trading companies
   Mysore invasion of Kerala
   History of foreign trade in China
   British Indian history
   Defunct companies of the United Kingdom
   Companies established in 1600
   Companies disestablished in 1857


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Edinburgh Trader crew

The Edinburgh Trader is a merchant vessel commanded by Captain Bellamy, who is played by Alex Norton. Three other members, Bursar, played by Max Baker, the Quartermaster, played by Steve Speirs,and a sailor, played by Matthew Bowyer are a superstitious pair duped into believing that Elizabeth's dress is possessed by a ghost when it is found by the sailor. Various crew members also believe this. Most hands are killed when the Kraken attacks the ship. The few survivors are captured and executed by the Flying Dutchman's crew on Davy Jones's orders.

King Ferdinand

King Ferdinand VI of Spain is portrayed by Sebastian Armesto and based on Ferdinand VI of Spain. He rules Spain from his palace in Cadiz. After learning about the discovery of the Fountain of Youth, King Ferdinand sends his most trusted agent, known only as the Spaniard, to find and destroy the Fountain, because he saw it as the abomination in the eyes of God.

King George

King George II of Great Britain is portrayed by Richard Griffiths and based on George II of Great Britain. He rules Great Britain and Ireland. At some point before the events of the fourth film, he employed Hector Barbossa as a Privateer. When Jack Sparrow refused to lead an expedition to the Fountain of Youth, the King sent Barbossa to find the legendary spring.

Giselle

Giselle, played by Vanessa Branch, is a blonde wench in Tortuga who appears in the first three films. She is a friend of Scarlett. Both women seem to have relationships going with Jack Sparrow, though they frequently slap him for having cheated on them with each other. They are last seen at the end of the third film, strolling down a pier with Gibbs after once again slapping Jack following his declaration that he lied to them several times and on several levels.

Scarlett

Scarlett, played by Lauren Maher, is the woman who slaps Jack for cheating on her with her friend Giselle in Curse of the Black Pearl. In Dead Man's Chest Scarlett and Giselle ask Will Turner to give Jack a message from them, as they both believe he has abandoned them for some other woman, and then they slap Will. In At World's End the two women have reconciled their differences somewhat. At the end of the film, they are looking forward to a ride Jack promised them on the Pearl, only to find that Barbossa has stolen it, upsetting Jack and making it impossible for him to keep his promise.

Cabin Boy

Cabin Boy (played by Robbie Kay), a dirty deck-scrubber, but still a brave pirate, who fights in the mutiny scene on the Queen Anne's Revenge. He also takes part at the Fountain of Youth and fights Barbossa and his crew, and also frees Phillip from his bonds so he could save Syrena from dying in the sun.

Gunner

The Gunner (played by Deobia Oparei) was one of Blackbeard's zombie officers serving aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge. He fought against Jack Sparrow during the mutiny before being subdued by Salaman and the Cook. He died when Blackbeard himself was killed at the Fountain of Youth.

Quartermaster

The Quartermaster (played by Ian Mercer) was a zombie serving aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge. He could predict things before they happened as seen when he predicted Blackbeard's death by a one legged man. He died at the Fountain along with all the other zombies.

Master-at-Arms

The Master-at-Arms (played by Derek Mears) was a zombie in On Stranger Tides under the command of Blackbeard. He died at the Fountain along with his fellow zombies.

Yeoman

Yeoman (played by Danny Le Boyer) was a zombie who helped carry Syrena's glass coffin through the jungle but ended up tripping causing the coffin to shatter. He died at the Fountain along with the other zombies.

Prison Dog

The prison dog (played by A dog) guards the Port Royal jail keys by carrying them in its mouth during The Curse of the Black Pearl. Prisoners vainly attempt to retrieve the keys from it (in a reference to the Disney Parks's Pirates of the Caribbean ride). The dog appears again in Dead Man's Chest with Pintel and Ragetti after they have escaped prison and are headed for Pelegosto to search for the Black Pearl. He was named " Poochie " by Pintel until he was left on Pelegosto. The dog is eventually left on Pelegosto, where the cannibal tribe chases after it, leaving Jack Sparrow to climb aboard the Black Pearl. In an extra scene after the credits of Dead Man's Chest it is revealed that the dog becomes the chief of the Pelegosto tribe. The dog reappears during the third film as the keeper of the Pirata Codex keys on Shipwreck Island. Captain Teague explains the dog's presence by saying, "Sea turtles, mate," a reference to Jack Sparrow's tall tale of his own escape from being marooned. The DVD case for At World's End confirmed that the dog literally rode on the backs of sea turtles.

Leech

Leech, played by San Shella, is an Indian pirate under Captain Jack in The Dead Man's Chest. He contemplates mutiny because the crew is angered by Jack's actions, and later claims that the Black Pearl can be crewed by six men, showing that he has decided to incite to mutiny. He disobeys orders from Will to not continue climbing as they are climbing the cliff on Pelegosto Island. He and the others in his cage continue climbing anyway, which proves fatal after Leech grabs a snake. He panics, causing the others to let go of the cliff, causing them to fall into the canyon and die.

LeJon

LeJon is a pirate who serves under Jack Sparrow in Dead Man's Chest. He is captured on Pelegosto along with the rest of the crew, and is one of those who is not eaten immediately, instead put into a cage dangling above the canyon. They try to escape, but are spotted after Leech and the others in the second cage fall to their deaths. He manages to escape along with Will, Gibbs, Cotton and Marty. They meet Pintel and Ragetti at the Black Pearl. After reuniting with Jack, he and the others escape, and he continues to serve under Jack even when faced with Davy Jones. He dies during the Kraken's attack while trying to ignite explosives to repel it.

Ho-Kwan

Ho Kwan is a pirate who serves under Jack Sparrow in Dead Man's Chest. He is captured on Pelegosto along with the rest of the crew, and is one of those who is not eaten immediately, instead put into a cage dangling above the canyon. They try to escape, but are spotted after Leech and the others in the second cage fall to their deaths. He manages to escape along with Will, Gibbs, Cotton and Marty, but is not shown again.

Lian

Lian appears in At World's End in Singapore as one of Sao Feng's body guards along with her twin sister Park. She is present when Elizabeth Swann and Hector Barbossa visit Sao Feng. When a group of EITC soldiers led by Ian Mercer barge into the bath house, Lian and Park fight alongside Sao Feng. When Mercer aims his gun at Elizabeth, William Turner pushes her out of the way and the bullet hits Park square in the forehead killing her. Determined to avenge her sister, Lian ambushes Mercer in a small shop stand. She manages to stab him with a steel chopstick from her hair, but Mercer shoves her to the ground and shoots her dead.

Park

Park appears in At World's End in Singapore as one of Sao Feng's body guards along with her twin sister Lian. She is present when Elizabeth Swann and Hector Barbossa visit Sao Feng. When a group of EITC soldiers led by Ian Mercer barge into the bath house, Park and Lian fight alongside Sao Feng. When Mercer aims his gun at Elizabeth, William Turner pushes her out of the way and the bullet hits Park square in the forehead killing her instantly. Lian would avenge her by ambushing Mercer in a small shop stand, but she gets pushed to the ground and also shot and killed.

Mr. Brown

Mr. Brown, played by Ralph P. Martin, is a drunken blacksmith Will Turner is apprenticed to at the beginning of The Curse of the Black Pearl. He normally does nothing to help Will and takes credit for the work Will does for Brown. After Jack Sparrow defeats Will in his shop while fleeing from Commodore Norrington, Brown prevents Jack's escape by knocking him over the head with a wine bottle from behind, allowing Norrington and his men immediately burst in and capture Jack. Norrington thanks Brown for his help, to which the blacksmith replies drunkenly "Just doing my civic duty sir."

Chaplain

Chaplain is an English first mate of a ship. He is a strong Christian, as when he is killed in the Dead Man's Chest he is holding a cross. Chaplain's ship is sunken by the Kraken under the order of Davy Jones and he is one of the few people that survive. One of his crew is confronted by Jones, and Jones asks the crew member if he fears death. The crew member, clearly terrified, nods. Jones offers him and the rest of the crew an "escape" from death. Chaplain yells to the member, "Don't listen to him!" and Jones switches his attention to Chaplain, grabbing him around the neck and asking him, "Do you not fear death?". Chaplain tells Jones, "I'll take my chances, sir." Jones orders his own crew to send him "to the depths," and Chaplain is killed.

Salaman

Salaman (played by Paul Bazely) was an Indian pirate serving aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge in On Stranger Tides who later took part in the mutiny against Blackbeard. He was last seen heading for Tortuga under the command of Captain Hector Barbossa after the battle at the Fountain of Youth.

Steng

Steng, also known as The Spy, was a former pirate assigned by the East India Trading Co. to see where the brethren court were meeting. He dressed with a fake tattoo and dressed like a pirate and went to Singapore and spied on Barbossa talking to Sao Feng. Feng saw the tattoo dissolving and assumed that the spy was Barbossa's. Feng pulled out his sword and aimed it at the spy's chest and said "Drop your weapons, or I kill your man!". Barbossa said that the spy was not his. Will Turner said "If he's not with you [Feng] and he's not with us, who's he with?" before the East India Trading Company ambush Feng and Barbossa. He was later found dead on a tropical island, floating (ironically in the freshwater spring they were looking for) when the Black Pearl crew were searching for a supply of water after they escaped from Davy Jones's Locker. Barbossa immediately tastes the water of the spring and says "Poisoned. Fouled by the body".

Hernán Cortés

Hernán Cortés was an unseen character based on the conquistador of the same name. As Barbossa said, Cortés was very greedy and he began to conquer the Aztec empire. He was about to stem the slaughter with his Spanish armies and when there were only rare Aztecs the Aztec Indians then gave him 882 pieces of their gold. Cortés took it but still was not satisfied with his greed. The Heathen gods could not take his greed anymore and cursed the gold so that anybody who removes a single piece would be cursed. The curse would turn someone completely insatiable, and also into a skeleton when placed in the moonlight.

Tai Huang

Tai Huang, played by Reggie Lee, is Sao Feng's first mate and his most loyal assistant. He joins Barbossa's crew on their quest to rescue Jack from Davy Jones' Locker, although he later betrays and captures them for Feng. It's not sure whether he does this out of true loyalty to Feng, as while in the Locker he tells Sparrow that his loyalties lie with "the highest bidder," suggesting that Feng had just happened to have the upper hand more often and therefore was who Tai Huang was most willing to serve. He (reluctantly, at first) serves Elizabeth Swann after Feng appoints her as captain and pirate lord just before his death. He is last seen cheering a victory cry on his ship.

Tamara

Tamara, played by Gemma Ward, was a mermaid who attacks Blackbeard's crew. When she first appears, she sings the song "My Jolly Sailor Bold" to the crewmen as the other mermaids appear. She tries to seduce Scrum and when he tries to kiss her she reveals her true monster form. She tries to attack but Ezekiel hits her with an oar. The mermaids then afterwards attack the crew.

Whitecap Bay Mermaids

Whitecap Bay Mermaids are a vicious and dangerous horde of mermaids with siren skills. When Tamara appears and sings the song "My Jolly Sailor Bold" the rest of the mermaids appear and try to attract and enchant the sailors. When Tamara reveals her true form they attack the crew and begin a bloody battle. Several of them died or were wounded. They finally escaped when Jack Sparrow explodes the lighthouse. In a deleted scene Jack meets one of them and calls her "Marina", she slaps him and leaves with the rest of her people. They were played by: Jorgelina Airaldi (Marina), Sanya Hughes (Mermaid #1), Daphne Joy (Mermaid #2), Antoinette Nikprelaj (Mermaid #3), Breanne Beth Barrett (Mermaid #4) and Toni Busker (Mermaid #5).

References

  • Davy Jones's crew information and images

External links

  • The wiki
nl:Lijst van schepen in Pirates of the Caribbean#Dauntless
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