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Russian alphabet

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Russian alphabet

Russian alphabet in capital letters
Listen to the Russian alphabet

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The Russian alphabet (Russian: русский алфавит, tr. rússkij alfavít; IPA: ) uses letters from the Cyrillic script. The modern Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters.

Contents

  • Alphabet 1
    • Frequency 1.1
  • Non-vocalized letters 2
  • Vowels 3
  • Letters eliminated in 1918 4
  • Letters in disuse by 1750 5
  • Treatment of foreign sounds 6
  • Numeric values 7
  • Diacritics 8
  • Keyboard layout 9
  • Letter names 10
  • See also 11
  • Notes 12
  • References 13
  • Bibliography 14
  • External links 15

Alphabet

The Russian alphabet is as follows:
Letter Cursive Name Old name IPA Approximate English
example
Russian example, romanization, meaning Unicode (Hex)
Аа а
азъ
[as]
/a/ father два dva
"two"
1 U+0410 / U+0430
Бб бэ
буки
[ˈbukʲɪ]
/b/ or /bʲ/ bad без byez
"without"
U+0411 / U+0431
Вв вэ
вѣди
[ˈvʲedʲɪ]
/v/ or /vʲ/ vine вот vot
"here"
2 U+0412 / U+0432
Гг гэ
глаголь
[ɡlɐˈɡolʲ]
/ɡ/ go год god
"year"
3 U+0413 / U+0433
Дд дэ
добро
[dɐˈbro]
/d/ or /dʲ/ do да da
"yes"
4 U+0414 / U+0434
Ее е
есть
[jesʲtʲ]
/je/, / ʲe/ or /e/ yes не ne
"not"
5 U+0415 / U+0435
Ёё ё
/jo/ or / ʲɵ/ yoghurt своё svoyó
"one's own, my, our"
U+0401 / U+0451
Жж жэ
живѣте
[ʐɨˈvʲetʲɪ][1]
/ʐ/ pleasure жук zhuk
"bug"
U+0416 / U+0436
Зз зэ
земля
[zʲɪˈmlʲæ]
/z/ or /zʲ/ zoo за za
"behind"
7 U+0417 / U+0437
Ии и
иже
[ˈiʐɨ]
/i/ or / ʲi/ me или íli
"or"
8 U+0418 / U+0438
Йй и краткое
и съ краткой
[ɪ s ˈkratkəj]
/j/ toy мой moy
"my"
U+0419 / U+0439
Кк ка
како
[ˈkakə]
/k/ or /kʲ/ kiss кто kto
"who"
20 U+041A / U+043A
Лл эл or эль
or
люди
[ˈlʲʉdʲɪ]
/l/ or /lʲ/ lamp ли li
"whether"
30 U+041B / U+043B
Мм эм
мыслѣте
[mɨˈsʲlʲetʲɪ][2]
/m/ or /mʲ/ map чем chem
"than"
40 U+041C / U+043C
Нн эн
нашъ
[naʂ]
/n/ or /ɲ/ not но no
"but"
50 U+041D / U+043D
Оо о
онъ
[on]
/o/ more он on
"he"
70 U+041E / U+043E
Пп пэ
покой
[pɐˈkoj]
/p/ or /pʲ/ pet под pod
"under"
80 U+041F / U+043F
Рр эр
рцы
[rt͡sɨ]
/r/ or /rʲ/ rolled r при pri
"attached to"
100 U+0420 / U+0440
Сс эс
слово
[ˈslovə]
/s/ or /sʲ/ see если yésli
"if"
200 U+0421 / U+0441
Тт тэ
твердо
[ˈtvʲerdə]
/t/ or /tʲ/ tool тот tot
"that"
300 U+0422 / U+0442
Уу у
укъ
[uk]
/u/ boot уже uzhé
"already"
400 U+0423 / U+0443
Фф эф
фертъ
[fʲert]
/f/ or /fʲ/ face форма fórma
"form"
500 U+0424 / U+0444
Хх ха
хѣръ
[xʲer]
/x/ Scots loch хорошо khoroshó
"well"
600 U+0425 / U+0445
Цц це
цы
[t͡sɨ]
/t͡s/ sits конец konéts
"end"
900 U+0426 / U+0446
Чч че
червь
[t͡ɕerfʲ]
/t͡ɕ/ chip четыре chetýre
"four"
90 U+0427 / U+0447
Шш ша
ша
[ʂa]
/ʂ/ sharp ваш vash
"yours"
U+0428 / U+0448
Щщ ща
ща
[ɕt͡ɕæ]
/ɕɕ/ sheer (sometimes instead pronounced
as in fresh-cheese)
ещё yeshchyó
"yet, still"
U+0429 / U+0449
Ъъ твёрдый знак
еръ
[jer]
silent, prevents palatalization of the preceding consonant объект obyékt
"object"
U+042A / U+044A
Ыы ы
еры
[jɪˈrɨ]
[ɨ] roses ты ty
"you"
U+042B / U+044B
Ьь мягкий знак
ерь
[jerʲ]
/ ʲ/ silent, palatalizes the preceding consonant (if it is phonologically possible) весь vyes
"all"
U+042C / U+044C
Ээ э
э оборотное
[ˈɛ əbɐˈrotnəɪ]
/ɛ/ met это éto
"this, that"
U+042D / U+044D
Юю ю
ю
[ju]
/ju/ or / ʲʉ/ use юг yug
"south"
U+042E / U+044E
Яя я
я
[ja]
/ja/ or / ʲæ/ yard себя sebyá
"myself"
U+042F / U+044F
letters eliminated in 1917–18
Іі і десятеричное
/i/ or / ʲi/ or /j/ Like и or й стихотворенія (now стихотворения) stikhotvoréniya
"poem"
10
Ѳѳ ѳита
/f/ or /fʲ/ Like ф орѳографія (now орфография) orfográfiya
"spelling"
9
Ѣѣ ять
/e/ or / ʲe/ Like е Алексѣй (now Алексeй) Alekséy
Alexey
Ѵѵ ижица
/i/ or / ʲi/ Usually like и, see below мѵро (now миро) míro
"chrism"
letters eliminated before 1750
Ѕѕ зѣло
[3]
/z/ or /zʲ/ Like з n/a 6
Ѯѯ кси
/ks/ or /ksʲ/ Like кс n/a 60
Ѱѱ пси
/ps/ or /psʲ/ Like пс n/a 700
Ѡѡ омега
/o/ Like о n/a 800
Ѫѫ юсъ большой
/u/, /ju/ or / ʲu/ Like у or ю n/a
Ѧѧ юсъ малый
/ja/ or / ʲa/ Like я n/a
Ѭѭ юсъ большой іотированный
/ju/ or / ʲu/ Like ю n/a
Ѩѩ юсъ малый іотированный
/ja/ or / ʲa/ Like я n/a

The consonant letters represent both as "soft" (palatalized, represented in the IPA with a ʲ) and "hard" consonant phonemes. If a consonant letter is followed by a vowel letter, then the soft/hard quality of the consonant depends on whether the vowel is meant to follow "hard" consonants а, о, э, у, ы or "soft" ones я, ё, е, ю, и; see below. A handful of consonant phonemes do not have phonemically distinct "soft" and "hard" variants. See Russian phonology for details.

^† An alternate form of the letter El (Л л) closely resembles the Greek letter for lambda (Λ λ).

Frequency

The frequency of characters in a corpus of written Russian was found to be as follows:[4]

Letter Frequency Other information
О 11.07% The most common letter in the Russian alphabet.
E 8.50% Foreign words sometimes use E rather than Э, even if it is pronounced "e" instead of "ye". In addition, Ё is often replaced by Е. This makes E even more common. For more information, see Vowels.
A 7.50%
И 7.09%
H 6.70% The most common consonant in the Russian alphabet.
T 5.97%
C 4.97%
Л 4.96%
B 4.33%
P 4.33%
К 3.30%
M 3.10%
Д 3.09%
П 2.47%
Ы 2.36%
У 2.22%
Б 2.01%
Я 1.96%
Ь 1.84%
Г 1.72%
З 1.48%
Ч 1.40%
Й 1.21%
Ж 1.01%
X 0.95%
Ш 0.72%
Ю 0.47%
Ц 0.39%
Э 0.36% Foreign words sometimes use E rather than Э, even if it is pronounced "e" instead of "ye". This makes Э even less common. For more information, see Vowels.
Щ 0.30%
Ф 0.21% The least common consonant in the Russian alphabet.
Ё 0.20% In written Russian, Ё is often replaced by E. For more information, see Vowels.
Ъ 0.02% Ъ used to be a very common letter in the Russian alphabet. This is because before the 1918 reform, any word ending with a non-palatalized consonant was written with a final Ъ - e.g., pre-1918 вотъ vs. post-reform вот. The reform eliminated the use of Ъ in this context, leaving it the least common letter in the Russian alphabet. For more information, see Non-vocalized letters.

Non-vocalized letters

  • hard sign (ъ), when put after a consonant, acts like a "silent back vowel" that separates a succeeding iotated vowel from the consonant, making that sound with a distinct /j/ glide. Today it is used mostly to separate a prefix from the following root. Its original pronunciation, lost by 1400 at the latest, was that of a very short middle schwa-like sound, /ŭ/ but likely pronounced [ə] or [ɯ]. Until the 1918 reform, no written word could end in a consonant: those that end in a ("hard") consonant in modern orthography had then a final ъ.
  • soft sign (ь) acts like a "silent front vowel" and indicates that the preceding consonant is palatalized. This is important as palatalization is phonemic in Russian. For example, брат [brat] ('brother') contrasts with брать [bratʲ] ('to take'). The original pronunciation of the soft sign, lost by 1400 at the latest, was that of a very short fronted reduced vowel /ĭ/ but likely pronounced [ɪ] or [jɪ]. There are still some remnants of this ancient reading in modern Russian, in the co-existing versions of the same name, read differently, such as in Марья and Мария (Mary).

Vowels

The vowels е, ё, и, ю, я indicate a preceding palatalized consonant and with the exception of и are iotated (pronounced with a preceding /j/) when written at the beginning of a word or following another vowel (initial и was iotated until the nineteenth century). The IPA vowels shown are a guideline only and sometimes are realized as different sounds, particularly when unstressed. However, е may be used in words of foreign origin without palatalization (/e/), and я is often realized as [æ] between soft consonants, such as in мяч ("toy ball").

ы is an old Proto-Slavic tense intermediate vowel, thought to have been preserved better in modern Russian than in other Slavic languages. It was originally nasalized in certain positions: камы [ˈka.mɨ̃]; камень [ˈka.mʲɪnʲ] ("rock"). Its written form developed as follows: ъ + іъıы.

э was introduced in 1708 to distinguish the non-iotated/non-palatalizing /e/ from the iotated/palatalizing one. The original usage had been е for the uniotated /e/, ѥ or ѣ for the iotated, but ѥ had dropped out of use by the sixteenth century. In native Russian words, э is found only at the beginnings of words or in compound words (e.g. поэтому "therefore" = по + этому). In words that come from foreign languages in which the use of iotated /e/ in uncommon or non-existing (such as English, for example), э is usually written in the beginning of words and after vowels except и (e.g. поэт, poet), and е after и and consonants. However, the pronunciation is inconsistent. Many words, especially monosyllables, words ending in е and many words where е follows т, д, н, с, з or р are pronounced with /e/ without palatalization or iotation: секс (seks — "sex"), проект (proekt — "project") (in this example, the spelling is etymological but the pronunciation is counteretymological). But many other words are pronounced with /ʲe/: секта (syekta — "sect"), дебют (dyebut — "debut"). Proper names are usually not concerned by the rule (Сэм — "Sam", Пэмела — "Pamela", Мао Цзэдун — "Mao Zedong"); the use э after consonants is common in East Asian names and in English names with the sounds and , with some exceptions such as Джек ("Jack") or Шепард ("Shepard"), since both э and е are not palatalized in cases of же ("che") or ше ("she"), yet in writing е usually prevails.

ё, introduced by Karamzin in 1797 and made official in 1943 by the Soviet Ministry of Education,[5] marks a /jo/ sound that has historically developed from /je/ under stress, a process that continues today. The letter ё is optional (in writing, not in pronunciation): it is formally correct to write e for both /je/ and /jo/. None of the several attempts in the twentieth century to mandate the use of ё have stuck.

Letters eliminated in 1918

Grapheme Name Description
і Decimal I identical in pronunciation to и, was used exclusively immediately in front of other vowels and the й ("Short I") (for example, патріархъ [pətrʲɪˈarx], 'patriarch') and in the word міръ [mʲir] ('world') and its derivatives, to distinguish it from the word миръ [mʲir] ('peace') (the two words are actually etymologically cognate[6][7] and not arbitrarily homonyms).[8]
ѳ Fita from the Greek theta, was identical to ф in pronunciation, but was used etymologically (for example, Ѳёдоръ "Theodore").
ѣ Yat originally had a distinct sound, but by the middle of the eighteenth century had become identical in pronunciation to е in the standard language. Since its elimination in 1918, it has remained a political symbol of the old orthography.
ѵ Izhitsa from the Greek upsilon, usually identical to и in pronunciation, as in Byzantine Greek, was used etymologically for Greek loanwords, like Latin Y (as in synod, myrrh); by 1918, it had become very rare. In spellings of the eighteenth century, it was also used after some vowels that have since been replaced with в. For example, a Greek prefix originally spelled аѵто is now spelled авто.

Letters in disuse by 1750

ѯ and ѱ derived from Greek letters xi and psi, used etymologically though inconsistently in secular writing until the eighteenth century, and more consistently to the present day in Church Slavonic.

ѡ is the Greek letter omega, identical in pronunciation to о, used in secular writing until the eighteenth century, but to the present day in Church Slavonic, mostly to distinguish inflexional forms otherwise written identically.

ѕ corresponded to a more archaic /dz/ pronunciation, already absent in East Slavic at the start of the historical period, but kept by tradition in certain words until the eighteenth century in secular writing, and in Church Slavonic and Macedonian to the present day.

The yuses ѫ and ѧ, letters that originally used to stand for nasalized vowels /õ/ and /ẽ/, had become, according to linguistic reconstruction, irrelevant for East Slavic phonology already at the beginning of the historical period, but were introduced along with the rest of the Cyrillic script. The letters ѭ and ѩ had largely vanished by the twelfth century. The uniotated ѫ continued to be used, etymologically, until the sixteenth century. Thereafter it was restricted to being a dominical letter in the Paschal tables. The seventeenth-century usage of ѫ and ѧ (see next note) survives in contemporary Church Slavonic, and the sounds (but not the letters) in Polish.

The letter ѧ was adapted to represent the iotated /ja/ я in the middle or end of a word; the modern letter я is an adaptation of its cursive form of the seventeenth century, enshrined by the typographical reform of 1708.

Until 1708, the iotated /ja/ was written ıa at the beginning of a word. This distinction between ѧ and ıa survives in Church Slavonic.

Although it is usually stated that the letters labelled "fallen into disuse by the eighteenth century" in the table above were eliminated in the typographical reform of 1708, reality is somewhat more complex. The letters were indeed originally omitted from the sample alphabet, printed in a western-style serif font, presented in Peter's edict, along with the letters з (replaced by ѕ), и, and ф (the diacriticized letter й was also removed), but were reinstated except ѱ and ѡ under pressure from the Russian Orthodox Church in a later variant of the modern typeface (1710). Nonetheless, since 1735 the Russian Academy of Sciences began to use fonts without ѕ, ѯ, and ѵ; however, ѵ was sometimes used again since 1758.

Treatment of foreign sounds

Because Russian borrows terms from other languages, there are various conventions for sounds not present in Russian. For example, while Russian has no [h], there are a number of common words (particularly proper nouns) borrowed from languages like English and German that contain such a sound in the original language. In well-established terms, such as галлюцинация ('hallucination'), this is written with г and pronounced with /ɡ/ while newer terms use х, pronounced with /x/, such as хобби ('hobby').[9]

Similarly, words originally with [θ] in their source language are either pronounced with /t(ʲ)/), as in the name Тельма ('Thelma') or, if borrowed early enough, with /f(ʲ)/ or /v(ʲ)/, as in the names Фёдор ('Theodore') and Матве́й ('Matthew').

Numeric values

The numerical values correspond to the Greek numerals, with ѕ being used for digamma, ч for koppa, and ц for sampi. The system was abandoned for secular purposes in 1708, after a transitional period of a century or so; it continues to be used in Church Slavonic.

Diacritics

Russian spelling uses fewer diacritics than those used for most European languages. The only diacritic, in the proper sense, is the acute accent ◌́  (Russian: знак ударения 'mark of stress'), which marks stress on a vowel, as it is done in Spanish. Although Russian word stress is often unpredictable and can fall on different syllables in different forms of the same word, this diacritic is only used in special cases: in dictionaries, children's books, or language-learning resources, on minimal pairs distinguished only by stress (for instance, за́мок 'castle' vs. замо́к 'lock'). Rarely, it is used to specify the stress in uncommon foreign words and in poems where unusual stress is used to fit the meter.

The letter ё is a special variant of the letter е, which is not always distinguished in written Russian, but the umlaut-like sign has no other uses. Stress on this letter is never marked, as it is always stressed, except in some loanwords.

Unlike the case of ё, the letter й has completely separated from и. It has been used since the 16th century, was removed in 1708 but reinstated in 1735. Since then, its usage has been mandatory. It was formerly considered a diacriticized letter, but in the 20th century it came to be considered a separate letter of the Russian alphabet. It was classified as a "semivowel" by 19th- and 20th-century grammarians but since the 1970s it has been considered a consonant letter.

Keyboard layout

The standard Russian keyboard layout for PC computers is as follows:

Russian keyboard layout

However, there are several choices of so-called "phonetic keyboards" that one may use on a PC that are often used by non-Russians. For example, typing an English (Latin) letter on a keyboard will actually type a Russian letter with a similar sound (A-A,O-O,F-Ф,...). See virtual keyboard and Russian keyboard layout (WorldHeritage).

Letter names

Until approximately the year 1900, mnemonic names inherited from Church Slavonic were used for the letters. They are given here in the pre-1918 orthography of the post-1708 civil alphabet.

The great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin wrote: "The letters constituting the Slavonic alphabet do not produce any sense. Аз, буки, веди, глаголь, добро etc. are separate words, chosen just for their initial sound". But since the names of the first letters of the Slavonic alphabet seem to form text, attempts were made to compose sensible text from all letters of the alphabet.[10][11]

Here is one such attempt to "decode" the message:

аз буки веди I know letters[12]
глаголь добро есть "To speak is a beneficence" or "The word is property"[13]
живете зело, земля, и иже и како люди "Live, while working heartily, people of Earth, in the manner people should obey"
мыслете наш он покой "try to understand the Universe (the world that is around)"
рцы слово твердо "be committed to your word"[14]
ук ферт хер "The knowledge is fertilized by the Creator, knowledge is the gift of God"
цы червь ша ер ять ю "Try harder, to understand the Light of the Creator"

In this attempt words only in two first lines and line 5 somewhat correspond to real meanings of the letters' names, while "translations" in other lines seem to be fabrications or fantasies. For example, "покой" ("rest" or "apartment") doesn't mean "the Universe", and "ферт" doesn't have any meaning in Russian or other Slavonic languages (there are no words of Slavonic origin beginning with "f" at all). The last line contains only one translatable word – "червь" ("worm"), which, however, was not included in the "translation".

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ; the dictionary makes difference between е and ё.[1]

References

  1. ^ .
  2. ^ .
  3. ^ .
  4. ^ Stefan Trost Media, Character Frequency: Russian. "Basis of this list were some Russian texts with together 1.351.370 characters (210.844 words), 1.086.255 characters were used for the counting. The texts consist of a good mix of different literary genres."
  5. ^ Benson 1960, p. 271.
  6. ^ Vasmer 1979.
  7. ^ .
  8. ^ Smirnovskiy 1915, p. 4.
  9. ^ Dunn & Khairov 2009, pp. 17–8.
  10. ^
  11. ^ }. — P. 35.
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^

Bibliography

  • Ivan G. Iliev. Short History of the Cyrillic Alphabet. Plovdiv. 2012. Short History of the Cyrillic Alphabet

External links

  • .
  • . Bi-directional online transliteration for ALA-LC (diacritics), scientific, ISO/R 9, ISO 9, GOST 7.79B and others. Supports Old Slavonic characters
  • .
  • .
  • .
  • .
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