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Reporters Without Borders

Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Sans Frontières
Formation 1985
Type United Nations
Headquarters Paris, France
Director General
Christophe Deloire
(since July 2012)
  Income: €4.2 million (2011)
Expense: €4.6 million (2011)
Approximately 120
Head office, Paris

Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is a France-based international

  • Reporters Without Borders web site

External links

  1. ^ a b c d e
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Reporters Without Borders : For Freedom of Information", Brochure, Reporters Without Borders, 16 April 2012
  4. ^
  5. ^ English translation: "Robert Ménard 'will be fine media' "
  6. ^ "Christophe Deloire appointed Reporters Without Borders director-general", Reporters Without Borders, 21 May 2012
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Worldwide Presence", Reporters Without Borders, 13 November 2012
  9. ^ "Reporters Without Borders, Laureate of the International Association of Press Clubs Award", Reporters Without Borders, 4 June 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  10. ^
  11. ^ "Ladies, Ibrahim and Reporters joint Sakharov prize winners", European Parliament, 27 June 2006
  12. ^ "Mission Reports", Reporters Without Borders, retrieved 21 March 2013
  13. ^ "Overview", Reporters Without Borders, retrieved 21 March 2013
  14. ^ "Press Freedom Index 2014", Reporters Without Borders, 11 May 2014
  15. ^ 2013 "World Press Freedom Index - Methodology", Reporters Without Borders, 31 January 2013
  16. ^ Artists Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival
  17. ^ "Predators of Freedom of Information in 2013", Reporters Without Borders", 3 May 2013
  18. ^ a b "Journalists Killed", Reporters Without Borders, retrieved 18 June 2015
  19. ^ "2014 round-up of violence against journalists", Reporters Without Borders, 15 December 2014
  20. ^ "71 journalists were killed in 2013", Reporters Without Borders, 18 December 2013
  21. ^ "2012 Roundup in Numbers", Reporters Without Borders, 30 December 2012
  22. ^ "The 10 most dangerous places for journalists", Reporters Without Borders, 21 December 2011
  23. ^ "Freedom of press report 2010", Reporters Without Borders, 30 December 2010
  24. ^ a b "Round-up of Press freedom in 2009", Reporters Without Borders, 30 December 2009
  25. ^ "Handbooks", Reporters Without Borders, retrieved 21 March 2013
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^ a b
  31. ^ List of the 13 Internet enemies Reporters Without Borders (Paris), 11 July 2006.
  32. ^ "Internet enemies", Reporters Without Borders (Paris), 12 March 2009.
  33. ^ Web 2.0 versus Control 2.0. Reporters Without Borders (Paris), 18 March 2010.
  34. ^ a b Internet Enemies, Reporters Without Borders (Paris), 12 March 2012
  35. ^ "Internet Enemies", Enemies of the Internet 2014: Entities at the heart of censorship and surveillance, Reporters Without Borders (Paris), 11 March 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
  36. ^ a b c "The Enemies of the Internet Special Edition : Surveillance, Reporters Without Borders, 12 March 2013
  37. ^ "Buy the Photography Books", Reporters Without Borders, 14 December 2012, retrieved 21 March 2013
  38. ^ a b
  39. ^ "100 Photos for Press Freedom", Reporters sans frontières, 27 December 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  40. ^ "World Day Against Cyber Censorship", Reporters Without Borders, retrieved 31 July 2012
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^ "Syrian citizen journalists and activists capture 2012 Netizen Prize", Reporters Without Borders, 13 March 2012
  44. ^ "Reporters Without Borders Awards Vietnamese blogger Huynh Ngoc Chenh", Reporters Without Borders, 7 March 2013
  45. ^ a b "Reporters Without Borders - TV5Monde Prize for Press Freedom", Reporters Without Borders, 5 November 2014
  46. ^ PrizeLe Monde"Press Kit: The 2011 Reporters Without Borders , 6 December 2011
  47. ^
  48. ^ "Reporters Without Borders Prize for Press Freedom", Reporters Without Borders, 19 December 2012
  49. ^ "Press Freedom Prize goes to Uzbek journalist and Sri Lankan daily", Reporters Without Borders, 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^ "Cuban journalist, North Korean radio station and two Burmese bloggers win 17th annual Reporters Without Borders Prize", Reporters Without Borders, 4 December 2008
  56. ^ "RWB launches Sochi 2014 campaign", Reporters Without Borders, 1 March 2013
  57. ^, Reporters Without Borders, accessed 21 March 2013
  58. ^ "Voiceless Eyes–Site of the Day", Favourite Website Awards, 18 January 2013
  59. ^ "Voiceless Eyes", The Inspiration Room, 5 December 2012, retrieved 21 March 2013
  60. ^ "New website fights censorship", Julia Mahncke, Deutsche Welle, 2 December 2012
  61. ^ "About Us", We Fight Censorship, Reporters Without Borders, retrieved 21 March 2013
  62. ^ "International campaign in support of independent North Korean media", Reporters Without Borders, 17 January 2011
  63. ^ a b c
  64. ^ a b c
  65. ^
  66. ^ "Philippines", Reporters Without Borders, 12 February 2008
  67. ^ Annual Accounts, Reporters Without Borders, 9 December 2014. Accessed 11 April 2015.
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^ a b c
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^ a b c d Reporters Without Borders Unmasked, Diana Barahona, CounterPunch, 17 May 2005
  74. ^ a b c Reporters Without Borders ordered to pay 6,000 euros to Korda's heir over use of Che photo,, 12 March 2004
  75. ^ English translation: "RSF and the photo of 'Che' "
  76. ^ "Reporters Without Borders protesters beaten up by Cuban embassy officials", CubaNet, 24 April 2003
  77. ^ Cherian, John (29 March – 11 April 2008). "Trouble in Tibet". Frontline. 25(7).
  78. ^ "Why we take so much interest in Cuba". Reporters Without Borders. 8 July 2005.
  79. ^ a b Coups d'Etat sans frontières (French), English translation: "Coups Without Borders", Maurice Lemoine, Le Monde diplomatique, August 2002
  80. ^ "Reporters Without Borders' Lies about Cuba", Salim Lamrani, Centre for Research on Globalisation, 2 July 2009.
  81. ^
  82. ^ a b
  83. ^ a b "Reporters Without Borders' Lies about Venezuela", Salim Lamrani, English translation by Scott Campbell Les Blough, Axis of Logic, 27 June 2009.
  84. ^ "The Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index: Independent Assessment or EU Propaganda?", John Rosenthal, World Politics Review: Part I, 6 November 2007 and Part II, 14 November 2007
  85. ^ Reporters sans frontières (Reporters Without Borders) : List of NGOs Studied in France : NGO Directory (French), Observatory of humanitarian action, 29 September 2010: "Depuis que Jean-François Julliard a remplacé Robert Ménard en septembre 2008, l'association [...] ne s'occupe plus seulement des violations des droits de la presse dans les dictatures du tiers-monde et couvre aussi des pays développés comme la France. Un pareil élargissement géographique permet notamment à l'association de réagir aux critiques qui l'accusaient de trop se focaliser sur les régimes de gauche hostiles aux Etats-Unis." ("Since Jean-François Julliard replaced Robert Ménard in September 2008, the association [...] is no longer involved with just violations of media rights in third world dictatorships and now also covers developed countries such as France. Such a geographic expansion allows the association to respond to critics who accused it of too much focus on leftist regimes hostile to the United States.")
  86. ^
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See also


UNESCO support for International Online Free Expression Day

According to the Observatoire, ever since Robert Ménard was replaced by Jean-François Julliard in September 2008, RWB has been concerned with violations of press freedom not only in "third-world dictatorships" but also in developed countries like France. Through widening its geographical scope, RWB aims at countering accusations of overly focusing on left-wing regimes unfriendly to the US.[85] For example, RWB condemned the 35 year sentence received by American soldier Chelsea Manning, calling it "disproportionate" and arguing that it reveals how "vulnerable" whistleblowers are.[86]

The Observatoire de l'Action Humanitaire (Centre for Humanitarian Action) noticed that RWB offered but mild criticism against US forces for their shelling, in 2003, of Palestine Hotel, in Baghdad, Iraq, which killed two Reuters journalists. The family of one of the deceased journalists, Spanish citizen José Couso, refused to allow the Spain chapter of RWB to attach its name to a legal action led by the family against the US army, arguing that RWB interviewed US forces responsible for the shelling, but not the surviving journalists, and that RWB thanked the US army for their "precious help".[63]

In 2007 John Rosenthal argued that RWB showed a bias in favor of European countries.[84] In the 2009 article about RWB and Venezuela cited above, Salim Lamrani stated that "RSF is not an organization that defends freedom of the press, but is an obscure entity with a political agenda precisely commissioned to discredit through all possible means the progressive governments in the world that find themselves on the United States' blacklist."[83]

Overemphasis on "third-world dictatorships", bias in favor of Europe and the U.S.

Le Monde diplomatique has criticized RWB's attitude towards Hugo Chávez's government in Venezuela, in particular during the 2002 coup attempt.[79] RWB is said to have lent its support for Venezuelan media outlets in their pro-coup attitude, and had as a Caracas correspodent María Sol Pérez-Schael, an opposition adviser.[63] In a right of reply, Robert Ménard declared that RWB had also condemned the Venezuela media's support of the coup attempt.[70] RWB has also been criticized for supporting Globovision's version of events about its false reporting in relation to a 2009 earthquake, claiming Globovision was "being hounded by the government and the administration".[83]


It was clear early on that RWB and Robert Menard were not acting as objective guardians of freedom of the press in Haiti but rather as central actors in what can only be described as a disinformation campaign against Aristide's government ... They provide false information and skewed reports to build internal opposition to governments seen as uncontrollable and unpalatable to Washington while softening the ground for their eventual removal by providing justification under the pretext of attacks on the freedom of the press.[82]

An August 2006 article in CounterPunch accused RWB of ignoring similar attacks on journalists under the Latortue government in 2005 and 2006, including that of Pacifica Radio reporter Kevin Pina.[82] Pina himself said:

In 2004, Reporters Without Borders released an annual report on Haiti, saying that a "climate of terror" existed in which attacks and threats persisted against those journalists who were critical of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.[81]


Journalist Salim Lamrani has accused Reporters Without Borders with making unsupported and contradictory statements regarding Internet connectivity in Cuba.[80]

RWB has denied that its campaigning on Cuba are related to payments it has received from anti-Castro organisations.[78] In 2004, it received $50,000 from the Miami-based exile group, the Center for a Free Cuba, which was personally signed by the US State Department's Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere, Otto Reich.[73] RWB has also received extensive funding from other institutions long critical of Fidel Castro's government, including the International Republican Institute.[79]

RWB in turn has been described as an "ultra-reactionary" organization by the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party, Granma.[74] Tensions between Cuban authorities and RWB are high, particularly after the imprisonment in 2003 of 75 dissidents (27 journalists) by the Cuban Government, including Raúl Rivero and Óscar Elías Biscet. An article by John Cherian in the Indian magazine Frontline alleged that RWB "is reputed to have strong links with Western intelligence agencies" and "Cuba has accused Robert Meynard [sic] the head of the group, of having CIA links".[77]

[76] RWB has been highly critical of press freedom in Cuba, describing the Cuban government as "


Lucie Morillon, RWB's then-Washington representative, confirmed in an interview on 29 April 2005 that the organization had a contract with US State Department's Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere, Otto Reich, who signed it in his capacity as a trustee for the Center for a Free Cuba, to inform Europeans about the repression of journalists in Cuba.[73] CounterPunch, a critic of RWB, cited Reich's involvement with the group as a source of controversy: when Reich headed the Reagan administration's Office of Public Diplomacy in the 1980s, the body partook in what its officials termed "White Propaganda" – covert dissemination of information to influence domestic opinion regarding US backing for military campaigns against Left-wing governments in Latin America.[73]

Otto Reich

Criticisms of RWB

Daniel Junqua, the vice-president of the French section of RWB (and also vice-president of the NGO Les Amis du Monde diplomatique), stated that funding from the National Endowment for Democracy does not compromise RWB's impartiality.[70]

Public funding has come from organisations such as the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights of the ROC Ministry of Foreign Affairs,[72] and the National Endowment for Democracy, a branch of the U.S. State Department.[64][38]

In addition various private groups and organizations have supported RWB through in-kind donations of their services. The photography books are one example as is the work of Saatchi & Saatchi which created various communication campaigns for free (for instance, concerning censorship in Algeria).[69]

Over the years RWB's private funding has come from groups and organizations such as Sigrid Rausing Trust, Benetton, and the Center for a Free Cuba.[64][68]


  • April 2005: To mark the first anniversary of Guy-André Kieffer's abduction in Abidjan, buckets of liquid cocoa and counterfeit dollars are thrown in front of the Côte d'Ivoire Embassy in Paris.
  • 2006: In a show of support for journalists jailed in Cuba, some activities simulate their incarceration on the Esplanade of Human Rights in Paris.
  • October 2007: "Press Freedom Predators" exhibit on the Esplanade of Human Rights in Paris.
  • May 2010: Famous French reporters pose for a photo during a rally in support of Hervé Ghesquière and Stéphane Taponier, France 3 journalists held hostage in Afghanistan.
  • November 2010: While Chinese President Hu Jintao's official procession moves down the Champs-Élysées, several activists open umbrellas bearing the slogan “Free Liu Xiaobo.”
  • December 2010: Images of Hervé Ghesquière and Stéphane Taponier, France 3 journalists held hostage in Afghanistan, are projected onto the Arc de Triomphe on the first anniversary of their abduction.
The sign reads: Depuis 500 Jours, Hervé [Ghesquière] et Stéphane [Taponier] sont otages en Afghanistan (For 500 days, Hervé [Ghesquière] and Stéphane [Taponier] are hostages in Afghanistan)
  • May 2011: On World Press Freedom Day, some activists throw buckets of blue paint on the outer walls of the Syrian Embassy in Paris, on which they have written the slogan “It is ink that should flow, not blood.”
  • September 2011: During Rwandan President Paul Kagamé's official visit, as he greets a Medef delegation in the Hotel Ritz, activists are gagged with a red scarf to protest against the silence surrounding press freedom violations in Rwanda.

Examples include:[3]

RWB organises symbolic actions in front of the embassies of countries that restrict freedom of information and at various summits and key international events. Photos and videos from these “blitz” interventions are distributed by the international media which helps raise public awareness and identify the enemies of press freedom.[3]


  • Philippines. On 23 August 2007, RWB condemned the continuing threats and violence against Palawan station manager Lily Uy.[65] On 27 December 2007, RWB appealed to Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration to forthwith arrest the killers of radio broadcaster Ferdinand Lintuan, 51, the fifth journalist killed in 2007 in the Philippines. As first president of the Davao Association of Sports Journalists he was murdered in Davao City on 24 December.[66]
  • Beijing 2008 campaign. Reporters Without Borders protested the possibility of China hosting the 2008 Summer Olympics since 2001. On 30 March 2008, the day the Olympic torch departed from Olympia, Greece, RWB president Robert Ménard unfurled behind Chinese representative Qi Liu a banner bearing a design resembling the logo of the Olympics, in which the Olympic rings were replaced with handcuffs. On 7 April 2008, the day the torch came to Paris, Ménard, with the help of two other activists, climbed to the top of Notre Dame Cathedral to hoist a banner with the same Olympic symbol.[63] In one of RWB's most popular campaigns to date, T-shirts bearing the symbol became so popular that sales for them surpassed 1 million euros.[64]
RWB handcuffs as Olympic rings protesting 2008 Olympics in China
  • Independent North Korean media campaign. An international advertising campaign launched on 17 January 2011 to support independent media in North Korea.[62]
  • We Fight Censorship project. An RWB project launched on 27 November 2012 with support from the European Union's European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) and the Paris City Hall. The project's goal is to combat censorship and promote the flow of news and information by creating an easily duplicated web site that will be used to publish content (articles, photos, videos and sound files) that has been censored, banned, or has led to reprisals against its creator (murder, arrest, harassment, pressure and so on). The site will host content in its original language (including French, English, Chinese, Arabic, Russian and Spanish) and in translation (above all in French and English).[60][61]
  • Voiceless Eyes campaign. Using the catchphrase “How can you see the truth when it cannot be told?”, an interactive site demonstrates the need for a free press as one element of a larger campaign launched in December 2012.[57] The web site uses webcam-activated technology to encourage users to cover and uncover their mouths to become aware of the harsh realities that can go unseen when restrictions are placed on free speech. An alternative version of the site uses the space bar. The site was selected as Site of the Day on 18 January 2013 by the Favourite Website Awards (FWA) of Cambridge, England.[58] Voiceless Eyes was developed for RWB at Les 84 Paris by creative directors Olivier Bienaime and Herve Bienaime, head of creative technology Jean-Vincent Roger, strategic planner Nicolas Camillini and art director Antoine Arnoux using images from AFP photographers Tony Karumba, Aris Messinis, Jay Directo, Mauricio Lima, Bulent Kilic, Christophe Simon, Dario Leon, Olivier Laban-Mattei, and Philippe Desmazes.[59]
  • Sochi 2014 campaign. A program supporting journalists, bloggers, and human rights defenders in Russia, that ran from 1 March 2013 until the start of the Sochi Winter Olympic Games on 7 February 2014.[56]

Examples include:

RWB conducts advertising campaigns, jointly with communications professionals, to inform the public and to create bad publicity for governments that violate freedom of information. The campaigns are circulated to the media, international organisations, government agencies, and educational institutions using the Internet as well as traditional media channels.[3]


Reporters Without Borders awards a cyber-dissident prize under various names including: Cyber-Freedom Prize and Cyber-dissident. Winners include:

Cyber-dissident prize

Prize recipients:

The Reporters Without Borders Prize, in which Le Monde became a partner in 2011, was created in 1992 and is given annually to a journalist (and since 2003 a news media and a cyber-dissident as well) that made, in RWB's words, “a significant contribution to the defence and promotion of press freedom.”[3]

Reporters Without Borders Prize (December)

Starting in 1992, Reporters Without Borders publishes its “Predators of Press Freedom” list of politicians, government officials, religious leaders, militias and criminal organisations who openly target journalists.[3]

World Press Freedom Day (3 May)

  • 2010: awarded to the Iranian women's rights activists of the Change for Equality website,[41]
  • 2011: awarded to the founders of a Tunisian blogging group named[42]
  • 2012: awarded to Syrian citizen journalists and activists of the Media center of the Local Coordination Committees.[43]
  • 2013: awarded to Vietnamese blogger Huynh Ngoc Chenh.[44]
  • 2014: awarded to Saudi Arabian blogger Raif Badawi.[45]

On World Day Against Cyber Censorship Reporters Without Borders awards an annual Netizen Prize that recognizes an Internet user, blogger, cyber-dissident, or group who has made a notable contribution to the defense of online freedom of expression.[3] Starting in 2010 the prize has been awarded to:

RWB 2011 Netizen Prize

Netizen Prize

Reporters Without Borders launched the first International Online Free Expression Day on 12 March 2008.[30] Now named World Day Against Cyber Censorship, this annual event rallies support for an unrestricted Internet, accessible to all.[40] On 12 March RWB awards its Netizen Prize and issues its report on freedom of information in cyberspace and an “Enemies of the Internet” list which identifies those countries that are censoring the Web and harassing Internet users.

World Day Against Cyber Censorship (12 March)

Released each January the annually published World Press Freedom Index measures the degree of freedom enjoyed by the media in over 170 countries.[3]

World Press Freedom Index (January)

Reporters Without Borders holds several events through the year to promote press and Internet freedom.[3]

Annual events

In 2013 100 Photos for Press Freedom was, for the first time, published as a digital addition available through the Apple iTunes Store.[39]

Three times a year starting in 1992 RWB publishes a photography book in its series "100 Photos for Press Freedom" to both raise awareness and raise funds to support RWB's operations.[37] In 2010 roughly 45% of RWB's income came from sales of these and other related items (t-shirts, cards, ...).[3] The books are distributed for free by the Nouvelles Messageries de la Presse Parisienne, or NMPP). The books are sold by the French leisure chains and supermarkets Fnac, Carrefour, Casino, Monoprix and Cora, the websites,, and, as well as A2Presse and over 300 bookshops throughout France.[38]

Photography books

The five "Corporate Enemies of the Internet" named in March 2013 are: Amesys (France), Blue Coat Systems (U.S.), Gamma International (UK and Germany), Hacking Team (Italy), and Trovicor (Germany).[36]

The five "State Enemies of the Internet" named in March 2013 are: Bahrain, China, Iran, Syria, and Vietnam.[36]

  • a list of "State Enemies of the Internet", countries whose governments are involved in active, intrusive surveillance of news providers, resulting in grave violations of freedom of information and human rights; and
  • a list of "Corporate Enemies of the Internet", companies that sell products that are liable to be used by governments to violate human rights and freedom of information.

On 12 March 2013 Reporters Without Borders published a "Special report on Internet Surveillance".[36] The report includes two new lists:

Special report on Internet Surveillance

When the "Countries under surveillance" list was introduced in 2008, it listed 10 countries. Between 2008 and 2012 the number of countries listed grew to 16 and then fell to 11. The list was not updated in 2013, 2014, or 2015.

When the "Enemies of the Internet" list was introduced in 2006, it listed 13 countries. From 2006 to 2012 the number of countries listed fell to 10 and then rose to 12. The list was not updated in 2013. In 2014 the list grew to 19 with an increased emphasis on surveillance in addition to censorship. The list was not updated in 2015.

In 2006, Reporters without Borders (Reporters sans frontières, RSF), a Paris-based international [32] In 2007 a second list of countries "Under Surveillance" (originally "Under Watch") was added.[33]

In conjunction with its World Day Against Cyber Censorship, RWB updates its Enemies of the Internet and Countries under surveillance lists.[30]

Enemies of the Internet and Countries under surveillance lists

  • Handbook for journalists during elections, July 2012[26]
  • Guide for journalists who are forced to flee into exile, June 2012[27]
  • Handbook for Journalists, April 2007, updated February 2013[28]
  • Handbook for Bloggers and Cyber-Dissidents, September 2005, updated in March 2008[29]

Over the years, RWB has published several handbooks to provide assistance to journalists and bloggers, and to raise public awareness, including:[25]

Handbooks for journalists and bloggers

  Killed Imprisoned Kidnapped Fled country Arrested
Year Journalists Media
Netizens Journalists +
Media assist.
Netizens Journalists Citizen-
Journalists Citizen-
Journalists Citizen-
2015[1][18] 32 1 4 166 176
2014[19] 66 11 19 178 178 119 8 139 20 853 122
2013[20] 71 6 39 826 127  
2012[21] 89 6 48 879 144  
2011[22] 67 2 4 1044 199  
2010[23] 58 1 0 535 152  
2009[24] 75 1 0 573 151  
2008[24] 61 1 0 673 59  
2007 87 22 0  
2006 84 32 0  
2005 64 5 0  
2004 63 16 0  
2003 43 3 0  
2002 25 4 0  
  1. ^ Through 18 June 2015

RWB maintains a "Press Freedom Barometer" on its web site showing the number of journalists, media assistants, netizens, and citizen journalists killed or imprisoned during a year.[18]

Press Freedom Barometer

  • Abdulkadir Hussein Mohamed “Jahweyn”, Minister of Information, Posts and Telecommunications in the Transitional Federal Government (TFG), Somalia
  • ETA, Armed separatist group, Spain
  • Hamas and Palestinian Authority security forces, Palestine
  • Thein Sein, President, Burma

Two leaders and three groups were dropped from the list of predators in May 2013:

In May 2013 RWB named 39 leaders or groups as Predators of Freedom of Information:

Starting in 2001 Reporters Without Borders has published its annual Predators of Press Freedom list which highlights what it feels are the worst violators of press freedom.[16][17]

Predators of Press Freedom

The survey asks questions about direct attacks on journalists and the media as well as other indirect sources of pressure against the free press. RWB is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom, and does not measure the quality of journalism. Due to the nature of the survey's methodology based on individual perceptions, there are often wide contrasts in a country's ranking from year to year.

The report is based on a questionnaire sent to partner organizations of Reporters Without Borders (14 freedom of expression groups in five continents) and its 130 correspondents around the world, as well as to journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists.[15]

RWB compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organization's assessment of their press freedom records. Small countries, such as Andorra, are excluded from this report.

2014 World Press Freedom Index[14]

World Press Freedom Index

Reporters Without Borders issues press releases, fact finding reports, and periodical publications. It publishes periodic mission reports on developments in individual countries or regions or on a specific topic.[12] Each December it publishes an annual overview of events related to freedom of information and the safety of journalists.[13] It maintains a web site ( accessible in six languages (French, English, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, and Persian).[3]


Through the years RWB has received a number of awards, including:[1]

Awards received

Country Organization
Bangladesh Bangladesh Centre for Development, Journalism and Communication (BCDJC)
Belarus Belarusian Association of Journalists (BAJ)
Burma Burma Media Association (BMA)
Colombia Ceso-FIP (Solidarity Centre-International Federation of Journalists)
Colombia Colombian Federation of Journalists (FECOLPER)
Democratic Republic of Congo Journalist In Danger (JED)
Eritrea Association of Eritrean Journalists in Exile
Honduras Committee for Free Expression (C-Libre)
Iraq Journalistic Freedom Observatory (JFO)
Kazakhstan Journalists in Danger
Mexico Centre for Journalism and Public Ethics (CEPET)
Pakistan Tribal Union of Journalists (TUJ)
Romania Media Monitoring Agency
Russia Glasnost Defence Foundation (GDF)
Somalia National Union of Somali Journalists (NUSOJ)
Sri Lanka Journalists for Democracy in Sri Lanka (JDS)
Thailand Thai Netizen Network (TNN)
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Journalists for Human Rights (ZJHR)

RWB has a presence in 150 countries through local correspondents who act as information relays and through close collaborations with local and regional press freedom groups, including:[8]

Reporters Without Borders is a founding member of the freedom of expression.


RWB also provides assistance for journalists and media who are either in danger or are having difficulty subsisting. They provide money to assist exiled or imprisoned journalists and their families and the unsupported families of journalists who have been killed; to enable journalists to leave their home countries if they are in danger there; to repair the effects of vandalism on media outlets; to cover the legal fees of journalists who have been prosecuted for their writings or the medical bills of those who have been physically attacked; and upon occasion, to provide bullet-proof vests for use by journalists.[7]

Reporters Without Borders' primary means of direct action are appeals to government authorities through letters or petitions, as well as frequent press releases. Through its world-wide network of roughly 150 correspondents, RWB gathers information and conducts investigations of press freedom violations by region (Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and North Africa, and the Americas) or topic. If necessary, it will send a team of its own to assess working conditions for journalists in a specific country. It releases annual reports on countries as well as the Press Freedom Index. It has launched advertising campaigns with the pro bono assistance of advertising firms to raise public awareness of threats to freedom of information and freedom of the press, to undermine the image of countries that it considers enemies of freedom of expression, and to discourage political support by the international community for governments that attack rather than protect freedom of information.[1]

Robert Ménard was RWB's first Secretary General. Jean-François Julliard succeeded Ménard in 2008.[5] Christophe Deloire succeeded Julliard in July 2012 when he became Director General.[6]

At first, the association worked to promote freedom of the press.[1] Reporters Without Borders states that it draws its inspiration from Article 19 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, according to which everyone has "the right to freedom of opinion and expression" and also the right to "seek, receive and impart" information and ideas "regardless of frontiers."

Reporters Without Borders was founded in 1985, by Robert Ménard, Rémy Loury, Jacques Molénat and Émilien Jubineau, in Montpellier, France.[1] Its head office is in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris.[4] RWB also maintains offices in Berlin, Brussels, Geneva, Madrid, Rome, Stockholm, Tunis, Vienna, and Washington, D.C.



  • Background 1
    • Partners 1.1
    • Awards received 1.2
  • Publications 2
    • World Press Freedom Index 2.1
    • Predators of Press Freedom 2.2
    • Press Freedom Barometer 2.3
    • Handbooks for journalists and bloggers 2.4
    • Enemies of the Internet and Countries under surveillance lists 2.5
    • Special report on Internet Surveillance 2.6
    • Photography books 2.7
  • Annual events 3
    • World Press Freedom Index (January) 3.1
    • World Day Against Cyber Censorship (12 March) 3.2
      • Netizen Prize 3.2.1
    • World Press Freedom Day (3 May) 3.3
    • Reporters Without Borders Prize (December) 3.4
      • Cyber-dissident prize 3.4.1
  • Campaigns 4
  • Protests 5
  • Funding 6
  • Criticisms of RWB 7
    • Otto Reich 7.1
    • Cuba 7.2
    • Haiti 7.3
    • Venezuela 7.4
    • Overemphasis on "third-world dictatorships", bias in favor of Europe and the U.S. 7.5
    • UNESCO support for International Online Free Expression Day 7.6
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10
  • continuously monitor attacks on freedom of information worldwide;
  • denounce any such attacks in the media;
  • act in cooperation with governments to fight censorship and laws aimed at restricting freedom of information;
  • morally and financially assist persecuted journalists, as well as their families; and
  • offer material assistance to war correspondents in order to enhance their safety.

Reporters Without Borders has two primary spheres of activity: one is focused on Internet Censorship and the New Media, and the other on providing material, financial and psychological assistance to journalists assigned to dangerous areas.[3] Its missions are to:


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