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Province of South Carolina

Province of South Carolina
Colony of Great Britain

1712–1776


Flag

Capital Charles Towne
Languages English, Catawba, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Muscogee, Yuchi, Shawnee
Government Constitutional monarchy
Legislature Commons House of Assembly
Historical era Colonial Era
 •  Established 1712
 •  Independence 1776
Currency Pound sterling
Today part of  United States
A map of the southern British American colonies, featuring the Provinces of Carolina

The Province of South Carolina (also known as the South Carolina Colony) was originally part of the Province of Carolina in British America, which was chartered by eight Lords Proprietor in 1663. The province later became the U.S. state of South Carolina.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Judiciary 2
  • See also 3
  • Further reading 4
  • References 5

History

The Carolinas were named for King Charles II of England. Derived from Latin Carolus, the colony was originally "Carolana," the spelling eventually changed to "Carolina." [Note that Carolana was also the name of a failed settlement plan in the late 1690s.] Charles Towne was the first settlement, established in 1670.

Charles II had given the land to a group of eight nobles called the Lords Proprietors; they planned for a Protestant Christian colony. Originally a single proprietary colony, the northern and southern sections grew apart over time, due partly to neglect by the (individual) legal heirs of the original Lords Proprietor. Dissent over governance of the province led to the appointment of a deputy governor to administer the northern half of the Carolina colony in 1691. The division of the Carolina Province into North Carolina and South Carolina became complete in 1712.

The Yamasee War (1715–1717) ravaged the back-country of the colony. Complaints that the proprietors had not done enough to protect the colonists against either the Indians or the neighboring Spanish, during Queen Anne's War, convinced many residents of the necessity of ending proprietary rule. A rebellion broke out against the proprietors in 1719. Acting on a petition of the residents of the colony, the British government appointed a royal governor for South Carolina in 1720. (The governor of North Carolina would continue to be appointed by the Lords Proprietor until 1729.)

After nearly a decade in which the British government sought to locate and buy out the proprietors, both North Carolina and South Carolina became British royal colonies in 1729.

Lord Charles Montagu (1741-1784) was Royal Governor of the Province of South Carolina from 1766 to 1773 until he escaped to Nova Scotia as with fellow United Empire Loyalists.

Judiciary

The Court of King's Bench and Common Pleas was founded c.1725, based in Charles Town (Charleston).

List of Chief Justices
[1]
Incumbent Tenure Notes
Took office Left office
Edmund Bohun 1698 1699 died in office of fever
Nicholas Trott c.1702 1718 dismissed from office after uprising
Richard Alleyn 1719
Robert Wright 1730 1739 died in office
Thomas Dale 17 Oct 1739 Nov 1739
Benjamin Whitaker 7 Nov 1739 1749 removed from office due to paralysis
James Graeme 6 Jul 1749
Charles Pinckney 1752 1753
Peter Leigh 1753
James Michie 1 Sep 1759 1960 died in office
William Simpson 24 Jan 1761
Charles Skinner 1762
Thomas Knox Gordon 13 May 1771
William Henry Drayton 13 Apr 1776
John Rutledge 16 Feb 1791 1795 resigned and afterwards Chief Justice of the United States
after 1791 no further Chief Justices were appointed.

See also

Further reading

  • Coclanis, Peter A., “Global Perspectives on the Early Economic History of South Carolina,” South Carolina Historical Magazine, 106 (April–July 2005), 130–46.
  • (1956)The Southern Frontier, 1670-1732Crane, Verner W.
  • Edgar, Walter. South Carolina: A History, (1998) the standard scholarly history
  • Edgar, Walter, ed. The South Carolina Encyclopedia, (University of South Carolina Press, 2006) ISBN 1-57003-598-9, the most comprehensive scholarly guide
  • Feeser, Andrea. Red, White, and Black Make Blue: Indigo in the Fabric of Colonial South Carolina Life (University of Georgia Press; 2013) 140 pages; scholarly study explains how the plant's popularity as a dye bound together local and transatlantic communities, slave and free, in the 18th century.
  • (1961)White Servitude in Colonial South CarolinaSmith, Warren B.
  • Tuten, James H. Lowcountry Time and Tide: The Fall of the South Carolina Rice Kingdom (University of South Carolina Press, 2010) 178 pp.
  • Wallace, David Duncan. South Carolina: A Short History, 1520-1948 (1951) online standard scholarly history
  • Wright, Louis B. South Carolina: A Bicentennial History' (1976) online, popular survey
  • Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 Through the Stono Rebellion (1996)

References

  1. ^ The statutes at large of South Carolina, Volume 1. p. 439. 
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