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Philippine resistance against Japan

Philippine resistance against Japan

Propaganda poster depicting the Philippine resistance movement
Date 1941–1945
Location Philippines (Southeast Asia)
Result Liberation of the Philippines
Allied Victory
 Empire of Japan
 Second Philippine Republic
 Commonwealth of the Philippines

Chinese irregulars

Moro Muslims
Commanders and leaders
Masaharu Homma
Tomoyuki Yamashita
Ramon Magsaysay

Ferdinand E. Marcos
Lt. Col. Manuel Enriquez
Lt. Col. Claude Thorp
Lt. Col. Martin Moses
Huang Chieh
Colonel Wendell Fertig

Colonel Hugh Straughn
Colonel Russell W. Volckmann
Luis Taruc

Datu Gumbay Piang
Salipada Pendatun
Sultan of Sulu Jainal Abirin

Sultan of Ramain Alonto
Units involved
Imperial Japanese military

Second Philippine Republic

Guerrilla units
Philippine Commonwealth military
about 260,000[1] 30,000[1]
Casualties and losses

During the

  • "Alphabetical List of Guerrilla Units and Their File Codes in the Guerrilla Unit Recognition Files". Philippine Archives Collection. National Archive. 
  • "Roderick Hall Collection: On World War II in the Philippines". Filipinas heritage Library. Ayala Foundation. 

External links

  • "U.S. Army Recognition Program of Philippine Guerrillas.". Headquarters, Philippine Command,  
  • General MacArthur's General Staff (20 June 2006) [1966]. "CHAPTER X; GUERRILLA ACTIVITIES IN THE PHILIPPINES". Reports of General MacArthur. United States Army. pp. 295–326.  
  • Schmidt, Major Larry S. (1982). American Involvement in the Filipino Resistance Movement on Mindanao During the Japanese Occupation, 1942-1945. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. 

Further reading

  1. ^ a b c Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific Island Guideid=ChyilRml0hcC&lpg=PA318&dq=Killed%20philippines%20world%20war%20II&pg=PA287#v=onepage&q=Guerrilla&f=false . Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 287–288.  
  2. ^ a b "The Guerrilla War".  
  3. ^ Jubair, Salah. "The Japanese Invasion". Maranao.Com. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  4. ^ "Have a bolo will travel". Asian Journal. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  5. ^ "People & Events: Filipinos and the War". WGBH. 1999. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
    Rottman, Gordon (20 August 2013). US Special Warfare Units in the Pacific Theater 1941-45. Osprey Publishing. p. 43.  
  6. ^ Caraccilo, Dominic J. (2005). Surviving Bataan And Beyond: Colonel Irvin Alexander's Odyssey As a Japanese Prisoner Of War. Stackpole Books. pp. 287.  
  7. ^ a b Schmidt, Larry S. (1982). American Involvement in the Filipino Resistance Movement on Mindanao During the Japanese Occupation, 1942–1945 (Master of Military Art and Science thesis). U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. p. 2. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  8. ^ Rottman, Godron L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific island guide. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 318.  
  9. ^ Prange, Gordon W., Goldstein, Donald, & Dillon, Katherine. The Pearl Harbor Papers (Brassey's, 2000), p.17ff; Google Books entry on Prange et al.
  10. ^ For the Japanese designator of Oahu. Wilford, Timothy. "Decoding Pearl Harbor", in The Northern Mariner, XII, #1 (January 2002), p.32fn81.
  11. ^ Fukudome, Shigeru, "Hawaii Operation". United States Naval Institute, Proceedings, 81 (December 1955), pp.1315–1331
  12. ^ Morison 2001, pp. 101, 120, 250
  13. ^ a b c d e "Chapter VI: Conquest of the Philippines". Reports of General MacArthur: Japanese Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area. Volume II - Part I. Department of the Army. 1994 [1950].  
  14. ^ Bataan Death March. Britannica Encyclopedia Online
  15. ^ Lansford, Tom (2001). "Bataan Death March". In Sandler, Stanley. World War II in the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 157–158.  
  16. ^ Saulo, Alfredo B., Communism in the Philippines: an Introduction, Enlarged Ed., Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1990, p. 31
  17. ^ a b c d e Greenberg, Major Lawrence M. (1986). "Chapter 2: World War II and Huk Expansion". The Hukbalahap Insurrection. U.S. Government Printing Office.  
  18. ^ Sinclair, II, Major Peter T. (1 December 2011), "Men of Destiny: The American and Filipino Guerillas During the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines" (pdf), (School of Advanced Military Studies), retrieved 2 September 2014 
  19. ^ Manahan, Manuel P. (1987). Reader's Digest November 1987 issue: Biographical Tribute to Ramon Magsaysay. pp. 17–23. 
  20. ^ "Philippine Resistance: Refusal to Surrender". Asia at War. 2009-10-17. History Channel Asia.
  21. ^ Mojica, Proculo (1960). Terry's Hunters: The True Story of the Hunters ROTC Guerillas. 
  22. ^ "Remember Los Banos 1945". Los Banos Liberation Memorial Scholarship Foundation, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  23. ^ Paul Morrow (January 16, 2009). "Maharlika and the ancient class system". Pilipino Express. Retrieved July 18, 2012. 
  24. ^ Quimpo, Nathan Gilbert. Filipino nationalism is a contradiction in terms, Colonial Name, Colonial Mentality and Ethnocentrism, Part One of Four, "Kasama" Vol. 17 No. 3 / July–August–September 2003 / Solidarity Philippines Australia Network,
  25. ^ a b c d Hogan, Jr., David W. (1992). "Chapter 4: Special Operations in the Pacific". U.S. Army Special Operations in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army. pp. 64–96.  
  26. ^ Cannon, M. Hamlin (1954). War in the Pacific: Leyte, Return to the Philippines. Government Printing Office. p. 19.  
  27. ^ a b c General Staff of General of the Army  
  28. ^ "Guerrillas in the Philippines". West-Point.Org. Retrieved 27 September 2014. In May 1943 The Philippine Regional Section (PRS) was created as part of AIB and given the task of coordinating all activities in the Philippines 
  29. ^ Greenberg, Major Lawrence M. (1987). "World War II and Huk Expansion". The Hukbalahap Insurrection. U.S. Army Center of Military History. pp. 13–28.  
  30. ^ "The Fight in the Philipines". American Experience: MacArthur. WGBH Educational Foundation. 1996. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
    Sloan, Bill (18 June 2013). Undefeated: America's Heroic Fight for Bataan and Corregidor. Simon and Schuster. p. 286.  
  31. ^ Norling, Bernard (1 June 2005). The Intrepid Guerrillas of North Luzon. University Press of Kentucky. p. 19.  
  32. ^ Guardia, Mike (19 December 2011). Shadow Commander: The Epic Story of Donald D. Blackburn Guerrilla Leader and Special Forces Hero. Casemate. p. 96.  
  33. ^ Jacobs, Eugene C. (2001). "A Medical Memoir of MacArthur's First Guerrilla Regiment". American Ex-prisoners of War: Non Solum Armis, Volume 4. Turner Publishing Company. pp. 76–78.  
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h "U.S. Army Recognition Program of Philippine Guerrillas" (pdf). Headquarters, Philippine Command,  
  35. ^  
    "Citation Nr: 1103889". United States Department of Veterans Affairs. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2014. 
    Glusman, John A. (2006). Conduct Under Fire: Four American Doctors and Their Fight for Life as Prisonersof the Japanese, 1941-1945. Penguin. p. 340.  
  36. ^ a b Friend, Theodore (14 July 2014). The Blue-Eyed Enemy: Japan Against the West in Java and Luzon, 1942-1945. Princeton University Press. p. 182.  
  37. ^ Glusman, John A. (2006). Conduct Under Fire: Four American Doctors and Their Fight for Life as Prisonersof the Japanese, 1941-1945. Penguin. p. 555.  
    Rottman, Gordon L. (20 December 2011). World War II US Cavalry Units: Pacific Theater. Osprey Publishing. p. 19.  
    Rogers, Keith (24 October 2011). "Filipino-American veterans in Nevada fight for benefits". Review Journal (Las Vegas). Retrieved 27 September 2014. 
  38. ^ Cave, Dorothy (2006). Beyond Courage: One Regiment Against Japan, 1941-1945. Sunstone Press. p. 244.  
    "Citation Nr: 1030662". United States Department of Veterans Affairs. 16 August 2010. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  39. ^ "Guerrillas in the Philippines". Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  40. ^ Zedric, Lance Q. (1995). Silent Warriors of World War II: The Alamo Scouts Behind the Japanese Lines. Pathfinder Publishing, Inc. p. 186.  
    "MacArthur Memorial Archives and Library". The MacArthur Memorial. The General Douglas MacArthur Foundation. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  41. ^  
    "Alejo S. Santos". Department of National Defense. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
    McCoy, Alfred W. (1999). Closer Than Brothers: Manhood at the Philippine Military Academy. Yale University Press. p. 97.  
  42. ^ a b Smith, Robert Ross (1972). Triumph in the Philippines, 1941-1946. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 251.  
  43. ^ Li, Yuk-wai Yung (1995). The Huaqiao Warriors: Chinese Resistance Movement in the Philippines, 1942-45. Hong Kong University Press. p. 79.  
    Roly, Kuya (24 January 2014). "Tsinoy in the Philippines: A look at the Chinese Community". ffemagazine. The Magazine for Filipinos in Europe. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
  44. ^ a b Hunt, Ray C. (1986). Behind Japanese Lines: An American Guerrilla in the Philippines. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. p. 79.  
  45. ^ Cuhaj, George S. (30 December 2013). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, Specialized Issues. F+W Media, Inc. p. 926.  
  46. ^ Norling, Bernard (1 June 2005). The Intrepid Guerrillas of North Luzon. University Press of Kentucky. p. 134.  
    Panillo, Yay (8 October 2009). The Crucible: An Autobiography by Colonel Yay, Filipina American Guerrilla. Rutgers University Press. p. 58.  
  47. ^ a b Rottman, George L. (20 October 2011). The Los Banos Prison Camp Raid -The Philippines 1945. Osprey Publishing. p. 30.  
  48. ^ Mojica, Proculo L. (1965). Terry's Hunters: The True Story of the Hunters ROTC Guerrillas. Manila: Benipayo Press. Retrieved 29 September 2014. 
    Landsdale, Edward Geary (1991). In the Midst of Wars: An American's Mission to Southeast Asia. Fordham Univ Press. p. 95.  
  49. ^ Brands, H.W. (17 September 1992). Bound to Empire: The United States and the Philippines. Oxford University Press. p. 336.  
    Cogan, Frances B. (15 March 2012). Captured: The Japanese Internment of American Civilians in the Philippines, 1941-1945. University of Georgia Press. p. 290.  
    McNab, O.C. (2007). "War in the Malay States, Singapore, and the Philippines". World and Its Peoples: Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Brunei. Marshall Cavendish. p. 1189.  
  50. ^  
  51. ^ Glusman, John A. (2006). Conduct Under Fire: Four American Doctors and Their Fight for Life as Prisoners of the Japanese, 1941-1945. Penguin. p. 344.  
  52. ^ Schmidt (1984) p5


See also

After the war, the American and Philippines governments officially recognized some of the units and individuals who had fought against the Japanese. Recognition led to benefits as veterans but not all claims were upheld; there were 277 recognized guerilla units out of over a thousand claimed and 260,715 individuals were recognized from nearly 1.3 million claims.[52]


List of guerrilla organizations and units

[28][27][25] In July 1942,

Also, before being proven false in 1985, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos claimed that he had commanded a 9,000-strong force of guerrillas known as the Maharlika Unit. Marcos also used maharlika as his personal nom de guerre, depicting himself as the most bemedalled anti-Japanese Filipino guerrilla fighter during World War II.[23][24]

After Bataan and Corregidor, many who escaped the Japanese reorganized in the mountains as guerrillas still loyal to the U.S. Army Forces Far East (USAFFE). One example would be the unit of Ramon Magsaysay in Zambales, which first served as a supply and intelligence unit. After the surrender in May 1942, Magsaysay and his unit formed a guerrilla force which grew to a 10,000-man force by the end of the war.[19] Another was the Hunters ROTC which operated in the Southern Luzon area, mainly near Manila. It was created upon dissolution of the Philippine Military Academy in the beginning days of the war. Cadet Terry Adivoso, refused to simply go home as cadets were ordered to do, and began recruiting fighters willing to undertake guerrilla action against the Japanese.[20][21] This force would later be instrumental, providing intelligence to the liberating forces led by General Douglas MacArthur, and took an active role in numerous battles, such as the Raid at Los Baños. When war broke out in the Philippines, some 300 Philippine Military Academy and ROTC cadets, unable to join the USAFFE units because of their youth, banded together in a common desire to contribute to the war effort throughout the Bataan campaign. The Hunters originally conducted operations with another guerrilla group called Marking's Guerrillas, with whom they went about liquidating Japanese spies. Led by Miguel Ver, a PMA cadet, the Hunters raided the enemy-occupied Union College in Manila and seized 130 Enfield rifles.[22]

USAFFE and American sponsored guerrillas

Moro resistance on Mindanao and Sulu

[18] The Huks attacked both the Japanese and other non-Huk guerrillas.[17] The Huks began their anti-Japanese campaign as five 100-man units. They obtained needed arms and ammunition from Philippine army stragglers, which were escapees from the

The Huk Military Committee was at the apex of Huk structure and was charged to direct the Pampanga; was elected as head the committee, and became the first Huk commander called "El Supremo".[17]

As originally constituted in March 1942, the Hukbalahap was to be part of a broad united front resistance to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines.[16] This original intent is reflected in its name: "Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon", which was "People's Army Against the Japanese" when translated into English. The adopted slogan was "Anti-Japanese Above All".[17]

Hukbalahap resistance

Afterwards came the Bataan Death March, which was the forcible transfer, by the Imperial Japanese Army, of 60,000 Filipino and 15,000 American prisoners of war after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II.[14] The death toll of the march is difficult to assess as thousands of captives were able to escape from their guards (although many were killed during their escapes), and it is not known how many died in the fighting that was taking place concurrently. All told, approximately 2,500–10,000 Filipino and 300–650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp O'Donnell.[15]

Immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese pushed on the operations to invade the Philippines. 43 planes bombed Tuguegarao and Baguio in the first preemptive strike in Luzon.[13] The Japanese forces then quickly conducted a landing at Batan Island, and by December 17, General Masaharu Homma gave his estimate that the main component of the United States Air Force in the archipelago was destroyed.[13] By January 2, Manila was under Japanese control and by January 9, Homma had cornered the remaining forces in Bataan.[13] By April 9, the remaining of the combined Filipino-American force was forced to retire from Bataan to Corregidor. Meanwhile, Japanese invasions of Cebu (April 19) and Panay (April 20) were successful.[13] By May 7, after the last of the Japanese attacks on Corregidor, General Jonathan M. Wainwright announced through a radio broadcast in Manila the surrender of the Philippines. Following Wainwright was General William F. Sharp, who surrendered Visayas and Mindanao on May 10.[13]

The Attack on Pearl Harbor (called Hawaii Operation or Operation AI[9][10] by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters (Operation Z in planning)[11] and the Battle of Pearl Harbor[12]) was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan and the Philippines). The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.



  • Background 1
  • Hukbalahap resistance 2
  • Moro resistance on Mindanao and Sulu 3
  • USAFFE and American sponsored guerrillas 4
  • List of guerrilla organizations and units 5
  • Recognition 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Further reading 9
  • External links 10

[8] Also by the end of the war, some 277 separate

[6], Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces.World War II Such was their effectiveness that by the end of [5]

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