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Noahic Covenant

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Noahic Covenant

This article is about biblical covenants. For other uses, see Covenant (disambiguation).

A biblical covenant is a dual covenant theology).

Noahic covenant

The Noahic covenant [Gen 9:8-17]] applies to all of humanity and to all living creatures.[1] In this covenant, God promises never again to destroy all life on Earth by flood [9:11]] and creates the rainbow as the sign of this "everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is on the earth". [9:12-17]]

Abrahamic covenant

The Abrahamic covenant found in

In Genesis 12–17 three covenants can be distinguished based on the differing Jahwist, Elohist and Priestly sources.[4] In Genesis 12 and 15, God grants Abraham land and descendants but does not place any stipulations (unconditional). By contrast, Gen. 17 contains the covenant of circumcision (conditional).

  • To make of Abraham a great nation and bless Abraham and make his name great so that he will be a blessing, to bless those who bless him and curse those who curse him and all peoples on earth would be blessed through Abraham. [Gen 12:1–3]]
  • To give Abraham's descendants all the land from the river (or wadi) of Egypt to the Euphrates. [Gen 15:18–21]] Later, this land came to be referred to as the Promised Land or the Land of Israel, however the land specified by the Abrahamic covenant also includes the modern nations of Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, UAE, and several other nations in the Middle East.
  • To make Abraham the father of many nations and of many descendants and give "the whole land of Canaan" to his descendants. [Gen 17:2–9]]
  • Circumcision is to be the permanent sign of this everlasting covenant with Abraham and his male descendants and is known as the brit milah. [Gen 17:9–14]]

Covenants in biblical times were often sealed by severing an animal, with the implication that the party who breaks the covenant will suffer a similar fate. In Hebrew, the verb meaning to seal a covenant translates literally as "to cut". It is presumed by Jewish scholars that the removal of the foreskin symbolically represents such a sealing of the covenant.[5]

Mosaic covenant

Main article: Mosaic covenant

The elaborated on in the rest of the Torah.

The form of the covenant resembles the suzerainty treaty in the ancient Near East.[6] Like the treaties, the Ten Commandments begins with Yahweh's identification and what he had done for Israel ("who brought you out of the land of Egypt"; Ex 20:2) as well as the stipulations commanding absolute loyalty ("You shall not have other gods apart from me"). Unlike the suzerainty treaty, the Decalogue does not have any witness nor explicit blessings and curses.[7] The fullest account of the Mosaic covenant is given in the book of Deuteronomy.

God gave the children of Israel the Shabbat as the permanent sign of this covenant. [Exo 31:12-17]]

Priestly covenant

Main article: Priestly covenant

The priestly covenant[8] (Hebrew: ברית הכהונהbrith ha-kehuna) is the covenant that God made with Aaron and his descendants, the Aaronic priesthood, as found in the Hebrew Bible and Oral Torah. The Hebrew Bible also mentions another perpetual priestly promise with Phinehas and his descendants.[9][10]

Davidic covenant

The Davidic covenant [2Sam 7]] establishes David and his descendants as the kings of the united monarchy of Israel [Jer 33:17-21]] (which included Judah). The Davidic covenant is an important element in Jewish messianism and Christian theology. In Jewish eschatology, the messiah is believed to be a future Jewish king from the Davidic line, who will be anointed with holy anointing oil, gather the Jews back into the Land of Israel, usher in an era of peace, build the Third Temple, have a male heir, re-institute the Sanhedrin and rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age.

Christian theologian John F. Walvoord maintains that the Davidic covenant deserves an important place in determining the purposes of God and that its exegesis confirms the doctrine of a future reign of Christ on earth.[11] While Jewish theologians have always pointed out that Jesus did not fulfill the expectations of a Jewish messiah, for conservative Christian theologians the opinion is almost unanimous that Christ fulfills the Davidic covenant, the provisions of which include the following items:

  1. David is to have a child, yet to be born, who shall succeed him and establish his kingdom.
  2. A son (Solomon) shall build the temple instead of David.
  3. The throne of his kingdom shall be established forever.
  4. The throne will not be taken away from him (Solomon) even though his sins justify chastisement.
  5. David’s house, throne, and kingdom shall be established forever (2 Samuel 7:16).[11][need quotation to verify]

New Covenant in Judaism

The only reference in the Hebrew Bible that uses the wording "new covenant" is found in non-Jews.

New Covenant in Christianity

The key biblical text for the Christian concept of the New Covenant is found in the world to come.

Christians vary in their view of the New Covenant. Some believe the New Covenant extends the Mosaic Covenant but it seemingly accomplishes new things.[15] Christian laws of faith claim that a New Covenant of the trinitarian God with the Christians and the Christian Church replaces, fulfills or completes God's Mosaic covenant.

There are other sections in the New Testament that are often considered to be relevant to the new covenant.

The Gospel of Luke tells of the birth of John the Baptist. His father, Zacharias, prophesied at the time. In his prophecy he says that God has remembered His holy covenant. The events at the beginning of the Christian story are connected to the covenant God made with Abraham.[16] Just before his crucifixion, Jesus celebrated the Passover with his disciples. All three of the synoptic gospels describe the special attention he gives to the bread and the wine. When he presents the wine to his disciples, he says that it is the blood of the covenant poured out for them.[17] Matthew explains that the pouring out of the blood was done for the forgiveness of sins. In most modern English translations of the Bible, Luke 22:20 calls it the "new covenant", however Luke 22:17–20 is also disputed by Greek New Testament scholars. Six forms of the text have been identified; for example, the Western text-type such as Codex Bezae omit verses 19b–20.[18]

In the Acts of the Apostles, Peter and John heal a crippled man. Peter speaks to the wondering crowd. He says they are the children of the covenant God made with their fathers and quotes the promise to Abraham, "And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed." Peter tells them that God has sent the resurrected Jesus first to them to bless them and forgive them of their sins. He proclaims Jesus to be the covenant "seed" promised to Abraham.[19]

In the Epistle to the Romans, Paul addresses God's covenantal relationship with the Jewish people.[20] He states emphatically that God has not rejected the Jewish people. To drive home his point, he recalls the time when Elijah felt all alone in his service to God. God assured Elijah that he wasn't alone, that there were 7000 that had not bowed the knee to Baal.[21] Paul says that the Jewish people's rejection of Christ was a stumbling but not a falling.[22] He writes that the Jewish rejection has opened the way for the Gentiles to be saved. Paul considers this turn of events to be a great blessing for the Gentiles. He then asks, if this Jewish failure to accept Christ brought such blessings to the world, what greater blessings will come when the Jewish people finally join the fellowship.[23]

See also


Further reading

  • it was very a raw flim

External links

  • Scott Hahn (Catholic perspective)
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Covenant
  • on covenants
  • Reformed perspective)
  • by Michael Stansfield (Biblical perspective)
  • Reformed perspective)
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