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Nepotism

Nepotism is favoritism granted to relatives. The term originated with the assignment of nephews to cardinal positions by Catholic popes and bishops. Nepotism can occur in various fields including: politics, entertainment, business, and religion.[1][2][3][4]


Contents

  • Origins 1
  • Types of nepotism 2
    • Political 2.1
    • Organizational 2.2
    • In employment 2.3
  • Types of partiality 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7

Origins

The term comes from Italian word nepotismo,[2][5] which is based on Latin root nepos, meaning nephew or grandson.[6] Since the Middle Ages and until the late 17th century, some Catholic popes and bishops, who had taken vows of chastity, and therefore usually had no legitimate offspring of their own, gave their nephews such positions of preference as were often accorded by fathers to son.[4]

Several popes Pope Alexander VI.[8] Alexander then elevated Alessandro Farnese, his mistress's brother, to cardinal; Farnese would later go on to become Pope Paul III.[9]

Paul III also engaged in nepotism, appointing, for instance, two nephews, aged 14 and 16, as cardinals. The practice was finally ended when Pope Innocent XII issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem, in 1692.[4] The papal bull prohibited popes in all times from bestowing estates, offices, or revenues on any relative, with the exception that one qualified relative (at most) could be made a cardinal.[10]

Types of nepotism

Political

Nepotism is a common accusation in politics when the relative of a powerful figure ascends to similar power seemingly without appropriate qualifications. The British English expression "Bob's your uncle" is thought to have originated when Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, promoted his nephew, Arthur Balfour, to the esteemed post of Chief Secretary for Ireland, which was widely seen as an act of nepotism.[11]

Organizational

Nepotism can also occur within organizations, when a person is employed due to their familial ties. It is generally seen as unethical, both on the part of the employer and employee.

In employment

Nepotism at work can mean increased opportunity at a job, attaining the job or being paid more than other similarly situated people.[12] Arguments are made both for and against employment granted due to a family connection, which is most common in small, family run businesses. On one hand, nepotism can provide stability and continuity. Critics cite studies that demonstrate decreased morale and commitment from non-related employees,[13] and a generally negative attitude towards superior positions filled through nepotism. An article from Forbes magazine stated "there is no ladder to climb when the top rung is reserved for people with a certain name."[14] Some businesses forbid nepotism as an ethical matter, considering it too troublesome and disruptive.

Types of partiality

Nepotism refers to partiality to family whereas cronyism refers to partiality to an associate or friend. Favoritism, the broadest of the terms, refers to partiality based upon being part of a favored group, rather than job performance.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b "Nepotism." Dictionary.com. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b c
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  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
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  10. ^
  11. ^ From Aristotelian to Reaganomics: A Dictionary of Eponyms With Biographies in the Social Science, by R. C. S. Trahair, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994, page 72. Retrieved online from Google Books, Jul 30, 2012.
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^

Further reading

  • "American Calendar" in American Quarterly 25.4 (October 1973): 493-96.
  • Cardinal Giovanni Battista De Luca: Nepotism in the Seventeenth-century Catholic Church and De Luca's Efforts to Prohibit the Practice University of North Texas Digital Library.
  • "Nepotism: is it back?" New Statesman, September 29, 2003.
  • [1] Nepotism in Organizations, 2012

External links

  • Hollywoodnepotism.net
  • , August 24, 2003.In Praise of Nepotism: A Natural History interview with Adam Bellow on Booknotes
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