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Near-close central unrounded vowel

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Title: Near-close central unrounded vowel  
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Subject: Afrikaans, Vowel diagram, Near-close near-back vowel, South African English, Kurdish languages
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Near-close central unrounded vowel

Near-close central unrounded vowel
ɪ̈
ɨ̞
ɘ̝
IPA number 319 415
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɪ​̈
Unicode (hex) U+026A U+0308
X-SAMPA I\ or 1_o or @\_r
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)
Sound
 ·

The near-close central unrounded vowel, or near-high central unrounded vowel, is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ɪ̈ (centralized [ɪ]) and ɨ̞ (lowered [ɨ]). In many British dictionaries, this vowel has been transcribed ɪ, which captures its height; in the American tradition it is more often ɨ, which captures its centrality, or ,[1] which captures both. The third edition of the OED adopted as a conflation of ɪ and ɨ to represent either [ɪ̈] or a vowel that varies between [ɪ] and [ə].

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority in the USA, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ɪ̈ʊ̈
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[2] kind [kïnt] 'child' See Afrikaans phonology
Berber Central Atlas Tamazight[3] Epenthetically inserted into consonant clusters before labial and coronal consonants.
English Some dialects glasses [ˈɡlæsɪ̈z] 'glasses' Reduced vowel for speakers who have a contrast between schwa and a near-close central unrounded vowel. See English phonology
South African[4] bit [bɪ̈t] 'bit' For some speakers it can be equal to [ə]. General and Broad varieties of SAE have an allophonic variation, with [ɪ] ([i] in Broad) occurring near velar and palatal consonants, and [ɪ̈~ə] elsewhere.
Southeastern English[5] good [ɡɪ̈d] 'good' May be rounded [ʊ̈] instead; it corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Irish Munster[6] goirt [ɡɨ̞ɾˠtʲ] 'salty' Allophone of /ɪ/ between broad consonants.[6] See Irish phonology
Ulster[7] Allophone of /ɪ/.[7]
Russian[8] жена [ʐɨ̞ˈn̪ä] 'wife' Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants and in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Welsh Northern dialects[9] pump [pɨ̞mp] 'five' /ɪ/ or /i/ in southern dialects. See Welsh phonology

References

  1. ^ Pullum & Ladusaw (1996:298)
  2. ^ Donaldson (1993:4)
  3. ^ Abdel-Massih (1971:15)
  4. ^ Lass (2002:113–115)
  5. ^ Lodge (2009:174)
  6. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000)
  7. ^ a b Ní Chasaide (1999:114)
  8. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:38)
  9. ^ Ball (1984:?)

Bibliography

  • Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. (1971), A Reference Grammar of Tamazight, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan 
  • Ball, Martin J. (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Ball, Martin J.; Jones, G.E, Welsh Phonology, Cardiff: University of Wales Press,  
  • Donaldson, Bruce C. (1993), A Grammar of Afrikaans, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1–24,  
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press,  
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, p. 174 
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999), "Irish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–16,  
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Gaeilge), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann,  
  • Pullum, Geoffrey K.; Ladusaw, William A. (1996), Phonetic Symbol Guide, Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press,  
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