World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Mount Salak

Mount Salak
Gunung Salak
A view of Mount Salak
Elevation 2,211 m (7,254 ft)[1]
Prominence 1,678 m (5,505 ft)[2]
Listing Ultra
Mount Salak is located in Java
Mount Salak
Mount Salak
Location on the island of Java
Location Java, Indonesia
Coordinates [1]
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption January 1938[1]

Mount Salak (Indonesian: Gunung Salak, Sundanese: Gunung Salak) is an eroded volcanic range in West Java, Indonesia. Several satellite cones appear on the south-east flank and on the northern foot, and two craters are found at the summit. Mount Salak has been the site of geothermal exploration.[1]

According to popular belief, the name "Salak" has been derived from salak, a tropical fruit with scaly skin. However, according to Sundanese tradition, the name was derived from the Sanskrit word "Salaka" which means "silver"; thus, Mount Salak would mean "silver mountain".


  • Climbing route 1
  • Animals 2
  • Aircraft accidents 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Climbing route

Mount Salak can be climbed via several routes; the peaks which are climbed most often are Peak I and Peak II. The route most often climbed up is Curug Nangka, which is the northern part of the range. Through this route, people can reach Peak II. Peak I is usually climbed from the east, Cimelati and Cicurug. Peak I also can be reached by Peak II from Sukamantri, Ciapus, although this is very difficult. The other route is 'the back way', through Cidahu, Sukabumi, and Kawah Ratu near Bunder Mount.

Mount Salak is popular for many mountain climbing clubs, especially Route II, because of its difficulty in reaching the peak. Climbers need to bring water with them, especially through Post I at Kawah Ratu Route. A water source, supplied by rain, exists at an altitude of 2211 mdpl. Mount Salak is a low mountain.

Cimelati can be reached from Cibuntu Village. Water is scarce in some parts of this region, so travelers must bring water with them. An irrigation system ensures water is plentiful until Post/Shelter III. Beyond this point, travelers must carry water. The route itself is scenic, with several waterfalls as well as a large villa appearing before reaching Post/Shelter I.


Mount Salak is a habitat for a variety of animal species, including frogs, toads, reptiles, birds and mammals. During research, D.M. Nasir (2003) from KSH forest faculty IPB found 11 frog and toad species in Lingkungan S (Environment S) at Ciapus Leutik, Desa Taman Sari, Bogor Residenncy. They are Bufo asper, B. melanostictus, Leptobrachium hasseltii, Fejervarya limnocharis, Huia masonii, Limnonectes kuhlii, L. macrodon, L. microdiscus, Rana chalconota, R. erythraea and R. hosii. The result does not include tree toads and other mountain toads which might also be found there. At Cidahu, bangkong bertanduk (Megophrys montana) and katak terbang (Rhacophorus reinwardtii) the latter were found.

Many reptiles including lizards and snakes, live in Mount Salak. These include Charmelleon Bronchocela jubata, B. cristatella, Kadal Kebun (Mabuya multifasciata) and Biawak Sungai (Varanus salvator). Some snakes living in Mount Salak are Ular Tangkai (Calamaria sp.), Ular Siput (Pareas carinatus), Ular Sanca Kembang (Phyton reticulatus) and many more. Mount Salak has become famous due to its habitat for birds, about which has been written by Vorderman (1885)and Hoogerwerf (1948), which has at least 232 birds species in total. The most notable birds are Elang Jawa (Spizaetus bartelsi), Ayam Hutan Merah (Gallus gallus), Cuculus micropterus, Phaenicophaeus javanicus, P. curvirostris, Sasia abnormis, Dicrurus remifer, Cissa thalassina, Crypsirina temia, Burung Kuda (Garrulax rufifrons), Hypothymis azurea, Aethopyga eximia, A. mystacalis and Lophozosterops javanica. The notes about mammals indicate that there are not many living on Mount Salak, besides Macan Tutul (Panthera pardus), Owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch), Surili (Presbytis comata) and Trenggiling (Manis Javanica).

Aircraft accidents

In 2012, The Jakarta Post dubbed Mount Salak an "airplane graveyard".[3] High turbulence and fast-changing weather conditions of the mountainous terrain are cited as contributing factors to multiple aviation crashes in the area.[3] There were seven aviation crashes around Mount Salak between 2002 and 2012.

One person was killed in the crash of a small aircraft in October 2002; seven in October 2003; two in April 2004 and five in June 2004. 18 people were killed in a crash of an Indonesian Air Force military plane in 2008.[3][4]

In 2012, three people were killed in a crash of a training aircraft not long before the SSJ-100 accident, which occurred on May 9, 2012, when a Sukhoi Superjet 100 crashed into the mountain during a demonstration flight, killing all 45 people on board.[5]

See also

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons


  1. ^ a b c d "Salak". Global Volcanism Program.  
  2. ^ "Mountains of the Indonesian Archipelago". Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  3. ^ a b c "Mt. Salak: An airplane graveyard".  
  4. ^ В районе индонезийской горы Салак за последние 10 лет произошло уже 7 авиакатастроф
  5. ^ Vaswani, Karishma (10 May 2012). "Rescue workers find bodies at Russia jet crash site".  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.