World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Mortality rate

 

Mortality rate

Crude death rate by country (2006).

Mortality rate, or death rate,[1] is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 (out of 1,000) in a population of 1,000 would mean 9.5 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total. It is distinct from the so-called "morbidity rate" (a vague term sometimes used to refer to either the prevalence or incidence of a disease[2]), and also from the incidence rate (the number of newly appearing cases of the disease per unit of time).

Contents

  • Related measures of mortality 1
    • Survival rates 1.1
  • Statistics 2
  • Use in health care 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Other Sources 6
  • External links 7

Related measures of mortality

Other specific measures of mortality include:

  • Crude death rate – the total number of deaths per year per 1,000 people. As of 2014 the crude death rate for the whole world is 7.89 per 1,000 (down from 8.37 per 1,000 in 2009) according to the current CIA World Factbook.[3] Note that the crude death rate can be misleading. The crude death rate depends on the age (and gender) specific mortality rates and the age (and gender) distribution of the population. The number of deaths per 1,000 people can be higher in developed nations than in less-developed countries, despite a higher life expectancy in developed countries due to better standards of health. This happens because developed countries typically have a much higher proportion of older people, due to both lower birth rates and lower mortality rates. A more complete picture of mortality is given by a life table, which shows the mortality rate separately for each age. A life table is necessary to give a good estimate of life expectancy.
  • Perinatal mortality rate – the sum of neonatal deaths and fetal deaths (stillbirths) per 1,000 births.
  • Maternal mortality ratio – the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in same time period.
  • Maternal mortality rate – the number of maternal deaths per 1,000 women of reproductive age in the population (generally defined as 15–44 years of age).
  • Infant mortality rate – the number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per 1,000 live births.
  • Child mortality rate: the number of deaths of children less than 5 years old per 1,000 live births.
  • Standardised mortality ratio (SMR) – a proportional comparison to the numbers of deaths that would have been expected if the population had been of a standard composition in terms of age, gender, etc.[4]
  • Age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) – the total number of deaths per year per 1,000 people of a given age (e.g. age 62 last birthday).
  • Cause-specific mortality rate – the mortality rate for a specified cause of death.
  • Cumulative death rate: a measure of the (growing) proportion of a group that die over a specified period (often as estimated by techniques that account for missing data by statistical censoring).[5]
  • Case fatality rate (CFR) – the proportion of cases of a particular medical condition that lead to death within a specified period of time.[6]

Other measures of mortality used to provide indications of the relative success or failure of medical treatment or procedures (for life-threatening illnesses, etc.) include:

  • Early mortality rate – the total number of deaths in the early stages of an ongoing treatment, or in the period immediately following an acute treatment.
  • Late mortality rate – the total number of deaths in the late stages of an ongoing treatment, or a significant length of time after an acute treatment.

Survival rates

Mortality may also be expressed in terms of survival.[7] Thus, the survival rate is equivalent to "1 minus the cumulative death rate"[8] (with "death from all causes", for example, being expressed in terms of overall survival). Censored survival curves that incorporate missing data by using the Kaplan–Meier estimator can sometimes be compared using statistical tests such as the log-rank test or the Cox proportional hazards test.

Statistics

World historical and predicted crude death rates (1950–2050)
UN, medium variant, 2008 rev.[9]
Years CDR Years CDR
1950–1955 19.5 2000–2005 8.6
1955–1960 17.3 2005–2010 8.5
1960–1965 15.5 2010–2015 8.3
1965–1970 13.2 2015–2020 8.3
1970–1975 11.4 2020–2025 8.3
1975–1980 10.7 2025–2030 8.5
1980–1985 10.3 2030–2035 8.8
1985–1990 9.7 2035–2040 9.2
1990–1995 9.4 2040–2045 9.6
1995–2000 8.9 2045–2050 10

The ten countries with the highest crude death rate, according to the 2014 CIA World Factbook estimates, are:[10]

Rank Country Death rate
(annual deaths/1,000 persons)
1  South Africa 17.49
2  Ukraine 15.72
3  Lesotho 14.91
4  Chad 14.56
5  Guinea-Bissau 14.54
6  Bulgaria 14.30
7  Afghanistan 14.12
8  Central African Republic 14.11
9  Somalia 13.91
10  Russia 13.83

See list of countries by death rate for worldwide statistics.

According to the

  • DeathRiskRankings: Calculates risk of dying in the next year using MicroMorts and displays risk rankings for up to 66 causes of death
  • Data regarding death rates by age and cause in the United States (from Data360)
  • Complex Emergency Database (CE-DAT): Mortality data from conflict-affected populations
  • Human Mortality Database: Historic mortality data from developed nations
  • Google – public data: Mortality in the U.S.

External links

  • Crude death rate (per 1,000 population) based on World Population Prospects The 2008 Revision, United Nations. Retrieved 22 June 2010
  • Rank Order – Death rate in CIA World Factbook
  • Mortality in The Medical Dictionary, Medterms. Retrieved 22 June 2010
  • "WISQARS Leading Causes of Death Reports, 1999 – 2007", US Centers for Disease Control Retrieved 22 June 2010
  • Edmond Halley, An Estimate of the Degrees of the Mortality of Mankind (1693)

Other Sources

  1. ^ Porta, M, ed. (2014). "Death rate". A Dictionary of Epidemiology (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 69.  
  2. ^ Porta, M, ed. (2014). "Morbidity rate". A Dictionary of Epidemiology (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 189.  
  3. ^ [2] Search for "World".
  4. ^ Everitt, B.S. The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics, CUP. ISBN 0-521-81099-X
  5. ^ Porta, M, ed. (2014). "Cumulative death rate". A Dictionary of Epidemiology (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 64.  
  6. ^ Porta, M, ed. (2014). "Case fatality rate". A Dictionary of Epidemiology (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 36.  
  7. ^ Rothman, KJ (2012). Epidemiology: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 49–50.  
  8. ^ Last, JM, ed. (2008). "Survival rate". A Dictionary of Epidemiology (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 240.  
  9. ^ UNdata: Crude death rate (per 1,000 population)
  10. ^ CIA World Factbook – Death Rate
  11. ^ http://www.who.int/entity/whr/2004/annex/topic/en/annex_2_en.pdf
  12. ^ Jean Ziegler, L'Empire de la honte, Fayard, 2007 ISBN 978-2-253-12115-2, p.130.
  13. ^ a b  
  14. ^ Greenwood M. Medical Statistics from Graunt to Farr. The Fitzpatrick Lectures for the Years 1941 to 1943. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1948.
  15. ^ Jha, P (2002). "Avoidable mortality in India: Past progress and future prospects". The National medical journal of India. 15 Suppl 1: 32–6.  
  16. ^ Jha, P (2001). "Reliable mortality data: A powerful tool for public health". The National medical journal of India 14 (3): 129–31.  
  17. ^ Jha, Prabhat (2012). "Counting the dead is one of the world’s best investments to reduce premature mortality". Hypothesis 10 (1).  
  18. ^ "Flesh, Blood, Souls, and Households: Cultural Validity in Mortality Inquiry". Medical Anthropology Quarterly 5 (3): 204–220. September 1991.  

References

See also

Early recording of mortality rate in European cities proved highly useful in controlling the plague and other major epidemics.[14] Public health in industrialised countries was transformed when mortality rate as a function of age, sex and socioeconomic status emerged in the late 19th and 20th centuries.[15][16] This track record has led to the argument that inexpensive recording of vital statistics in developing countries may become the most effective means to improve global health.[17] Gathering official mortality statistics can be very difficult in developing countries, where many individuals lack the ability or knowledge to report incidences of death to National Vital Statistics Registries. This can lead to distortion in mortality statistics and a wrongful assessment of overall health. Studies conducted in northeastern Brazil, where underreporting of infant mortality is of huge concern, have shown that alternative methods of data collection, including the use of "popular Death Reporters" (Members of the community who are active in traditional death rituals of the child and the family grieving process), have been very successful in providing valid, qualitative mortality statistics, effectively reducing underreporting.[18]

Use in health care

Of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds—100,000 per day—die of age-related causes.[13] In industrialized nations, the proportion is much higher, reaching 90%.[13]

According to Jean Ziegler (the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food for 2000 to March 2008), mortality due to malnutrition accounted for 58% of the total mortality in 2006: "In the world, approximately 62 millions people, all causes of death combined, die each year. In 2006, more than 36 million died of hunger or diseases due to deficiencies in micronutrients".[12]

Scatter plot of the natural logarithm of the crude death rate against the natural log of per capita real GDP. The slope of the trend line is the elasticity of the crude death rate with respect to per capita real income. It indicates that a 10% increase in per capita real income is associated with a 1.5% decrease in the crude death rate. Source: World Development Indicators.

Causes of death vary greatly between first and third world countries. See list of causes of death by rate for worldwide statistics.

  1. 12.6% Ischaemic heart disease
  2. 9.7% Cerebrovascular disease
  3. 6.8% Lower respiratory infections
  4. 4.9% HIV/AIDS
  5. 4.8% Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  6. 3.2% Diarrhoeal diseases
  7. 2.7% Tuberculosis
  8. 2.2% Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers
  9. 2.2% Malaria
  10. 2.1% Road traffic accidents

[11]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.