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Lovisa of Sweden

Louise of Sweden
Queen consort of Denmark
Tenure 29 January 1906 – 14 May 1912
Spouse Frederick VIII of Denmark
Issue
Christian X of Denmark
Haakon VII of Norway
Louise, Princess Friedrich Georg of Schaumburg-Lippe
Prince Harald
Princess Ingeborg, Duchess of Västergötland
Princess Thyra
Prince Gustav
Princess Dagmar
Full name
Louise Josefina Eugenia
House House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
House of Bernadotte
Father Charles XV of Sweden
Mother Louise of the Netherlands
Born (1851-10-31)31 October 1851
Stockholm Palace, Stockholm, Sweden
Died 20 March 1926(1926-03-20) (aged 74)
Amalienborg Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark
Burial Roskilde Cathedral
Religion Lutheranism

Louise Josephine Eugenie of Sweden (Swedish: Lovisa Josefina Eugenia; 31 October 1851 – 20 March 1926) was Queen of Denmark as the spouse of King Frederick VIII of Denmark. She was the only daughter of King Charles XV of Sweden (1826–1872) and Louise of the Netherlands (1828–1871).

Early life

Louise was born in Stockholm and had a happy childhood. After the death of her brother, Prince Carl Oscar, in 1854, her father treated her like a boy and let her grow up as one, and she was therefore allowed to develop much less restrained than most girls of her time, becoming a confident, natural and happy person. This somewhat worried her mother, Queen Louise, herself very eager to behave according to the feminine ideal of the time. But her father once lovingly said about her: "She's an ugly devil, but she's funny!", and treated her with the same gruff affectionate manners as he would have with a son. She called herself "The Stockholm urchin", something her uncle, the future king Oscar II, found shocking and tried to stop her from using, while the public referred to her as "Sessan" (in English: "(Princ)ess").

Together with her mother, she was a student of Nancy Edberg, the pioneer of swimming for women (1862). The art of swimming was initially not regarded as being entirely proper for women, but when the Queen and her daughter supported it by attending the lessons, swimming was quickly made fashionable and became accepted for women.[1]

There were several discussions about making Louise the heir-presumptive to the throne of Sweden and Norway, as her mother could not have any more children and she was the only surviving child. But although Sweden had previously had female monarchs, and approval of female succession was declared in 1604, provision had not been made for it in the new constitution of 1809. Louise's succession would have required a change in the law, as would also have been necessary regarding the throne of Norway, which did not have female succession. The matter became moot when Louise's uncle, her father's brother, had his first son in 1858.

Crown Princess of Denmark

Louise married Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark (1843–1912) in Stockholm on 28 July 1869. The wedding was celebrated with great pomp and splendor at a time when Sweden was in a state of famine, and the princess's dowry consisted of things manufactured in Sweden, to benefit the Swedish economy. The marriage was suggested as a way of creating friendship between Denmark and Sweden. The two countries were in a tense situation after Sweden had not assisted Denmark during the war with Germany in 1863. Louise and Frederick met for the first time in 1862, but in 1868, Frederick was invited to Sweden to get to know Louise, and their meeting was described as a success. The same year, they were engaged. In Denmark, a Swedish princess was much preferred over a German princess after the recent war with Germany. The marriage was welcomed by all three countries as a symbol of the new Scandinavism. She was the first Swedish princess to be married into the Danish royal house since the Middle Ages.

In Denmark, the marriage was popular among the public, and although she was unpopular within the royal family, Louise became quite popular among the public during her long time as Crown Princess, and continued to be so as Queen. She was described as friendly, natural and informal. The marriage was not a happy one, nor did it have any effect on the relationship between the two countries. Louise did not have a good relationship with her husband's family, especially not with her mother-in-law and her sisters-in-law, and she received no support from her spouse. The couple had 8 children, four sons and four daughters.

As the years passed by, her personality changed. She became more reserved and firm, and her husband's infidelity caused her to have a greater interest in religion.[according to whom?] She took personal care of her children's upbringing, and raised them very strictly, much unlike her own free upbringing. Her only pleasure[according to whom?] was her visits to her old home-country, Sweden, where she visited her old family and friends. She was often in Sweden, already in the early years, such as in 1871 and in 1872, being present and both her parent's death. She became known as strict and religious. She founded various charity organisations, such as Bethania and «Kronprinsesse L.s Asyl». She was also interested in handicrafts, such as leather work and painting.

Years as Queen

In 1905, Norway became independent from Sweden with Danish support, which caused tension between Denmark and Sweden, and she was saddened when this made it difficult for her to visit Sweden. She eventually became Queen of Denmark in 1906. As a Queen, she is mainly known for her many charity projects, an interest which she shared with her spouse. She did not care for ceremonial duties and public events, and lived a discreet life dedicated to her children and her interests in art, literature and charity.

Late years

She was widowed in 1912. From 1915 to 1917 she built herself Egelund Castle between Hillerød and Fredensborg where she lived for the rest of her life. Queen Louise died at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen in 1926 and is interred next to her husband in Roskilde Cathedral.

Queen Louise was the 862nd Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa.

Titles and Styles

  • Her Royal Highness Princess Lovisa of Sweden and Norway (1851-1869)
  • Her Royal Highness the Crown Princess of Denmark (1869-1906)
  • Her Majesty the Queen of Denmark (1906-1912)
  • Her Majesty the Queen Dowager of Denmark (1912-1926)

Ancestry and descent

Ancestry

Issue

Name Birth Death Spouse Children
Christian X of Denmark 1870 1947 Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Frederick IX of Denmark
Prince Knud of Denmark
Haakon VII of Norway 1872 1957 Maud of Wales Olav V of Norway
Princess Louise of Denmark 1875 1906 Prince Frederick of Schaumburg-Lippe Princess Marie Louise of Schaumburg-Lippe
Prince Christian of Schaumburg-Lippe
Stephanie of Schaumburg-Lippe
Prince Harald of Denmark 1876 1949 Princess Helena Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Princess Feodora of Denmark
Princess Caroline-Mathilde of Denmark
Princess Alexandrine-Louise of Denmark
Prince Gorm of Denmark
Count Oluf of Rosenborg
Princess Ingeborg of Denmark 1878 1958 Prince Carl of Sweden Princess Margaretha of Sweden
Princess Märtha Louise of Sweden
Princess Astrid of Sweden
Prince Carl, Duke of Östergötland
Princess Thyra of Denmark 1880 1945 unmarried none
Prince Gustav of Denmark 1887 1944 unmarried none
Princess Dagmar of Denmark 1890 1961 Jørgen Castenskiold Carl Castenskiold
Christian Castenskiold
Jørgen Castenskiold
Dagmar Castenskiold

Constitutionally, Louise was unable to inherit the thrones of Sweden and Norway. Her father Charles XV & IV was succeeded by his brother Oscar II. By a twist of fate, Louise's son, Prince Carl, did, in fact, eventually become King of Norway. He was elected to succeed her uncle to the Norwegian throne as a result of Norway's independence from Sweden in 1905.

Notes

References

  • Tor Bomann-Larsen (2004): "Folket – Haakon & Maud II" (in Norwegian)
  • Lars Elgklou: "Familjen Bernadotte. En kunglig släktkrönika" (The Bernadotte family. A royal family chronicle) (In Swedish)
  • Aage Friis Oscar II:s förhållande till Danmark och Nordslesvig. Publicerad i Stig Hadenius (red.) Historia kring Oscar II, Wahlström & Widstrand 1963. Översatt av Clara Nevéus. ISBN 9968-04-651-5 (In Swedish)
  • http://runeberg.org/dbl/10/0403.html (in Danish)
  • http://runeberg.org/sbh/b0095.html (in Swedish)
  • http://www.denstoredanske.dk/Danmarks_geografi_og_historie/Danmarks_historie/Danmark_1849-1945/Louise (in Danish)
  • http://www.gravsted.dk/person.php?navn=dronninglouise (in Danish)
  • http://runeberg.org/salmonsen/2/15/1083.html (in Danish)
  • Kay Nielsen, Ib Askholm: Danmarks Kongelige Familjer och 1000 år, 2007, ISBN 978-87-91679-09-4
  • Rikke Agnete Olsen: Kongerækken, Kopenhaga 2005, ISBN 87-595-2525-8 Rikke Agnete Olsen: Kongerækken, Köpenhamn 2005, ISBN 87-595-2525-8

External links

  • Royal House of Sweden
  • Royal House of Denmark
Louise of Sweden
Born: 31 October 1851 Died: 20 March 1926
Danish royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Louise of Hesse-Kassel
Queen consort of Denmark
1906–1912
Succeeded by
Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
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