World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Louis-Joseph Papineau

Louis Joseph Papineau
He was the most recent politician in canada
Born (1786-10-07)October 7, 1786
Montreal, Quebec
Died September 23, 1871(1871-09-23) (aged 84)
Montebello, Canada
Nationality Lower Canadian
Occupation Lawyer, Member of Provincial Parliament, Speaker of the House of Assembly
L. J. Papineau

Louis-Joseph Papineau (October 7, 1786 – September 23, 1871), born in Montreal, Quebec, was a politician, lawyer, and the landlord of the seigneurie de la Petite-Nation. He was the leader of the reformist Patriote movement before the Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837–1838. His father was Joseph Papineau, also a famous politician in Quebec. Papineau was the eldest of eight children[1] and was the grandfather of the journalist Henri Bourassa, the founder of the newspaper Le Devoir.[2]


  • Speaker of the Legislative Assembly 1
  • Childhood and education 2
  • Leader of the Patriotes 3
  • In exile 4
  • Return to politics 5
  • Family 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Speaker of the Legislative Assembly

Papineau was elected Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada on January 21, 1815. The same year, he replaced Pierre-Stanislas Bédard as leader of the Parti Canadien. Under his leadership, the party worked for the reform of Lower Canada's political institutions and strongly opposed the abuses of the appointed Legislative Council.

In 1820, he refused a position on the Legislative Council offered by governor Dalhousie.

Childhood and education

The young Louis-Joseph, 10 years old

As a child, Papineau was described as an energetic child. His arrival at the Seminary of Quebec in 1802 was highly anticipated, and his reputation there preceded him. Upon graduation, he began an apprenticeship under his father with the goal of becoming a blacksmith, but this was quickly abandoned when the young Papineau turned to law, joining his cousin Denis-Benjamin Viger.[3] Denis-Benjamin Vigier "was for a time the assembly's agent in London and became one of Papineau's prominent supporters and close friends; but after the rebellion he was to follow Lafontaine."[4]

Papineau's later childhood was mainly spent on the seigniory of la Petite Nation, located on the Ottawa river, which was purchased by his father in 1801 from the Quebec Seminary.[5] During his time spent at the seigniory of La petite Nation, Papineau was sent to study at the College of Montreal in which he rebelled and was forced to leave college. He was then sent to study at the Seminary of Quebec, where he completed his secondary studies.[6]

In 1808 Papineau was elected member of parliament for Kent (now Chambly, Quebec) before being admitted to the Bar of Lower Canada in 1810. Later, he served as a militia officer in the War of 1812.[7]

In 1822, he was sent to London with John Neilson to present a petition of 60,000 signatures against the Union project. While in the United Kingdom, he was replaced by Joseph-Rémi Vallières as Speaker.

In 1826, he was chosen leader of The Patriotes, a reformed and more radical Parti Canadien. In 1831, he sponsored a law which granted full equivalent political rights to Jews, 27 years before anywhere else in the British Empire. The events that led to Jews receiving full citizenship rights in Lower Canada in advance of other nations or territories in the British Dominion were due to the involvement of one Ezekiel Hart, a Jew who had proved his dedication to the burgeoning Canadian identity by having raised money to support troops in the Lower Canada to help in defence against United States invasion from the south.

Louis-Joseph was part of the committee that wrote the Ninety-Two Resolutions passed by the Legislative Assembly on February 21, 1834. The resolutions called for an elected Legislative Council and an Executive Council responsible before the house of the people's representatives.

Leader of the Patriotes

Louis Joseph giving a political speech for the "Assemblée des six-comtés".
Louis-Joseph Papineau mural by George Juhacz and Jean Cartier found in the Papineau metro station of Montreal.

After the arrival of the Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan. He and O'Callaghan fled Montreal for Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu on November 16, after governor Lord Gosford ordered their arrest and that of 25 other Patriot leaders. Papineau and O'Callaghan went to the home of Wolfred Nelson. He crossed the United States border on November 25.

In exile

On February 8, 1839, he parted to leave New York City for Paris where he hoped to get France involved. In May, he published the Histoire de l'insurrection du Canada (History of the insurrection in Canada) in the magazine Progrès. Despite meeting with influential politicians such as Lamartine and Lamennais, the France of Louis-Philippe also remained neutral. After his wife left in 1843 "he spent a large part of his leisure in the main archival repositories in Paris, where he copied documents relating French rule in Canada".[8]

His role in the 1837 rebellions against British rule forced him into exile until 1845, when, three years after he had been granted amnesty, he finally decided to return to what in 1845 was called The Province of Canada but he visited Italy and Switzerland before getting to The Province of Canada.[5] He only returned to Montreal after he had been granted amnesty by the colonial government as well.

Return to politics

Portrait of Louis-Joseph Papineau by Théophile Hamel.

In 1848, he was elected member of the new united Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada in the riding of Saint-Maurice. In severe disagreement with the emerging French Canadian Liberal Party, he became an independent Member of Parliament. A convinced republican after a long exile in the United States and France, Papineau supported the Montreal Annexation Manifesto that called for Canada to join the United States of America.[9][10]

Louis-Joseph Papineau, along with John Molson Jr., the son of John Molson, and Horatio Gates, served as the first Vice-Presidents of the Montreal Mechanics' Institute. He participated in the creation of the Parti rouge. He was defeated in 1851, but elected in a by-election in 1852. He did not present himself again in the elections of 1854. He retired from public life and reappeared only once to hold a conference at the Institut canadien de Montréal in December 1867. He died at his manor in Montebello, Quebec near the modern Château Montebello on September 23, 1871.

Papineau's manor house in Montebello and his house in Montreal have both been designated as National Historic Sites of Canada.[11][12]

On October 21, 2012, a monument to his memory was unveiled at Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu by Québec Premier Pauline Marois.


Julie and Ézilda Papineau

M. Papineau married Julie Papineau (née Julie Bruneau) in Quebec City on April 29, 1818. Together, they had 4 children that lived up to an adult age.[13]

  • Amédée Papineau (1819 -1903) – heir of Louis-Joseph;
  • Lactance Papineau (1822 -1862) – died in a mental institution;
  • Ézilda Papineau (1828 -1894) – suffering from dwarfism, did not have any children and stayed all her life in Montebello, Quebec ;
  • Azélie Papineau (1834 - 1869) – married the painter and architect Napoleon Bourassa (1827-1916), mother of Henri Bourassa, a famous journalist.[13]


  • "A Chronology of the Life of Louis-Joseph Papineau", Manoir-Papineau National Historic site of Canada, Parks Canada
  • Fernand Ouellet. "Louis-Joseph Papineau: A Divided Soul", in Canadian Historical Association, 11, Ottawa, 1960
  • James Marsh. Papineau, Louis-Joseph, in the Canadian Encyclopedia
  • Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan. "A Biographical Sketch of the Hon. Louis Joseph Papineau, Speaker of the House of Assembly of Lower Canada", in Sentinel, Saratoga Springs, 1838
  • Gustave Proulx. Le Combat magnifique: Louis-Joseph Papineau. Montréal: Les Presses de "La Presse", 1973. 124 p. Without ISBN
  • Thomas Storrow Brown. "Brief sketch of the life and times of the late Hon. Louis-Joseph Papineau", in New Dominion Monthly, 1872, January 1872, 20 pages
  • Johnny-Normand Pickering [-LeBlanc] : Le Mémorial Papineau, Éditions du Fleuve, Montréal, 1989

See also


  1. ^ Ouellet, Fernand (1972). Louis-Joseph Papineau A Divided Soul. Ottawa: The Canadian Historical Association.6
  2. ^
  3. ^ Ouellet,Fernand (1972) Louis-Joseph Papineau A Divided Soul. Ottawa: The Canadian Historical Association.6
  4. ^ Ouellet, Fernand (1972). Louis-Joseph Papineau A Divided Soul. Ottawa: The Canadian Historical Association.
  5. ^ a b Ouellet,Fernand (1972). Louis-Joseph Papineau A Divided Soul. Ottawa: The Canadian Historical Association.
  6. ^ Ouellet,Fernand (1972). Louis-Joseph Papineau A Divided Soul. Ottawa: The Canadian Historical Association
  7. ^ Bothwell, Robert. The Penguin History of Canada Toronto: Penguin Canada, 2006: 171.
  8. ^ Ouellet,Fernand (1972). Louis-Joseph Papineau A Divided Soul. Ottawa: The Canadian Historical Association.17
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ Louis-Joseph Papineau. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  12. ^ Manoir Papineau. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  13. ^ a b -1.13972 French website on M" Papineau's family

External links

  • The Ninety-Two Resolutions of 1834
  • Les 92 Résolutions (PDF in French)
  • Unofficial English translation of the Political Testament of Louis-Joseph Papineau
  • Ancestry of Louis-Joseph Papineau (in French).
  • Historica’s Heritage Minute video docudrama about “Hart and Papineau.” (Adobe Flash Player)
  • Louis-Joseph Papineau: The Demi-God, a 1961 National Film Board of Canada dramatization (Adobe Flash Player)
Political offices
Preceded by
François Viger
MPP, District of Kent
Succeeded by
Noël Breux
Preceded by
Étienne Nivard Saint-Dizier
MPP, District of Montreal West
Succeeded by
Preceded by
François Lesieur Desaulniers, Moderate Reformer
MLA, District of Saint-Maurice
Succeeded by
Joseph-Édouard Turcotte, Moderate Reformer
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.