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Lactic acid fermentation

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Title: Lactic acid fermentation  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Carbohydrate catabolism, Cellular respiration, Glycolysis, Sauerkraut, Fermentation
Collection: Fermentation, Metabolic Pathways
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Lactic acid fermentation

Lactic acid fermentation is a biological process by which anaerobic fermentation reaction that occurs in some bacteria and animal cells, such as muscle cells.[1][2][3]

If oxygen is present in the cell, many organisms will bypass fermentation and undergo

  1. ^ a b c d "Fermented Fruits and Vegetables - A Global SO Perspective". United Nations FAO. 1998. Retrieved 2007-06-10. 
  2. ^ Ohio State University (1998-04-03). "Glycolysis and Fermentation". Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  3. ^ a b  
  4. ^ a b c d "Lactic acid fermentation". Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  5. ^ "Lactic acid fermentation". Retrieved 2010-01-09. 
  6. ^ "Lactic acid fermentation in the production of foods from vegetables, cereals and legumes". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Journal. 1983. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  7. ^ "Sauerkraut Fermentation".  
  8. ^ Nummer, Brian A. "Brewing With Lactic Acid Bacteria". MoreFlavor Inc. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c d "Yogurt Production". 2006-12-29. Retrieved 2010-01-09. 


For a probiotic yogurt, additional types of bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are also added to the culture.[9]

The main method of producing yogurt is through the lactic acid fermentation of milk with harmless bacteria.[4][9] The primary bacteria used are typically Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, and US law requires all yogurts to contain these two cultures (though others may be added as probiotic cultures).[9] These bacteria produce lactic acid in the milk culture, decreasing its pH and causing it to congeal. The bacteria also produce compounds that give yogurt its distinctive flavor. An additional effect of the lowered pH is the incompatibility of the acidic environment with many other types of harmful bacteria.[4][9]


Lactic acid is a component in the production of sour beers, including Lambics and Berliner Weisses.[8]

Sour beer

As in yogurt, when the acidity rises due to lactic acid-fermenting organisms, many other alcohols and other hydrocarbons. These may then combine to form esters, contributing to the unique flavor of sauerkraut.[1]

Lactic acid fermentation is also used in the production of sauerkraut. The main type of bacteria used in the production of sauerkraut is of the genus Leuconostoc.[1][7]


Kimchi also uses lactic acid fermentation.[6]


Lactic acid fermentation is used in many areas of the world to produce foods that cannot be produced through other methods.[4][5] The most commercially important genus of lactic acid-fermenting bacteria is Lactobacillus, though other bacteria and even yeast are sometimes used.[4] Two of the most common applications of lactic acid fermentation are in the production of yogurt and sauerkraut.



  • Applications 1
    • Kimchi 1.1
    • Sauerkraut 1.2
    • Sour beer 1.3
    • Yogurt 1.4
  • References 2

In homolactic fermentation, one molecule of glucose is ultimately converted to two molecules of lactic acid. Heterolactic fermentation, in contrast, yields carbon dioxide and ethanol in addition to lactic acid, in a process called the phosphoketolase pathway.[1]

Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of NADH and NAD+.

, if pyruvate is building up faster than it can be metabolized, the fermentation will happen anyway. mitochondria Sometimes even when oxygen is present and aerobic metabolism is happening in the [3]

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