World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Kovno Ghetto

Ghettos Reichskommissariat Ostland (marked with red-gold stars)

The Kovno ghetto was a ghetto established by Nazi Germany to hold the Lithuanian Jews of Kaunas during the Holocaust. At its peak, the Ghetto held 40,000 people, most of whom were later sent to concentration and extermination camps, or were shot at the Ninth Fort. About 500 Jews escaped from work details and directly from the Ghetto, and joined Soviet partisan forces in the distant forests of southeast Lithuania and Belarus.


  • Establishment 1
  • Organization 2
  • The Underground School 3
  • Smuggling Babies out of the Ghetto 4
  • Final days 5
  • Resistance 6
  • Notable prisoners 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • Bibliography 10
  • External links 11


The Nazis established a civilian administration under SA Major General Hans Kramer to replace military rule in place from the invasion of Lithuania on June 22, 1941. The Lithuanian Provisional Government was officially disbanded by the Nazis after only a few weeks, but not before approval for the establishment of a ghetto under the supervision of Lithuanian military commandant of Kaunas Jurgis Bobelis, extensive laws enacted against Jews and the provision of auxiliary police to assist the Nazis in the genocide. Between July and August 15, 1941, the Germans concentrated Jews who survived the initial pogroms, some 29,000 people, in a ghetto established in Vilijampolė (Slabodka). It was an area of small primitive houses and no running water which had been cleared of its mainly Jewish population in pogroms by Lithuanian activists beginning on June 24.


Civilians looking at the massacre of 68 Jews in the Lietukis garage of Kaunas on June 25 or 27, 1941

The ghetto had two parts, called the "small" and "large" ghetto, separated by Paneriai Street and connected by a small wooden bridge over the street. Each ghetto was enclosed by barbed wire and closely guarded. Both were overcrowded, with each person allocated less than ten square feet of living space. The Germans continually reduced the ghetto's size, forcing Jews to relocate several times. The Germans and Lithuanians destroyed the small ghetto on October 4, 1941, and killed almost all of its inhabitants at the Ninth Fort. Later that same month, on October 29, 1941, the Germans staged what became known as the "Great Action." In a single day, they shot around 10,000 Jews at the Ninth Fort.

The ghetto in Kovno provided forced labor for the German military. Jews were employed primarily as forced laborers at various sites outside the ghetto, especially in the construction of a military airbase in Aleksotas. The Jewish council (Aeltestenrat; Council of Elders), headed by Dr. Elkhanan Elkes, also created workshops inside the ghetto for those women, children, and elderly who could not participate in the labor brigades. Eventually, these workshops employed almost 6,500 people. The council hoped the Germans would not kill Jews who were producing for the army.

The Underground School

As an act of defiance an underground school was conducted in the Kovno Ghetto when such education was banned in 1942. A remarkable photo of one of the classes of that school features in the US Holocaust publication, "The Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto". Identification of the teacher visible in that photo is given in a website that deals with the hidden school.[1] However almost all of the children in the Ghetto, approximately 2,500, were removed in the Kinder Aktion of 27–28 March 1944.

Smuggling Babies out of the Ghetto

From 1942 births were not permitted in the ghetto and pregnant women faced death. However a number of babies of ages from about 9 months to 15 months were smuggled out of the Kovno Ghetto to willing Lithuanian foster mothers.[2]

Final days

In the autumn of 1943, the SS assumed control of the ghetto and converted it into the Kovno concentration camp. Wilhelm Göcke served as the camp's commandant. The Jewish council's role was drastically curtailed. The Nazis dispersed more than 3,500 Jews to subcamps where strict discipline governed all aspects of daily life. On October 26, 1943, the SS deported more than 2,700 people from the main camp. The SS sent those deemed fit to work to Vaivara concentration camp in Estonia, and deported surviving children and the elderly to Auschwitz.

On July 8, 1944, the Germans evacuated the camp, deporting most of the remaining Jews to the Dachau concentration camp in Germany or to the Stutthof camp, near Danzig, on the Baltic coast. Three weeks before the Soviet army arrived in Kovno, the Germans razed the ghetto to the ground with grenades and dynamite. As many as 2,000 people burned to death or were shot while trying to escape the burning ghetto. The Red Army occupied Kovno on August 1, 1944. Of Kovno's few Jewish survivors, 500 had survived in forests or in a single bunker which had escaped detection during the final liquidation; the Germans evacuated an additional 2,500 to concentration camps in Germany.


Monument of the Kaunas Ghetto

Throughout the years of hardship and horror, the Jewish community in Kovno documented its story in secret archives, diaries, drawings and photographs. Many of these artifacts lay buried in the ground when the ghetto was destroyed. Discovered after the war, these few written remnants of a once thriving community provide evidence of the Jewish community's defiance, oppression, resistance, and death. George Kadish (Hirsh Kadushin), for example, secretly photographed the trials of daily life within the ghetto with a hidden camera through the buttonhole of his overcoat.

The Kovno ghetto had several Jewish resistance groups. The resistance acquired arms, developed secret training areas in the ghetto, and established contact with Soviet partisans in the forests around Kovno.

In 1943, the Jewish partisan groups. About 70 died in action.

The Jewish council in Kovno actively supported the ghetto underground. Moreover, a number of the ghetto's Jewish police participated in resistance activities. The Germans executed 34 members of the Jewish police for refusing to reveal specially constructed hiding places used by Jews in the ghetto.

Notable prisoners

See also


  1. ^ "The Underground School in the Kovno Ghetto". 1944-03-27. Retrieved 2013-01-21. 
  2. ^ "The Underground School in the Kovno Ghetto". 1944-03-27. Retrieved 2013-01-21. 


  • This article incorporates text from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and has been released under the GFDL.
  • Gar, Joseph. Umkum fun der Yidisher Kovne. Munich, 1948.
  • Goldberg, Jacob. Bletlech fun Kovner Eltestnrat // Fun letztn Churbn, № 7, Munich, 1948.
  • Grinhoyz, Shmuel. Dos kultur-lebn in kovner geto // Lite (M. Sudarsky et al., eds.), vol. 1. – New York 1951.
  • Lurie, Esther. A living witness: Kovno ghetto – scenes and types: 30 drawings and water-colours with accompanying text. – Tel Aviv, 1958.
  • Garfunkel, Leib. Kovna ha-Yehudit be-Hurbanah. – Jerusalem, 1959.
  • Lazerson-Rostovski, Tamar. Yomanah shel Tamarah: Ḳovnah 1942-1946. – Tel Aviv, 1975.
  • Goldstein-Golden, Lazar. From Ghetto Kovno to Dachau. – New York, 1985.
  • Frome, Frieda. Some dare to dream: Frieda Frome's escape from Lithuania – Ames, 1988.
  • Mishell, William W. Kaddish for Kovno: life and death in a Lithuanian ghetto 1941-1945. – Chicago, 1988.
  • Tory, Avraham. Surviving the Holocaust: the Kovno Ghetto diary. – Cambridge, 1990.
  • Kowno // Enzyklopädie des Holocaust. Die Verfolgung und Ermordung der europäischen Juden, Band II. – Berlin, 1993, p. 804–807.
  • Oshry, Ephraim. The annihilation of Lithuanian Jewry – New York, 1995.
  • Levin, Dov. Fighting back: Lithuanian Jewry's armed resistance to the Nazis, 1941-1945. – New York, 1997, p. 116–125, 157–160.
  • Elkes, Joel. Values, belief and survival: Dr Elkhanan Elkes and the Kovno Ghetto. – London, 1997.
  • Hidden history of the Kovno Ghetto. – Boston, 1997.
  • Littman, Sol. War criminal on trial: Rauca of Kaunas. – Toronto, 1998.
  • Ginsburg, Waldemar. And Kovno wept. – Laxton, 1998.
  • Birger, Zev. No time for patience: my road from Kaunas to Jerusalem: a memoir of a Holocaust survivor. – New York, 1999.
  • Beiles, Yudel. Judke. – Vilnius, 2002.
  • Ganor, Solly. Light one candle: a survivor's tale from Lithuania to Jerusalem. – New York, 2003.
  • Segalson, Arie. Ba-Lev ha-Ofel. Kiliona shel Kovno ha-yehudit – mabat mi-bifhim. – Jerusalem, 2003.
  • Ginaite-Rubinson, Sara. Resistance and survival: the Jewish community in Kaunas, 1941-1944. – Oakville, 2005.
  • The Yad Vashem encyclopedia of the ghettos during the Holocaust. Vol. 1: A-M. – Jerusalem, 2009, p. 290–299.
  • Smuggled in potato sacks: fifty stories of the hidden children of the Kaunas Ghetto. – London, 2011.
  • Dieckmann, Christoph. Deutsche Besatzungspolitik in Litauen, 1941-1944, 2 t. – Göttingen, 2011, p. 930–958, 1055–1105.
  • The clandestine history of the Kovno Jewish ghetto police / by anonymous members of the Kovno Jewish ghetto police. – Bloomington, 2014.

External links

  • The exhibition “Hidden history of the Kovno ghetto” at the US Holocaust memorial museum
  • About music in Kovno ghetto at the site “Holocaust Music”
  • About Kovno ghetto at the site
  • About Kovno ghetto at the site “Holocaust Research Project”
  • Photographs of Kovno ghetto at the site “Holocaust Research Project”
  • Interview with Avraham Tory

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.