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Kambojas in Indian literature

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Kambojas in Indian literature

Articles related to Kambojas
In Indian literature

The Kamboja peoples are referenced in numerous ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts including Sama Veda, Atharvaveda, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas, Kautiliya's Arthashastra, Yasaka's Nirukata, Buddhist Jatakas, Jaina Canons, ancient grammar books and plays etc.

A few illustrative examples are presented as follows:


  • Kambojas of Pāṇini's Ashtadhyai 1
  • Kambojas of Yasaka's Nirukuta 2
  • Mahabharata Traditions 3
    • Epic War and the Kambojas 3.1
  • Puranic literature 4
  • Kautiliya's Arthashastra 5
  • Buddhist Literature 6
  • Jaina Traditions 7
  • Kambojas in Atri-Smriti 8
  • Kambojas in Manusmriti 9
  • Valmiki Ramayana 10
  • Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa 11
  • The Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira 12
  • Rajatarangini of Kalhana 13
  • Parama Kamboja 14
  • Mahabharata evidence 15
    • Kamboja 15.1
    • Parama-Kamboja 15.2
    • Further References to Parama-Kamboja 15.3
  • Etymology of Parama-Kamboja 16
  • More evidence on two Kamboj settlements 17
    • Evidence from Dasam-Granth 17.1
    • Evidence from Ptolemy 17.2
  • Parama Kamboja connections with Rishikas/Tukharas/Yue-chis? 18
  • Epilogue 19
  • See also 20
  • References 21
  • Further reading 22

Kambojas of Pāṇini's Ashtadhyai

Pāṇini in his Ashtadhyayi [1] notes Kamboja as one of the fifteen prominent Kshatriya Janapadas in north-west. He also gives a rule for the derivative to denote the king of Kambojas. He attests that the word Kamboja denotes not only the Kamboja Kshatriya clan or the Kamboja country but also the ruler of the Kambojas as well as a descendant of the Kamboja Kshatriyas.

The Mayuravyamsakadi—Ganapatha on Pāṇini's rule[2] attests that the Kambojas and the Yavanas observed a social custom of supporting short head-hair (Kamboja.mundah Yavana.mundah...i.e. shaved-headed like Kambojas, shaved-headed like Yavanas).

This same characteristics of the Kambojas are attested by Mahabharata (mundanetan ....Kambojan.eva... MBH 7/119/23) as well as numerous Puranic literature (Yavananam shirah sarvam Kambojanam tathaiva cha) [3]

Kambojas of Yasaka's Nirukuta

Besides commenting on the Kamboja language, Yasaka in his Nirukuta(II/2), also attempts to etymologize the term Kamboja, defining it as kambal.bhoja and Kamaniya.bhoja:

The Kambojas enjoy kambala (blankets) i.e. they are Kambal.bhojas. Also the Kambojas enjoy beautiful (kamaniya) things i.e. they are 'kamaniya.bhojah'. Hence they are called Kamboja..[4]

Numerous ancient commentators like Durga Acharya, Brahmuni Privrajika, Sikanda Swami etc. have commented on Yasaka's Nirukuta including Yasakian terms Kamaniya.bhoja and Kambal.bhoja in reference to the Kambojas. From their commentaries, we get very useful information not only on the climate & geographical location of Kamboja country but also on the food habits, dress-mode and industry/craft of ancient Kambojas. These commentaries provide powerful evidence on Kambojas' riches and the luxurious lives they lived.

Main Article: Kambojas of Yaska

Mahabharata Traditions

A manuscript of Mahabharata.

Shantiparva of Mahabharata refers to a Kamboja warrior/king who had wrested the prized sword (Khadga)(q.v.) from Dhundhumara aka Kuvalashava, the celebrated king of Ayodhya.[5] It was probably from this Kamboja that his country/tribe came to be called Kamboja.[6] See: Mahabharata Sword

Adiparva refers to a powerful king of Kambojas called Chandravarma and describes him as an incarnation of Asura Chandra, foremost among the sons of Diti and handsome as the lord of the stars himself.[7]

Sabhaparva refers to another king of Kambojas called Kamatha Kamboja who has been counted among principal Kshatriyas invited by king Yudhishtra on the inauguration ceremony of the imperial palace at Indraprastha.[8]

Sabhaparva informs us that a king of the Kambojas had taken part in the Rajasuya sacrifice of king Yudhishtra.[9]

Sudakshina, the illustrious monarch of Kambojas had participated in the Swayamvara of princess Draupadi of Panchala,, country.[10]

Epic War and the Kambojas

'Among the Kshatriya tribes in the Mahabharata, the Kambojas occupy a very prominent place. They were allies of Duryodhana and by their bravery, and especially the prowess of their king Sudakshina, they had rendered great service to Kuru side in the long drawn battle at Kurukshetra' .[11][12]

Sudakshina had joined Mahabharata war leading a grand army of wrathful warriors of Kambojas, Sakas and the Yavanas. The mass of his one Akshauhini (division) army is stated to look like a swarm of locusts.[13]

Sudakshina was one of the few Maharathas or great heroes on the field (Law). Mahbharata numerously refers to Sudakshina as a great Maharathi (Sudakshinan tu rajendra Kambojanam maharatham), lionlike (Purushavyaghrah), a volcano giving out flames (Kamboja.vadava.mukham), a lion among the chariot-warriors (ratha.simhasya) and a Mahabali/Mahabahu undefeatable even by the gods in the battle [14] etc.

Sudakshina had fought very ferociously until slain by Arjuna on 15th day of the war. He roared like a lion (sinha.nadamathanadat) as he fought and had given Arjuna indeed a tough fight. In the final and deadly duel brave Sudakshina had seriously wounded Arjuna and sent him into a terrible swoon, but finally was overcome and fell a magnificent martyr to Kuru cause.[15]

Younger brother of Sudakshina, known as Kamboj had also participated in the Bharata war and had fought ferocious duels on Kurus' side. This tall and extremely handsome prince was also finally slain while fighting valiantly with Arjuna on 17th day of the war.[16]

The Mahabharata repeatedly applauds the mighty and immense army of the Kambojas, calling it a flooded river, invincible in the battle. There are numerous references to countless Maharathas or great heroes of the Kambojas.[17] The Kamboja warriors have been described as 'strikers of fierce force' (tigmavega.praharinam).

In hot war-field, the Kambojas have been described as elephants gone berserk (durvarana nama Kamboja); war-intoxicated warriors, biting the lips in rage as they fought (damshitah krurakarmanah Kamboja yuddhadurmadah); Death-personified (samana.mrityavo); deadly like cobras (tikshnai.rashivishopamah), and terrible like Yama the god of death and rich like Kouber the god of wealth (Yama vaishravan.opamah) etc.

Dronaparva of Mahabharata terms the entire Kamboj soldiery as wrathful warriors, fiercely brave, scholars of Vedas (kritavidyashcha), firmly devoted to the science of weapons, highly united, self-sacrificing and well-wishers of each other.[18]

Sauptikaparva of Mahabharata ranks the horses from Kamboja as of the finest breed.[19]

Bhishamaparva of Mahabharata refers to the quality war horses from various lands and puts the steeds from the Kamboja at the head of the list specifically styling them as the leaders (Mukhyanam) among the best breed of horses.[20]

"Most famous horses are said to come either from Sindhu or Kamboja; of the latter (i.e the Kamboja), the Indian pseudo-epic Mahabharata speaks among the finest horsemen".[21]

Puranic literature

Harivamsham and numerous Puranic literature groups the Kambojas with the Yavanas, Sakas, Pahlavas and Paradas and refers to a social custom prevalent among them which was against that of the Hindus.[22]

The Hindus by religion were ordained to support a sikha or knot on head and therefore, looked askance towards those who had their hair cropped short (mundah).

Puranas say that with the help of ayudhajivi sanghas of above-said tribes known as five hordes (pañca.gana), the Haihaya or Talajangha Indo-Aryans had dethroned Vedic King Bahu of Ayodhya. However, a generation later, Bahu's son Sagara had recaptured Ayodhya after completely destroying Haihayas or Talajanghas. Sagara was about to crush the five hordes when Sagara's priest Vasishtha intervened. Vasistha advised Sagara to let the hordes go after meting them out a lighter punishment. Listening to his Spiritual Guide, Sagara forbade these invaders to perform Svadhyayas and Vasatkaras (Vedic rituals), thus divesting them of their Kshatriyahood. Sagara also forced the Kambojas and Yavanas to shave whole of their heads, Sakas to shave half, Pahlavas to grow beards and the Paradas to wear their hair free.[23][24]

See Harivamsham 14: [1]

The story apparently has been tailored to explain certain peculiarities of these foreigners by suggesting that their peculiar hair styles were due to their defeat at the hands of Sagara.

Prevalence of short hair style among the Kambojas is also attested from Mahabharata [25] as well as from Ganapatha on Pāṇini's rule [2] (Kamboja-mundah, Yavana-mundah).

Kautiliya's Arthashastra

Kautiliya's Arthashastra attests that the Kambojas followed republican constitution.

Kautiliya contrasts Varta.shastr.opajivin (martial republican) Sanghas with the Raja.shabad.opajivin (king-council) Sanghas and includes the Kamboja and Surastra Kshatriyas in the 'Varta-shastr.opajivin' or 'martial republics' category.

'Kamboja. Surastra.ksatriya.shreny.aadayo 'vaartta.shastra.upajiivinah' .[26]

i.e. Corporations of warriors (Kshatriya shrenis) of the Kamboja and Surashtra and some other nations live by agriculture, trade and by wielding weapons.[27][28]

Kautiliya also attests that the Shrenis or corporations of the 'Shastr-opajivins' (i.e. the Kambojas and Surastras etc.) were the most heroic and best source for military recruitment.[29]

The martial republics mentioned in Kautiliya Arthashastra are headed by Kambojas (Jayswal).

The democratic constitution of the Kambojas is also testified by Mahabharata which refers to several brave Ganas or Republics of the Kambojas (Kambojana cha ye Ganah....sangrame shura sammatah) fighting on Kurus' side.

Thirteenth Rock Edict of king Ashoka also affirms that the Kambojas, Yavanas etc. were republican or kingless nations (araja.visyavasi yonakambojesu..) within the Mauryan empire.

Main article: Kambojas in Kautiliya's Arthashastra

Buddhist Literature

The Anguttara Nikaya refers to Kamboja as one of the sixteen great nations of ancient times.[30]

The same fact is also conveyed by one of the oldest Pali commentary, the Culla-Niddesa [31]

The Majjhima Nikaya attests that in the lands of Yavanas, Kambojas and some other frontier nations, there were only two classes of people...Aryas and Dasas...the masters and slaves. The Arya could become Dasa and vice versa.[32]

The Commentary [33] informs that a Brahmin would go to Kamboja or Yavana with his wife for purpose of trade and would die there, his wife would then be compelled to work for her living and her children might consort with slaves, in which case their children would be slaves.

This attests that in the lands of Kambojas and Yavanas (yonakambojesu), there was no place for Brahmanas.

Ashoka's Rock Edict XIII also attests the Yona and the Kamboja as a pair (Yonakambojesu), and conveys similar information on Yonas (directly) and the Kambojas (indirectly) stating that Brahmanas and Shramanas are found every where in his empire except in the lands of Yonas etc.[34][35]

The Vishnu Purana also affirms the absence of chatur-varna system among the Kiratas in the east and the Yavanas, Kambojas etc. in the pashchima or west.[36]

Many Buddhist texts like Manorathapurni, Kunala Jataka,[37] Vinaya Pitaka,[38] Samangalavilasini,[39] Aruppa-Niddesa of Visuddhimagga,[40] Mahavastu [41] etc. highly glorify the Kamboja horses and portray the Kamboja land as the home of horses (Kambojo assanam ayatnam).

Kamboja.sutta of Anguttara Nikaya states that, even in spite of their desire, the women of other countries must not visit Kamboja country (i.e. Kambojjam na gacchati).[42]

The Commentary[43] also supports this fact.[44][45][46]

This implies that there was, perhaps a shortage of women in the land of Kambojas, and it was probably unsafe for women from other countries to visit Kamboja.

The Buddhist Sanskrit Vinaya text sutras, while explaining the benefits of circumambulating the stupa of the Lord of the world, emphasize that even: "One hundred maidens of Kamboj (satam Kambojakanam kanyanam) wearing jeweled earrings, with circlets of gold upon their arms and adorned with rings and necklaces of the finest gold; one hundred elephants, snowy white, robust and broad-backed, adorned with gold and jewels, carrying their great trunks curved over their heads like plowshares, could not even begin to equal one sixteenth part of the value of one step of one circum-ambulation".[47][48][49][50] This Buddhist evidence obviously indicates that like the women of Madra country,[51] the ancient Kamboj women were also proverbial for their beauty.[52][53]

Bhuridatta Jataka refers to the Kambojas as following the non-Aryan (i.e. Zoroastrian) customs like killing poisonous insects, moths, snakes and worms—which [54] is recognized as Zoroastrian from passages in Mazdean books like the Vedevat [55] and from the remarks of Herodotus.[56]

Jaina Traditions

The Jaina traditiin divides India into Aryakhanda and Mlechchhakhandas. The Jaina-Purana or the Jaina version of Ramayana with caption Paumacariyam composed by Vimal Suri, a Jain monk probably in the 3rd century AD [57] regards the Kambojas, Sukas (Sakas), Kapota (?), Savaras (Sabaras) etc. as Mlechchas.[58][59] They are again called Varavaras (Barabaras) in the same text.[60] In Jaina Uttaradhyana-Sutra, it is said that a trained Kamboja horse excelled all horses in speed and no noise could ever frighten it.[61][62] Samaraiccakaha written by Haribhadra Suri, one of the non-canonical Jain authors known for his authoritative works in Sanskrit and who is believed to have lived between the 5th and 8th centuries AD, refers to the cavalry horses from Vahlika (Bahlika), Kamboja, Turuska and Vajjira.[63] Yasástilakachampu of Digambara scholar Somadeva (10th century AD), identifies ancient Kamboja with Bahlikadesa (Bahlika).[64][65]

Kambojas in Atri-Smriti

In his Book of Law (Atri-Smriti or Atri-Samhita), Rsi Atri regards the Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Khasas, Parasikas, Bahlikas, Natas, Svapakas etc. as Mlechchas and forbids receiving any gifts from or eating the food of or having any kinds of contacts, connection or intercourse with them.[66][67]

Kambojas in Manusmriti

Manusmriti [68] informs us that, in consequence of the omission of sacred Brahmanical rituals/codes and of their not heeding to the Brahmanans, the following noble Kshatriyas (Kshatriya Jatayah) have gradually sunk in this world to the state of vrishalatam i.e. become degenerate Kshatriyas: the Paundrakas, Chodas, Dravidas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Shakas, Paradas, Pahlavas, Chinas, Kiratas and Daradas.[69]

A similar information on Kamboja, Saka, Yavana and other tribes is also contained in the Anusasanaparva of Mahabharata [70] which also states that due to neglect of Brahmanas, these noble Kshatriya clans have sunken to vrishalatvam i.e. become degraded Kshariyas or Vratyas.[71]

Based on this information of Manusmriti and Mahabharata, the scholars have listed the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, Kiratas, Chinas and other ancient Kshatriya clans as Vratya Kshatriyas or degraded Kshatriyas etc.[72]

Main Article: Kambojas and Manusmriti

Valmiki Ramayana

In Adi-Kanda of the Ramayana,[73] one reads that the Kambojas, Yavanas, Sakas and some other allied tribes of north-west were 'created' at the request of sage Vasistha by the Divine cow Shavala to defend sage Vasistha from the forces of king Vishwamitra.[74]

This poetical 'creation' of the Kambojas etc. may point to some remote attempt on the part of some Brahmana rishi of Vasistha line to proselytize Iranian Kambojas and other allied clans of the north-west into brahmanised Kshatriyas of the Indo-Aryan version.

These Hinduised Kambojas later became ardent champions of Vedic religion and the great scholars of the Vedas. Kamboja Aupamanyava was a distinguished scholar/grammarian and finds a place in the line of great ancient Vedic teachers of Vamsa Brahmana [75] of Sama Veda. Being a Kamboja and son of Upamanyu, this Kamboja sage was referred to as Kamboja Aupamanyava.

Ludwig, Zimmer, Pusalkar, Law etc. identify sage Upamanyu of Rig Veda[76] with Upamanyu, the father of Kamboja Aupamanyava.

The Hinduised Kambojas are found listed at par with the Vasisthas in Paraskar Grihyam Sutram according to which the Kambojas and Vasisthas had common custom to wear one choti on right side of the head.[77]

This shows that the social and religious customs of the Brahmanised Kambojas and the Indo-Aryan Vasisthas were identical but differed from other scholarly clans of ancient India.

The Bahu/Sagara Puranic legend also testifies very intimate relationship of the Kambojas with the Vasistha clan.

There are several references in Sanskrit and Pali literature which inform us of the scholarship of Kambojas.

The Mahabharta[78] reveals that, besides being fierce warriors, the Kamboja soldiers were also noted as learned people (kritavidyashcha).

The Vasistha clan appears to have played a leading role in proselytising the Persian Kambojas, especially the cis-Hindukush Kambojas living in Kabol, Swat and Rajori region, into Hinduism.

There are further indications that Kaundinya line of Brahminas, an offshoot from Vasisthas, also had good relations with the Kambojas, especially those Kambojas who had settled in western and southern India after Christian era.

See article: Brahmanism of Ancient Kambojas

Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa

Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa (5th century AD) contains references to Kambojas and informs that, during his digavijaya expedition, after reducing the countries of Western-Ghats, king Raghu proceeds via land-route to conquer the Parasikas.[79] The Parasikas lose the battle.[80] Raghu's forces move in north (kauberi) direction from Parasika (Sassanian) land and hit Vamkshu (Oxus).[81] At Vamkshu, Raghu's horses take breather and shed off the Kesra (safron) leaves from their shoulders by rolling in the sands of Vamkshu Banks.[81] Here follows the encounter with the Hunas on west Banks of Vamkshu.[82] The Hunas in the 5th century AD were located in west parts of Oxus country i.e. in Bactria. The Huna forces meet with complete disaster. Immediately after reducing the Hunas on western bank of Oxus, Raghu faces the Kambojas, defeats them and obtains numerous expensive gifts and top-notch war horse from them as a tribute.[83] This tradition verifies that the Kambojas were located in close neighborhood to the Hunas in eastern Oxus country, in the 5th century AD.

The Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira

The Brhat Samhita is a 6th-century Sanskrit encyclopedia by Varahamihira (505 AD – 587 AD), dealing with wide ranging subjects of human interest, including astrology, planetary movements, eclipses, rainfall, clouds, architecture, growth of crops, manufacture of perfume, matrimony, domestic relations, gems, pearls, rituals and geography of ancient India. While referring to numerous tribes and people of ancient India, Brhat Samhita makes repeated reference to Kambojas and sheds appropriate light on their geographical location as well as their economical and political state during that period.

In chapter eleven of Brhat Samhita, Kamboja is bracketed with Kuru (of Kurukshetra) and Kashmira where the kings of Kambojas, Kurus and Kashmira are mentioned.[84] In chapter thirteen of Brhat Samhita, the Kambojas are bracketed with the Sakas, Yavanas, Daradas, Parata etc.[85] In chapter five, the Kambojas are grouped with the Cinas, Yavanas, Bahlikas, Sindhu, Paundrakas and the Kiratas etc. .[86] At another place of chapter five, the Kambojas are again bracketed with Kashmiras, Cinas, Yavanas, Gandharas etc.[87] In verse 35 of chapter five of the same text, Varahamihira associates the Kambojas with the Pancalas, Kalingas, Surasenas, Odras, Kiratas etc and refers to them as all as Shastra^varttah Nations i.e Nations living by agriculture, cattle-culture, trade and wielding weapons.[88]

From the references quoted above, it becomes amply clear that Varahamihira in these verses is referring to the Kamboja branch located in Uttarapatha i.e adjoining Gandharas, Kashmiras, Cinas, Pragjyotisha as well as Bahlikas.[89]

But a most interesting observation about the Kambojas is made in verse 17 (chapter fourteen) of Brhat Samhita where Varahamihira attests another branch (off-shoot) of the Kambojas, associates them with the Pahlavas, Yavanas, Sindhu-Sauviras, Aravas, Ambasthas, Anartas (Kaithiawaris), Surastra, Badara, Dravidah and attests them all living in south-western parts ('nairrtyam dizi') of India .[90][91]

Thus one can easily note that Varahamihira is attesting TWO separate settlements of the Kambojas viz: (1) one traditional branch of the Kambojas living in the Uttarapatha (northern-eastern parts of Afghanistan and north-west frontiers of Pakistan) whom he brackets with Cinas, Kashmiras, Bahlikas and Gandharas; and (2) the second branch of Kambojas living in Nairrtyam dizi i.e. south-west parts of ancient India [92] whom he associates with the Anartas, Saurashtras, Sindhu-Sauviras and the Dravidas etc. That the second branch of the Kambojas was living in south-west parts of India is also amply attested from several other ancient Sanskrit texts (See Link: Migration of Kambojas: Migration of Kambojas#The Kambojas in West.2FSouthwest India.).[93][94][95][96] This evidence signifies that around or little prior to Christian era, a section of the Kambojas, Pahlavas, Yavanas, Sakas etc. had migrated to south-western India in the wake of Scythian invasion of India and had established their respective principalities in western/south-western parts of India in post-Christian times.

Rajatarangini of Kalhana

Rajatarangini of Kalhana, a Sanskrit text from the north, states that king Lalitaditya Muktapida of Kashmir (724 AD to 760 AD) undertakes to reduce his neighbing nations. He launches war expedition onto the region of north from Kashmir and first he fights with the Kambojas and deprives them of their horses.[97] Immediately after the Kambojas, he meets the Tukharas. The Tukharas do not give him fight, but run away abandoning even their war horses in the field.[98] Thereafter, Lalitaditiya meets the Bhauttas (Tibetans) in Baltistan, in western Tibet, north of Kashmir [99]), then the Daradas in Karakoram/Himalaya,[100] the Valukambudhi,[101] Strirajya,[102] the Uttarakurus [103] and the Pragjyotisha, respectively. Based on this trail of victories of Lalitaditiya, numerous scholars have located the Kambojas in the eastern Oxus country as immediate neighbors to the Tukharas who were at this time located in western Oxus country including the Bahlika (Bactria).

Sircar observes: 'Rajatrangini [104] places the Kambojas along with the Tukharas in the upper Oxus valley including the Balkh and Badakshan'.[105]

Besides above, there are numerous other ancient sources containing references to the Kambojas. In fact, the Kambojas loom quite large in ancient Indian literature and inscriptions.

Parama Kamboja

Parama-Kamboja is a division of the Kambojas of Indian antiquity attested in the Mahabharata epic. Besides Mahabharata, there are other ancient texts/sources which also indirectly support the existence of two Kamboja divisions in ancient times.

Mahabharata evidence


In Arjuna's Digvijaya campaign against the tribes of north, in the direction presided over by the lord of treasures, Pandava hero Arjuna reduces the Bahlika (north-west Punjab) country, and then meets the Daradas (Gilgit) and the Kambojas (Paropamisadae to Rajauri) and obtains tribute from them [106]

This settlement of the Kambojas was in neighborhood of the Daradas and is located on the southern side of Hindu Kush in the region, which later formed parts of the Greek strapy of Paropamisadae. In the east, it is known to have extended as far as Rajapura (Rajauri) located in west Kashmir, as attested by Mahabharata [107]

The capital city of Kamboja was at Rajauri (Dr B. C. Law, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury).


Mahabharata attests that after settling with the Daradas and the Kambojas, Arjuna fights with the robber tribes of the mountainous frontiers and dasyus (barbarians) of the woods, and thereafter, taking select forces, Arjuna goes across Hindukush to fight with the allied tribes of the Lohas, Parama-Kambojas and northern Rishikas.[108]

The Lohas, Param-Kambojas and the northern Rishikas were all cognate tribes, and all were located in trans-Himalayan (i.e. trans-Hindukush) territories. The distant northerly section of the northern Rishikas were known as "Parama Rishikas".[109] Another settlement of the Rishikas somewhere between river Tapti and Godavari, in western India is also attested in Puranic and epic literature. They were probably located on or south of river Tapti, west of Vidarbhas, north of the Mulakas, east of Soparka and south of Anupadesa (in modern Maharashtra).

The northern Rishikas were apparently located towards Sogdiana/Fargana territories. According to classical writings, the vast region beyond Mount Hemodos (i.e. north of Hindukush/Himalaya) was known as Scythia.[110] The same was known as Sakadvipa in ancient Sanskrit literature.

Scholars like Jayachandra Vidyalankar, Moti Chandra etc. locate Kambojas in Badakshan, as neighbors to Bahlikas and say that the Daradas had come as allies of Kambojas in the Badakshan battle with Arjuna. After defeating the Kambojas, Arjuna meets the forces of Lohas, Parama Kambojas and Rishikas, in north-easterly territories. Mahabharata attests the Lohas, Parama Kambojas and Rishikas as allied (sahitan) tribes.[111]

Jayachandra Vidyalankar identifies Parama Kamboja with Yaghnobi speaking regions at the head waters of Zerafshan river, in old Sogdiana, a tract of country considerably to the north of the Pamirs and separated from them by the hill states subordinate to Bokhara.[112] H. C. Seth identifies the mountainous region between the Oxus and Jaxartes (old Sogdiana) as the locale of the ancient Kambojas.[113] This primarily forms the Parama Kambojas of the Mahabharata.

The Parama-Kambojas were located in Pamirs/Badakshan and as far as Zeravshan valley in Sogdiana (See: Kamboja Location). Since this region was beyond Mount Hemados/Himaos, it apparently fell in Scythic cultural belt. The Parama Kambojas, therefore, were pure Iranians following Irano-Scythian culture and customs rather than the Indo-Aryan. The capital city of the Parama-Kamboja was probably at Darwaz in Pamirs.

Further References to Parama-Kamboja

There are several more references in the Drona Parva, Sauptika Parva and Karana Parva of Mahabharata, which amply attest the excellent breed of horses from Parama-Kamboja. The Following is one illustrative example, picked up from Sauptikaparva of Mahabharata, which sufficiently attests the Parama-Kamboja people as well as their foremost breed of war steeds.[114]

It is interesting to note that like Madras/Uttara Madras, Kurus/Uttara Kurus, Kambojas/ Parama Kambojas, there were also two settlements of the Yonas (Yavanas)--- the Yona and the Parama Yona.[115] Further, there is also an ancient reference to China and Parama China in Valmiki Ramayana.[116]

The Yona probably referred to Archosian Yavanas while the Parama-Yona to the Bactrian Yavanas. Similarly China probably referred to little Tibet, while the Parama China (also known as Maha-China: see Manasollasa) referred to the main China.

Etymology of Parama-Kamboja

The prefix Parama- can be interpreted in the sense of (1) Uttara or northern (2) Furthest or beyond and (3) Greater/supreme.

The Parama- with a sense of northern/Uttara [117] sounds logical since the Parama- branch of the Kambojas was located in Uttara or north direction to Kambojas. Moreover, this name also sounds similar to Uttara-Madra and Uttara-Kuru which nations were their immediate neighbors in the Trans-Himalayans. The Parama- in the sense of Greater also makes good sense since the trans-Hindukush branch the Kambojas was original and perhaps the Greater or bigger section of the Kambojas.[118] Some scholars, like Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi have interpreted Parama- in the sense of "beyond", which also looks senseful since Parama-Kamboja was located beyond the Kamboja, when seen from India. Dr J. Muir interprets Parama Kamboja as the Furthest Kamboja [119] while others call it Distant Kamboja.[120] Some writers however, translate it as Eastern Kamboja.[121] In Pāṇini's Ashtadhyayi, the term "Parama-" stands for "the best-".[122] This meaning may imply that Parama Kamboja, like Uttara-kuru, was perhaps regarded as the more exalted land as compared to the Kamboja.

More evidence on two Kamboj settlements

Evidence from Dasam-Granth

While referring to the invasion of Alexander of Macedon, Dasam Granth a 17th-century text of Punjab refers to Kambuj and Kamboj obviously two distinct settlements[123]

The text obviously refers to Kambuj (Kabuj) as neighbors to the Kabulis and then the Kamboj as neighbors to the Kilmaka and China (Cheen ke) people. Kilmakas probably refers to the Mongol Kalmucks who lived in the Central Asian steppes. After Kilmaks, follows the destruction of countless forces of China (Cheen ke). Then it refers to Macheen (Manchuria).

Thus, the Dasam-Granth authors seem to be aware of the existence of two ancient Kamboja settlements.

Evidence from Ptolemy

Ptolemy refers to a region located on the southern bank of Oxus in Badakshan or Bactria,[124] and calls it Tambyzoi. According to scholars like Dr S Levi, Tambyzoi is a Greek transliteration of Sanskrit Kamboja [125]

Ptolemy also refers to another people/region which he calls Ambautai [126] which he locates on the southern side of Hindukush in the Paropamisadae.[127]

Ptolemy refers yet to another people/region he calls Komoi, whom he locates in the mountains of Sogdiana north of Bactria/Badakshan. It has been suggested that the Komoi of Ptolemy also indicate the same people as the Kambojas of the Sanskrit texts. The Komoi is Ptolemian transtliteration of Kamboi. Kamboi comes from Kamboika or Kamboyka which is corruption of Kambojika.[128] Kambojika is Pali equivalent of Sanskrit Kamboja. Pali texts numerously write Kamboja as well as Kambojaka/Kambojika. Scholars like Dr H. C. Seth observe: "The mountainous highlands where Jaxartes and many other rivers which meet this great river arise, are called by Ptolemy as "the Highlands of Komdei". Ammianus Marcellinus also call these Sogdian mountains as Komedas. The word Komedai and Komedas suggest Kom-desa or land of Kome. We learn from Ptolemy that a tribe variously called by him as Komaroi, Komedai, Khomaroi and Komoi was wide spread in the Highlands of Bactriana and Sogdiana. It is difficult to say, at present, how far the vast tracts of land on either side of Oxus called as Kyzyl Kum or Kizil Kum, Kok-kum and Kara Kum may yet bear the traces of the name of this once a great and powerful people".[129] These scholars have placed the ancient Kambojas in a vast area, in the doab of Oxus and Jaxartes, in the southern tip of Sakadvipa or Scythia. The Komdei of Ptolemy or the Kumudadvipa of the Puranic texts, obviously represents the Parama Kambojas [130] of the Mahabharata.[131]

Thus, it looks likely that the Kamboja clans were spread in Kabol valley in Paropamisadae, in Badakshan/Pamir as well as up to the highlands of Sogdiana. The Yagnobi, a dialect of the modern Galcha language spoken in/around the head waters of river Zeravshan (in Zeravshan valley), up in Sogdiana still contains the relics of ancient Kamboji verb Shavti used in the sense to go.[132]

Parama Kamboja connections with Rishikas/Tukharas/Yue-chis?

Some scholars hold that the Rishikas are same as the Yuezhis.[133] Prof Stein thinks that the Tukharas or Tusharas were a branch of the Yue-ches (Yuezhi),[134] whereas Dr P. C. Bagchi holds that the Yue-ches, Tokharoi/Tokarai and the Tukharas/Tusharas were identical.[135] Dr J. C. Vidyalankar believes that the Kushanas or Kanishkas are same as Rishikas.[136] Thus, according to above several equations, the Rishikas are also identifiable with the Tusharas/Kushanas. Sabha Parva of Mahabharata states that the Parama Kambojas, Lohas and the Rishikas were allied tribes.[137] Like the "Parama Kambojas", there is branch of Rishikas called Parama Rishikas located in Transoxian.[138] On the other hand, based on the syntactical construction of the Mahabharata verse 5.5.15 [139] and verse 2.27.25-26,[140] the outstanding Sanskrit scholar Ishwa Mishra believes that the Rishikas were a section of the Kambojas i.e. Parama Kambojas. Dr V. S. Aggarwala also relates the Parama Kambojas of the Trans-Pamirs to the Rishikas of Mahabharata [141] located in the Shakadvipa (or Scythia).[142] According to Dr B. N. Puri, the Kambojas were a branch of the Tukharas.[143] Based on the above Rishika-Kamboja connections, some scholars also claim that the Kambojas were a branch of the Yuezhi themselves.[144] Dr Moti Chander also sees a close ethnic connections between the Kambojas and the Yuezhi .[145][146]

The Rishikas are also stated to be same as the Asioi or Asii of Strabo. The name Asioi/Asii, according to one view,[147] alludes to their connections with Asva or Assa (horses). Based on the earlier information from Indika of Megasthenes (350 BCE- 290 BCE), Pliny (23 AD–79 AD) also mentions Osii/Orsi, Asoi, Aseni, Taxillae, Peucolaitae etc. among the Indian races living in the upper Indus valley south of Hindukush.[148][149] The Taxillae and Peucolaitae are obviously the Gandharans of the Indian traditions while the Asoi, Osii/Orsi and Aseni appear yet other variants of the Assaceni/Aspasioi and Assacani/Assakenoi (Asvayana and Asvakayana of Pāṇini and Katyayana). The Aspasios and Assakenois (q.v.) were important clans of the Kambojas exclusively engaged in horse culture. It is therefore, very likely that the Asioi/Asii or Asiani of Strabo may have been or part of the people of Parama-Kamboja (the bigger and the further branch of the Kambojas and Parama-Rishikas living in Scythia or Shaka-dvipa, across the Hindukush/Himalaya) in Transoxiana region. Thus, the Assakenoi and Aspasioi (the Asvakas) of Swat/Kunar valley appear to have been the earlier migrants from the Transoxian Parama Kambojas/Parama Rishikas.


The foregoing references sufficiently demonstrate that the Kambojas were living on either side of the Hindukush.[150][151][152][153][154] The cis-Hindukush division was called Kamboja. The trans-Hindukush Kamboja division was known as Parama Kamboja. Thus, like the Uttara-Kurus and Uttara-Madras, the Parama-Kambojas were also located in the trans-Himalayan (paren himavantam..) regions, and were neighbors both to the Uttara Kurus as well as the Uttara Madras. The author of Vayu Purana uses the name Kumuda-dvipa for Kusha-dvipa.[155] 'Kumuda is also a Puranic name of a mountain forming the northern buttress of the Mount Meru (i.e. Pamirs). In anterior Epic Age, Kumuda was the name given to high table-land of the Tartary located to north of the Himalaya range from which the Aryan race may have originally pushed their way southwards into Indian peninsula and preserved the name in their traditions as a relic of old mountain worship' (Thompson).[156] Thus, the Kumuda-dvipa lay close north to the Pamirs. Lying in the Transoxiana (in Saka-dvipa), this Komuda or Kumuda-dvipa of the Puranic texts is often identified as the ancient Kamboja land which corresponds to the Parama Kamboja referred to in the Sabha Parava of Mahabharata.[157]

Ptolemian Komdei is Komed or Komdesh or Kamdesh (?); from Kambodesh (?), probably "Kambojdesh". It is Kiumito or Kumito of Hiun Tsang and Kumed or Kumadh of the Muslim writers, Kiumiche of Wu'kong, Kumi of T'ang and Cambothi, Kambuson and Komedon of Greek writers. Al-Maqidisi in his book Al-Muqhni calls the people of this territory as Kumiji which apparently is equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboj.[158] The root Kam of the Sanskrit name Kamboja is also reflected in the Kama valley, a region lying between the Khyber Pass and Jalalabad; in the place names like Kama-daka, Kamma-Shilman, Kama-bela of Kabol; in the Kamdesh or Kambrom, Kamich, Kama and Kamu & Kamatol of the Kunar and Bashgul valleys; and also in the vast expanses of region called Kazal-Kam and Kara-Kam lying on either side of the Oxus, north of Hindukush in parts of Turkmenistan & Uzbekistan. Thus, the Ptolemian terms Kamoi and Komdei or Hiun Tsang's Kiumito exactly also refer to the Trans-Hindukush territories which region is what Mahabharata [130] refers to as Parama Kamboja i.e. a Kamboja lying beyond the Kamboja of Kabol valley.[159]

Aitareya Brahmana [160] further attests that the trans-Himalyan Uttara Madra and Uttara Kuru nations were republican. As the Param-Kamboja (i.e. the original Kamboja) was a close neighbor both to the Uttaramadras as well as the Uttarakurus in trans-Himalyan territories, it can, therefore, be fairly conjectured that the Parama-Kambojas were also a republican people, most probably following a Rajashabdopajivin (king consul) type of republicanism, where the king was only a title for the commander-in-chief of the military confederation.[161] Several republics of the Kambojas are attested in the Mahabharata.[162] Kautiliya also attests the Kamboja Sanghas and Corporations.[163] The Kambojas were also a self-governing political unit (republic) under the Maurya Emperors.[164][165]

See also


  1. ^ Sutras 4.1.168-175.
  2. ^ a b Ganapatha II.1.72.
  3. ^ Harivamsa 14.16.
  4. ^ Nirukuta II.2.
  5. ^ MBH 12.166.77.
  6. ^ See: entry at Kamboja, Puranic Encyclopaedia, Vettam Mani
  7. ^ MBH 1.67.31-32.
  8. ^ MBH 2.4.22
  9. ^ MBH 2.532.3.
  10. ^ MBH 1.185.13.
  11. ^ Felicitation Volume Presented to Professor Sripad Krishna Belvalkar, 1957, p 260, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Shripad Krishna Belvalkar .
  12. ^ Some Kshatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 241, B. C. Law
  13. ^ MBH 5.19.21-22.
  14. ^ MBH 7.158.64-66.
  15. ^ MBH 7.92.61-76.
  16. ^ MBH 8.56.111-114.
  17. ^ MBH 7.113.61
  18. ^ Sanskrit:
    ye tvete rathino rajandrishyante kanchanadhvajah./
    ete durvarana nama Kamboja yadi te shrutah.//43
    shurashcha kritavidyashcha dhanurvede cha nishthitah./
    sa.nhatashcha bhrisha.n hyete anyonyasya hitaishinah.//44
    akshauhinyashcha sa.nrabdha dhartarahhtrasya bharata./
    (MBH 7/112/43-44)
    English Trans: Those other car-warriors with golden standards, O king, whom you see, and who, like the wild elephants, are difficult of being resisted, they are called the Kambojas. They are brave, a learned people and are firmly devoted to the science of weapons. Desiring one another's welfare, they are all highly united and mutually cooperative. They constitute a full Akshauhini of wrathful warriors.
  19. ^
    syandanes.u ca Kamboja.yukta.parama-vajinah ||
    (MBH 10.18.13).
  20. ^
    tatah Kamboja.mukhyanam nadijana.n cha vajinam |
    Arattanam Mahijana.n Sindhujana.n cha sarvashah || 3 ||
    Vanayujana.n shubhrana.n tatha parvatavasinam |
    ye chapare tittiraja javana vatara.nhasah || 4 ||
    (MBH 6.90.3-4).
  21. ^ Journal of American Oriental society, 1889, p 257, American Oriental Society; The Social and Military Position of the Ruling Caste in Ancient India, as Represented by the Sanscrit Epic: As Represented by the Sanskrit Epic, 1889, p 257, Edward W. Hopkins; Cf: India in Early Greek Literature: academic dissertation, 1989, p 225, Klaus Karttunen - Greek literature; Mahabharata 10.18.13.
  22. ^ Harivamsa 14.01-19; Vayu Purana 88.127-43; Brahma Purana 8.35-51; Brahamanda Purana 3.63.123-141; Shiva Purana 7.61.23; Vishnu Purana 5.3.15-21, Padama Purana 6.21.16-33 etc
  23. ^ Harivamsa 14.1-19.
  24. ^ Vayu Purana 88.127-43; Brahma Purana 8.35-51; Brahamanda Purana 3.63.123-141; Shiva Purana 7.61.23; Vishnu Purana 5.3.15-21, Padama Purana 6.21.16-33 etc
  25. ^ MBH 7.119.23
  26. ^
    Arthashastra 11.1.4.
  27. ^ Translation by R Shamasastry.
  28. ^ See Link
  29. ^ Arthashastra 7.14.26-28.
  30. ^ Anguttara Nikaya, I. p 213; IV. pp 252, 256, 261.
  31. ^ See: Culla-Niddesa (P.T.S.), p 37; also cf: J. N. Banerjea Volume: A Collection of Articles by His Friends and Pupils, 1960, p 11, University of Calcutta Dept. of Ancient Indian History and Culture. Alumni Association, J N Banerjea; cf: Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, 1974, p 197, Kailash Chand Jain.
  32. ^
    Yona-Kambojaseu annesu cha panchchantimesu janapadesu dvea vanna,
    ayyo ceva daaso ca ayyo hutva daaso hoti daaso hutva ayyo hoti ti
    Majjhima Nikaya 43.1.3..
  33. ^ Majjhima Commentary, II, p.784.
  34. ^
    nathi cha se janpade yata nathe eme nikayia anataa yonesu bahmane cha shamne
    Rock Edict XIII.
  35. ^ See also: Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 196, D. C. Sircar; Encyclopaedia Indica, 1999, p 529, Shyam Singh Shashi - History; Purāṇam, 2001, p, 122, All-India Kasiraja Trust - Puranas.
  36. ^ Vishnu Purana, 2.37.
  37. ^ Kunala Jataka, verse 28..
  38. ^ Vinaya Pitaka, Vol III.
  39. ^ Samangalavilasini, Vol I (P.T.S.), p 124..
  40. ^ Aruppa-Niddesa, 10.28.
  41. ^ Mahavastu, II. 185..
  42. ^ Anguttara Nikaya, II. p82.
  43. ^ Manorathapurani, Anguttara Commentary, II, p 523.
  44. ^ cf: "women of other countries avoided visiting Kamboja" (Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to 7th Century AD, 1979, p 16, Uma Prasad Thapliyal).
  45. ^ cf: Kamboja Sutta in Anguttara Nikaya says that the women of other countries should avoid visiting Kamboja (Untying the Knots of Buddhism, Selected Essay, 1997, p 372, Alex Wayman).
  46. ^ Also see entry at Kamboja: Dictionary of Pali Proper Names (DPPN), 1960, G P Malalasekera.
  47. ^ Buddhist literature, 1999, p 114, Indiana University, Bloomington; East Asian Studies Center - Religion.
  48. ^ See also: World Peace Ceremony, Bodh Gaya, 1994, pp 84-85, Tarthang Tulku.
  49. ^ Ref: Buddhist Sanskrit Vinaya text; see also: Stupa, Sacred Symbol of Enlightenment, VERSES FOR CIRCUMAMBULATING A STUPA, Homage to the Three Jewels: See link: [2]
  50. ^ Also see: Gilgit Manuscripts, III, 3, 130, quoted earlier in B S O A S, xiii, 404.
  51. ^ e.g: Maddaratham nama itthagaro (See: Theraghatha Commentary II, 142; Therigatha (P.T.S) 68.
  52. ^ (See: Hindu World, Vol I, p 520, Benjamin Walker; A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms: With Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali, 1995, p 195, Lewis Hodous - Reference; Fan Ba Zang Ying fo xue ci dian hui bian, 1983, p 195, Lewis Hodous, Willian Edward Soothill; Han Fan Ying Tai fo xue ci dian: A dictionary of Buddhism : Chinese-Sanskrit-English-Thai, 1976, p 297, Pu men bao en si (Thailand);also see entry: Cam Bồ Quốc ( =Kamboja) in 'Buddhist Dictionary of Vietnamese-English'; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 228, J. L. Kamboj.
  53. ^ IMPORTANT NOTE: The above Vinaya Text Sutra emphasizes the importance of circumambulation of the Stupa in a same way as the Visakhuposatha Sutta of Anguttara Nikaya emphasizes the importance of the Uposatha undertaken with its eight practices e.g., Buddha says to Visakha: "Just as though, Visakha, one might have power, dominion and kingship over sixteen great countries abounding in the seven treasures that is to say, Anga, Magadha, Kasi, Kosala, Vajji, Malla, Ceti, Vansa, Kure, Pancala, Maccha, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara and Kamboja, yet it is not worth a sixteenth part of the Uposatha undertaken with its eight practices" (Anguttara Nikaya VIII.43: Visakhuposatha Sutta).
  54. ^ The Jataka, VI, p 110, Trans. E. B. Cowel; Jataka, Vol VI, pp 208, 210, Fausboll.
  55. ^ XIV.5-6.
  56. ^ Herod. I.140.
  57. ^ Early India, 2004, p 211, Romila Thapar .
  58. ^ Paumacariyam, XXVII.5-7, Vimal Suri.
  59. ^ Prācī-prabhā: Perspectives in Indology : Essays in Honour of Professor B.N. Mukherjee, 1989, p 185, Bratindra Nath Mukherjee, Dipak Chandra Bhattacharyya, Devendra Handa - India.
  60. ^ Paumacariyam, XXVII.26, Vimal Suri.
  61. ^ Jain Sutras, Sacred Books of the East (SBE), Part II, p. 47; The Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol 13, 1937, p 501, India.
  62. ^ Prakrit
    jaha se Kamboyanam aiiyne kanthai siya |
    assai javeyan pavre ayam havayi bahuassuye ||
    Uttaradhyana Sutra XI/16.
  63. ^ Samaraiccakaha (2, 100); Nirgrantha, 1995, p 13, Śāradābena Cīmanabhāī Ejyukeśanala Risarca Senṭara, Śāradābena Cīmanabhāī Ejyukeśanala Risarca Senṭara; Prakrit Nerrative Literature: Origin and Growth, 1981, p 153, J. C. Jain; Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman, 1977, p 148, Shyam Manohar Mishra; Prakrit Narrative Literature: Origin and Growth, 1981, Jagdish Chandra Jain - Prakrit Jaina literature.
  64. ^ Yasástilaka and Indian culture: or, Somadeva's Yasástilaka and aspects of Jainism and Indian thought and culture in the 10th century, 1949, p 512, Krishna Kanta Handiqui.
  65. ^ Note: However, in another verse, Yasástilakachampu also locates Kamboja in Kashmir and the neighboring countries (Yasástilaka and Indian Culture, Or, Somadeva's Yasástilakachampu and Aspects of Jainism and Indian Thought and Culture in the Tenth Century, 1949, p 512, Krishna Kanta Handiqui- History
  66. ^ Atri-Samhita, VII.2; History of Dharmaśāstra: (ancient and Mediæval Religious and Civil Law), 1930, p 384, P. V. Kane, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, India.(Bombay); A Corpus of Indian Studies, Eassays in honour of Gaurinath Sastri, 1980, p 396, Gauri Natha Bhattacharya, A. L. Bhasham, Gaurinath Sastria.
  67. ^ Cf: Bharata Manisha Quarterly, 1977, p 37, History.
  68. ^ Manusmriti X.43-44
  69. ^
    shanakaistu kriya-lopadimah Kshatriya-jatayah.|
    vrashalatvam gata loke brahmna-darshanen cha. ||43||
    Paundrash-Chaudra-Dravidah-Kamboja-Yavanah-Shakah. |
    Paradah Pahlavash-Chinah Kirata Daradah Khashah. ||44||
    (Manusmritti, X.43-44).
  70. ^ MBH verse 13.33.21.
  71. ^
    Brahmana yam prasha.nsanti purushah sa pravardhate | .
    brahmanairyah parakrushtah parabhuyatkshanaddhi sah .|| 20||
    Shaka Yavana Kambojas tastah Kshatriya-jatayah | .
    vrishalatvam parigata Brahmananamadarshanat .|| 21||
    (Mahabharata 13.33.20-21; cf: 13.35.17-18).
  72. ^ Origin and Growth of Caste in India, Vol I, 1968, p 121-122, N. K. Dutt.
  73. ^ Ramayana 1.55.2-3.
  74. ^ Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 248, B. C. Law.
  75. ^ Vamsa Brahmana v 1.18-19.
  76. ^ Rig Veda 1.102.09.
  77. ^
    dakshinatah Kambojaanaam Vasisthaanaam,
    ubhayato Atri Kashyapaanaam mundah Bhriguh,
    panchachuda Angris. Bajasneyaanaameka manglarth shikhinoanyai/
    (Chudakarma Samskaara, Paraskara GrhyaSutram 2.1.23, Commentary: Pt Harihar).
  78. ^ MBH 7.112.43-44
  79. ^ Raghu 4.60.
  80. ^ Raghu 4.65.
  81. ^ a b Raghu 4.67.
  82. ^ Raghu 4.68.
  83. ^ Raghu 4.68-69
  84. ^ Kasmiraaka^Kambojau nrpati prabhajjane na stah (Brhat Samhita 11.57cd).
  85. ^ :Saka^Yavana^Darada^Parata Kambojams tapasan vanopetan (Brhat Samhita 13.09ab) .
  86. ^
    Kamboja^Cina^YavanAn saha Saiyahrdbhir (5.80a)
    Bahlika^sindhutata^vasijanamz ca hanyat (5.80b)
    Anartta^Paundra^Bhisajaz ca tatha Kiratan (5.80c).
  87. ^
    Kazmiran sapulinda^Cina^YavanAn hanyat Kuruksetrajan (5.78a)
    Gandharan api Madhyadeza^sahitAn vrsto grahah zravane(5.78b)
    Kammboja^ekazaphamz ca zaradam api tyaktva yathoktan iman (5.78c) .
  88. ^ .
    Pajcala^Kaligga^Surasenah Kamboja^Udra^Kirata^Sastra-Varattah (Brhat Samhita 5.35ab).
  89. ^ See also: History of the Koch kingdom, c. 1515 - 1615, 1989, p 8, D. Nath - History.
  90. ^
    Nairrtyam dizi dezah Pahlava^Kamboja^Sindhu.Sauvirah (14.17ab)
    Phenagiri^Yavana^*Margara^karnapraveya^Parazava^Sudrah (14.18ab)
  91. ^ Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira, 1996, p 174, Trans, M.R. Bhat.
  92. ^ :nairrtyam dizi dezah Pahlava^Kamboja^Sindhu.Sauvirah (14.17ab).
  93. ^ See more reference: Brhat Samhita of Varahamihira, 1996, p 174, Trans, M.R. Bhat.
  94. ^ Cf: India as seen in the Bṛhatsaṁhitā of Varāhamihira, 1969, p 80, Ajay Mitra Shastri - History.
  95. ^ Elements of south-Indian palaeography, from the fourth to the seventeenth century, 1874, p 94, Arthur Coke Burnell.
  96. ^ Foreign influence on Indian culture: from c. 600 B.C. to 320 A.D., 2006, p 62,y Manjari Ukil - History.
  97. ^ Rajatrangini: 4.164- 4.165.
  98. ^ Raj. 4.166.
  99. ^ Raj. 4.168.
  100. ^ Raj. 4.169, 4.171 .
  101. ^ Raj. 4.172.
  102. ^ Raj. 4.173-174.
  103. ^ Raj. 4.175.
  104. ^ Rajatrangini 4.165-166.
  105. ^ Purana, Vol V, No 2, July 1963, The Land of Kamboja, p 252, D. C. Sircar.
  106. ^
    tatah.parama.vikranto Bahlikan.kurunandanah || II.27.22||
    Daradan.saha Kambojai.rajayat.paka.shasanih || II.27.23||.
  107. ^ . Karna-Rajapuram-gatva-Kambojah-nirjitastava || VII.4.5 ||.
  108. ^ Mahabharata II.27.25 of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa: Translated Into English Prose, 1962, p 66, Pratap Chandra Roy; The Mahabharata, Book 2: Sabha Parva, section XXVI, p 58, Kisari Mohan Ganguli, trans. [1883-1896]; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 13, Moti Chandra - India.
  109. ^ Mahabharata 2.27.25-27.
  110. ^ Diodorus: II.35
  111. ^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa: Translated Into English Prose, 1962, p 66, Pratap Chandra Roy; The Mahabharata, Book 2: Sabha Parva, section XXVI, p 58, Kisari Mohan Ganguli, trans. [1883-1896]; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 13, Moti Chandra - India.
  112. ^ See refs: Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118, Dr J. C. Vidyalankara; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 13, Dr Moti Chandra; Asoka and His Inscriptions, 1968, p 95, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī - Kamboja (Pakistan); Cf: The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala. Note: Kirpal Singh surmises that the Kommdei of Ptolemy was the Parama Kamboja of the epic Mahabharata (The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 59, 92, Kirpal Singh).
  113. ^ Central Asiatic Provinces of the Mauryan Empire", p 403, H. C. Seth; See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XIII, 1937, No 3, p. 400; Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1940, p 37, (India) Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal - Asia; cf: History and Archeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries from the ..., 176, p 152, Shashi P. Asthana - Social Science; Cf: India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi.
  114. ^
    yuktam Parama. Kambojaisturagairhemamalibhih ||10.14.1-2||.
  115. ^ See: Mahaniddesa, pp 155, 415.
  116. ^ The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India, Volume 4: Kiskindhakanda, p 151, Rosalind Lefeber.
  117. ^ Development of Hindu Polity and Political Theories, 1927, p 227, Narayanchandra Banerjee - Political science; Journal, Dept. of Letters, University of Calcutta, University of Calcutta Dept. of Letters - Buddhism - 1920; Inscriptions of Asoka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 85, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury - Inscriptions, Prakrit; Foundations of Indian Culture, 1984, p 20, Dr Govind Chandra Pande - India.
  118. ^ Chandra Chakraverty translates "Parama" in the sense of "Great" and locates the Parama Kambojas with Rishikas & Parama Rishikas. Chakraverty also, accordingly calls the Parama Rishikas as the Great Yuechis. See: Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 1952, p 148, Chandra Chakraberty - Vedas.
  119. ^ Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India ..., 1874, p 365,John Muir.
  120. ^ Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 117.
  121. ^ Foundations of Indian Culture, 1990, p 20, Govind Chandra Pande - India.
  122. ^ i.e Parama-vanijah = the best merchants. See: Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini, 1989, p 716, trans: Sumitra Mangesh Katre - Sanskrit language.
  123. ^
    Kashmir Kashkar Kabuj (=Kambuj) Kabul ko keenu,
    Kashtwar Kulu-Kehlur Kaihal kaho leeno,
    Kamboj Kilmak kathin pal mei kat darey,
    Hai kote Cheen ke katak hano kar kop karare.
    (See: Charytropakhyana, Triyachritra 217/verse 14, Dasam Granth 2024, Narain Singh, Dr Ajit Singh Aulakh, Publiushrs M/S Bhai Chatter Singh ji & Co).
  124. ^ Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, 2000, p 99, edited by Richard J.A. Talbert - History; Neuro-ophthalmology, 2005, p 99 Leonard A. Levin, Anthony C. Arnold.
  125. ^ The Indian Antiquary, 1923, p 54; Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993, p 122, Dr Sylvain Lévi, Dr Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch, Asian Educational Services; Cities and Civilization, 1962, p 172, Govind Sadashiv Ghurye; Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1, K. D. Sethna; Asiatic Society, Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1956, p 37; Purana, Vol VI, No 2, Jan 1964, pp 207-208; Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 88, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal); Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 165, Dr M. R. Singh; Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, 2000, p 99, edited by Richard J.A. Talbert - History; Neuro-ophthalmology, 2005, p 99 Leonard A. Levin, Anthony C. Arnold; Purana-vimar'sucika -: Bibliography of Articles on Puranas, 1985, p 133, P. G. Lalye.
  126. ^ Geography 6.18.3.
  127. ^ See more Refs: Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, Vol. 5,1999, issue 1 (September), Dr. M. Witzel; Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History, 2005, p 257, Laurie L. Patton, Edwin Bryant; The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: : Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, 1995, p 326, George Erdosy; Linguistic Aspects of the Aryan non-invasion theory, Part I, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See Link: [3]; The official pro-invasionist argument at last, A review of the Aryan invasion arguments in J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande: Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See link: [4].
  128. ^ Kambojika => Kamboyika => Kamboika =Kamboi.
  129. ^ Central Asiatic provinces of the Maurya Empire, p 403, Dr H.C. Seth; See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol XIII, 1937, p 400-403; cf: History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 1976, p 152, Shashi Asthana; For Kamboja Nomads in Central Asia, Cf also: India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi.
  130. ^ a b Mahabharata 2.27.25.
  131. ^ See also: The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 92, Kirpal Singh.
  132. ^ Proceedings & Translations of 6th A.I.O Conference, 1930, p. 118, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Linguistic Survey of India, G. A. Grierson.
  133. ^ India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashtadhyayi, 1953, p. 321, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
  134. ^ Rajatrangini, I, p 136 fn.
  135. ^ India and Central Asia, p 24, Dr P. C. Bagchi.
  136. ^ See quote in: Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 4, K. D. Sethna.
  137. ^ Mahabharata 2.26.25: See: Trans by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [5].
  138. ^ taraka maya sankashah Parama Rishika parthayoh || 26 ||.
  139. ^
    Shakanam Pahlavana.n cha Daradanam cha ye nripah |
    Kamboja Rishika ye cha pashchim.anupakash cha ye ||5.5.15||
    Trans: The kings of the Shakas, Pahlavas and the Daradas, and the Kamboja-Rishikas live in the west in the Anupa region.
  140. ^
    LohanParamaKambojanRishikanuttaran api ||
    sahita.nstanmahAraja vyajayatpakashasanih || 25 ||
    Rishikeshu tu sangramo babhuvAtibhaya.n karah ||
    taraka maya sankashah Parama Rishika parthayoh || 26 ||
    (Mahabharata 2.27.25-26).
  141. ^ See: The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
  142. ^ India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 64, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala - India.
  143. ^ Buddhism in Central Asia, p. 90.
  144. ^ Journal of Tamil Studies, 1969, pp 86, 87, International Institute of Tamil Studies - Tamil philology; Also see: International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics: IJDL., 1984, p 348, University of Kerala Dept. of Linguistics - Dravidian languages; India and Central Asia, 1955, p 31-32, Prof P. C. Bagchi.
  145. ^ Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 19, Dr Moti Chandra - India.
  146. ^ The Cultural Heritage of India also sees a close ethnic relationship between the Kambojas, the Tukharas (=Rishikas = Yue-chis) and the modern Tajik race. It calls the modern Tajik race to be descendants of the Tukharas and Kambojas, thus assuming Kambojas as a component of the Tukharas or vice-versa (The Cultural Heritage of India: Sri Ramakrishna Centenary Memorial, 1936, p 151). Cf: "The Kambojas indicate the people of Tajikistan speaking Ghalcha..." (See: Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, 1977, p 94, Dr Moti Chandra). For Kambojas as the ancestors of the Tajiks, Cf: Bhart Bhumi Aur Unke Nivasi, p 313-314, 226, Bhartya Itihaas Ki Mimansa, p 335 by Dr J. C. Vidyalanka; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, pp 164-65, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī.
  147. ^ Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Reprint (2002), Vol I, p. 64. Also see: pp. 51-54, 87, 95; Vol-2, P 2, James Tod; The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, 1885, p 196, Edward Balfour; The racial history of India, 1944, p 814-15, Chandra Chakraberty - Ethnology; Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 1953, pp 148, 152, Chandra Chakraberty - Sanskrit literature.
  148. ^ See: List of Indian Races, p 129 of Ancient India as described by Megasthenes and Arrian, 1877,, a tr. of the fragments of the Indika of Megasthenes collected by Schwanbeck and of the 1st part of the Indika of Arrian, by J.W. McCrindle. With intr., notes. Repr., with additions, from the 'Indian antiquary', . Megasthenes, Flavius Arrianus, Translated by John Watson McCrindle.
  149. ^ Pliny's Natural History, 1848, p 126, Philemon Holland, Wernerian Club, Wernerian Club. NOTE: Pliny only borrowed the information earlier prepared by Megasthenese who is believed to have been Greek Ambassdor in the court of Chandragupta Maurya after the Chandragupta Maurya had won war against Seleucid in about 302 BCE.
  150. ^ Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, Dr M. R. Singh.
  151. ^ Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1, Seq., K. D. Sethna.
  152. ^ Purana, Vol VI, No 2, Jan 1964, pp 207-214 .
  153. ^ Asoka and His Inscriptions: By Beni Madhab Barua. 3d Ed, 1968, p 95, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa.
  154. ^ Mahabharata 2.27.23;. Mahabharata 2.27.25.
  155. ^ Vayu I.48.34-36
  156. ^ O. Thompson, A History of Ancient Geography (London 1965) .
  157. ^ Dr Buddha Prakash maintains that, based on the evidence of Kalidasa's Raghuvamsha, Raghu defeated the Hunas on river Vamkshu (Raghu vamsha 4.68), and immediately after them he marched against the Kambojas (4.69-70). These Kambojas were of Iranian affinities who lived in Pamirs and Badakshan. Hiun Tsang calls this region which is thought to be Komdei of Ptolemy and Kumadh or Kumedh of Muslim writers (See: Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Agra, p 351; India and the World, 1964, p 71, Dr Buddha Prakash; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 300, Dr J. L. Kamboj).
  158. ^ See: Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Agra, p 351; India and the World, 1964, p 71, Dr Buddha Prakash; India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, pp 46-47, 300 Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 159, 59, S Kirpal Singh.
  159. ^ The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 159, 92, 59, S Kirpal Singh; cf: These Kamboj People, 1979, 67, K. S. Dardi; cf: History of Punjab, Vol I, p 182, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh.
  160. ^ Aiterya Brahmana VIII/14
  161. ^ Hindu Polity, p 52, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 260-66, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  162. ^ Kambojana cha ye ganah...Mahabharata(7/91/39).
  163. ^
    i.e Kambhoja. Sauraastra.ksatriya.shreny.adayo vartta.shastra.upajivinah ||11.1.04|| .
  164. ^ Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 117-121, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 2003, pp 839-40, Dr V. D. Mahajan; Northern India, p 42, Dr Mehta Vasisitha Dev Mohan etc
  165. ^ A History of Zoroastrianism, 1991, p 136, Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet.

Further reading

  • Geographical Data in early Puranas, 1972, Dr M. R. Singh.
  • Problems of Ancient India, 2000, K. D. Sethna.
  • The Puranas, Vol VI, No 1, 1964.
  • Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World: Map-By-Map Directory (2 Volume Set), 2000, Richard J. A. Talbert.
  • Foundations of Indian Culture, 1984, Govind Chandra Pande - History
  • Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945 Dr Moti Chandra
  • Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930
  • Inscriptions of Asoka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury
  • The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala
  • Geography of the Mahabharata, 1986, Bhagwan Singh Suryavanshi
  • The Greco-Sunga Period of Indian History, Or, the North-West India...1973, Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan
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