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Hanoi, Vietnam

 

Hanoi, Vietnam

For the Indochine album, see Hanoi (album). For the Killmaster spy novel, see Hanoi (novel).
Hà Nội
Hà Nội
Municipality
Hanoi Opera House
Official logo of Hà Nội
Emblem of Hanoi

Provincial location in Vietnam

Coordinates: 21°2′0″N 105°51′00″E / 21.03333°N 105.85000°E / 21.03333; 105.85000Coordinates: 21°2′0″N 105°51′00″E / 21.03333°N 105.85000°E / 21.03333; 105.85000

Country  Vietnam
Central city Hà Nội
Founded, Capital of the Đại Việt 1010
Capital of Vietnam September 2, 1945
Demonym Hanoians
Government
 • Party's Secretary (Bí thư Thành ủy) Phạm Quang Nghị
 • People's Council's President (Chủ tịch Hội đồng Nhân Dân) Ngô Thị Doãn Thanh
 • People's Committee's President (Chủ tịch Ủy ban Nhân Dân) Nguyễn Thế Thảo
Area
 • Municipality 3,344.7 km2 (1,291.4 sq mi)
 • Urban 186.22 km2 (71.90 sq mi)
Population (2009)
 • Municipality 6,500,000
 • Rank 2nd in Vietnam
 • Density 1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
Time zone ICT (UTC+7)
Website hanoi.gov.vn

Hanoi (Vietnam War.

The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is 1,760 km (1,090 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City and 120 km (75 mi) west of Hai Phong city.

October 2010 officially marked 1000 years since the establishment of the city.[3] The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a 4 km ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.

The city will host the 2019 Asian Games.

Names

Hanoi () has had many names throughout history, all of them of Sino-Vietnamese origin. During the Chinese domination of Vietnam, it was known first as Long Biên, then Tống Bình (, "Song Peace") and Long Đỗ (, "Dragonbelly"). In 866, it was turned into a citadel and named Đại La (, "Big Net").

History

Pre-history

Hanoi has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC. One of the first known permanent settlements is the Cổ Loa Citadel founded around 200 BC.

1000 years of Chinese rule

In 197 BC, Au Lac Kingdom was annexed by Han aggressors, which ushered in an over 1000-year Chinese domination. By the middle of the 5th century, in the center of ancient Hanoi, the Chinese rulers set up a new district called Tong Binh, which later became a province, including two districts Nghia Hoai and Tuy Ninh in the south of the Red River (now Tu Liem and Hoai Duc districts) with a metropolis (the domination centre) in the present inner Hanoi. By the year 679, the Tang dynasty (replacing the Sui dynasty) changed the country’s name into An Nam (Pacified South), with Tong Binh as its capital. [4]

In order to defeat the people’s uprisings, in the later half of the 8th century, Truong Ba Nghi, a Tang dynasty viceroy, built La Thanh (La citadel, from Thu Le to Quan Ngua in present-day Ba Dinh precinct). In the earlier half of the 9th century, it was further built up and called Kim Thanh (Kim Citadel). In 866, Cao Bien, the Chinese Governor, consolidated and named it Dai La citadel (running from Quan Ngua to Bach Thao), the then largest citadel ancient Hanoi. [4]

Thăng Long, Đông Đô, Đông Quan, Đông Kinh

In 1010, Ly Thai To, the first ruler of the Lý Dynasty, moved the capital of Đại Việt to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed the site Thăng Long (, "Soaring Dragon") - a name still used poetically to this day. Thăng Long remained the capital of Đại Việt until 1397, when it was moved to Thanh Hóa, then known as Tây Đô (西), the "Western Capital". Thăng Long then became Đông Đô (), the "Eastern Capital."

In 1408, the Chinese Ming Dynasty attacked and occupied Vietnam, changing Đông Đô's name to "Eastern Gateway" (Chinese: , Dōngguān), Đông Quan in Vietnamese. In 1428, the Vietnamese overthrew the Chinese under the leadership of Lê Lợi, who later founded the Lê Dynasty and renamed Đông Quan Đông Kinh (, "Eastern Capital") or Tonkin. Right after the end of the Tây Sơn Dynasty, it was named Bắc Thành (, "Northern Citadel").

During Nguyễn Dynasty and French colonial

In 1802, when the Nguyễn Dynasty was established and moved the capital to Huế, the old name Thăng Long was modified to become Thăng Long (, "Ascending & Flourishing"). In 1831, the Nguyễn emperor Minh Mạng renamed it Hà Nội (, "Between Rivers" or "River Interior"). Hanoi was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. As Hanoï, it became the capital of French Indochina after 1887.

During two wars

The city was occupied by the Japanese in 1940 and liberated in 1945, when it briefly became the seat of the Viet Minh government after Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the independence of Vietnam. However, the French returned and reoccupied the city in 1946. After nine years of fighting between the French and Viet Minh forces, Hanoi became the capital of an independent North Vietnam in 1954.

During the Vietnam War, Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways. These were all, however, promptly repaired. Following the end of the war, Hanoi became the capital of a reunified Vietnam when North and South Vietnam were reunited on July 2, 1976.

Modern Hanoi

On May 29, 2008, it was decided that Hà Tây Province, Vĩnh Phúc Province's Mê Linh District and 4 communes of Lương Sơn District, Hòa Bình Province be merged into the metropolitan area of Hanoi from August 1, 2008.[5] Hanoi's total area then increased to 334,470 hectares in 29 subdivisions[6] with the new population being 6,232,940.,[6] effectively tripling its size. The Hanoi Capital Region (Vùng Thủ đô Hà Nội), a metropolitan area covering Hanoi and 6 surrounding provinces under its administration, will have an area of 13,436 square kilometres (5,188 sq mi) with a population of 15 million by 2020

Hanoi experienced a rapid construction boom recently. Skyscrapers, popping up in new urban areas, dramatically change the citiscape of Hanoi. According to Skyscrapercity website, in 2013, two tallest buildings in Hanoi are Hanoi Landmark 72 Tower (336m, tallest in Vietnam and second tallest in Southeast Asia after Malaysia's Petronas Twin Towers) and Hanoi Lotte Center (267m, also second tallest in Vietnam)

Geography

Location, topography

Climate


Hanoi features a warm humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) with plentiful precipitation. The city experiences the typical climate of northern Vietnam, where summers are hot and humid, and winters are, by national standards, relatively cold and dry. Summers, lasting from May to September, are hot and humid, receiving the majority of the annual 1,680 millimetres (66.1 in) of rainfall. The winters, lasting from November to March, are relatively mild, dry (in the first half) or humid (in the second half), while spring (April) can bring light rains. It is important to note that particularly around the Halong Bay region in these months, it can get particularly cold. Autumn (October) is the best time of year in term of weather. The city is usually cloudy and foggy in the winter time with average monthly sunshine hours for February are only 1.8 h/day.

Extreme temperatures have ranged from 2.7 °C (36.9 °F) to 40.4 °C (105 °F).[7]

Climate data for Hanoi (1898-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33
(91)
34
(93)
37
(99)
39
(102)
43
(109)
40
(104)
40
(104)
38
(100)
37
(99)
36
(97)
36
(97)
37
(99)
43
(109)
Average high °C (°F) 19.3
(66.7)
19.9
(67.8)
22.8
(73)
27.0
(80.6)
31.5
(88.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.9
(91.2)
31.9
(89.4)
30.9
(87.6)
28.6
(83.5)
25.2
(77.4)
21.8
(71.2)
27.0
(80.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.5
(61.7)
17.5
(63.5)
20.5
(68.9)
24.2
(75.6)
27.9
(82.2)
29.2
(84.6)
29.5
(85.1)
28.8
(83.8)
27.8
(82)
25.3
(77.5)
21.9
(71.4)
18.6
(65.5)
24.0
(75.2)
Average low °C (°F) 13.7
(56.7)
15.0
(59)
18.1
(64.6)
21.4
(70.5)
24.3
(75.7)
25.8
(78.4)
26.1
(79)
25.7
(78.3)
24.7
(76.5)
21.9
(71.4)
18.5
(65.3)
15.3
(59.5)
20.9
(69.6)
Record low °C (°F) 3
(37)
5
(41)
7
(45)
10
(50)
16
(61)
21
(70)
22
(72)
21
(70)
17
(63)
13
(55)
6
(43)
5
(41)
3
(37)
Rainfall mm (inches) 18.6
(0.732)
26.2
(1.031)
43.8
(1.724)
90.1
(3.547)
188.5
(7.421)
239.9
(9.445)
288.2
(11.346)
318.0
(12.52)
265.4
(10.449)
130.7
(5.146)
43.4
(1.709)
23.4
(0.921)
1,676.2
(65.992)
Avg. rainy days 8.4 11.3 15.0 13.3 14.2 14.7 15.7 16.7 13.7 9.0 6.5 6.0 144.5
 % humidity 78 82 83 83 77 78 79 82 79 75 74 75 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.2 45.2 43.4 81.0 164.3 156.0 182.9 164.3 162.0 164.3 126.0 108.5 1,466.1
Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation (UN),[8] BBC Weather (record highs, lows, and humidity) [9]
Source #2: (sunshine hours only)[10]

Education


Hanoi, as the capital of French Indochina, was home to the first Western-style universities in Indochina, including: Indochina Medical College (1902) - now Hanoi Medical University, Indochina University (1904) - now Hanoi National University, and École Supérieure des Beaux-Arts de L'Indochine (1925) - now Hanoi University of Fine Art.

After the Communist Party took control over Hanoi in 1954 with support from the Soviet Union, many new universities were built, among them, Hanoi University of Technology remains the largest technical university in Vietnam.

The largest university is

Recently ULIS (

Other universities that are not apart of Vietnam National University nor Hanoi University also include Hanoi School for Public Health and Hanoi School of Agriculture.

Hanoi is the largest centre of education in Vietnam. It is estimated that 62% of the scientists in the whole country are living and working in Hanoi.[14] Admissions to undergraduate study are through entrance examinations, which are conducted annually and open for everyone (who has successfully completed his/her secondary education) in the country. The majority of universities in Hanoi are public, although in recent years a number of private universities have started their operation. Thăng Long University, founded in 1988, by some Vietnamese mathematics professors in Hanoi and France[15] is the first private university in Vietnam. Because many of Vietnam's major universities are located in Hanoi, students from other provinces (especially in the northern part of the country) wishing to enter university often travel to Hanoi for the annual entrance examination. Such events often take place in June and July, during which a large number of students and their families converge on the city for several weeks around this intense examination period. In recent years, these entrance exams have been centrally coordinated by the Ministry of Education, but passing marks are decided independently by each university.

Although there are state owned kindergartens, there are also many private ventures that serve both local and international needs. Pre-tertiary (elementary and secondary) schools in Hanoi are generally state run although there are some independent schools. Education is equivalent to the K–12 system in the US, with elementary school between grades 1 and 5, middle school (or junior high) between grades 6 and 9, and high school from grades 10 to 12.

Landmarks

As the capital of Vietnam for almost a thousand years, Hanoi is considered one of the main cultural centres of Vietnam, where most Vietnamese dynasties have left their imprint. Even though some relics have not survived through wars and time, the city still has many interesting cultural and historic monuments for visitors and residents alike. Even when the nation's capital moved to Huế under the Nguyễn Dynasty in 1802, the city of Hanoi continued to flourish, especially after the French took control in 1888 and modeled the city's architecture to their tastes, lending an important aesthetic to the city's rich stylistic heritage. The city hosts more cultural sites than any city in Vietnam,[16] and boasts more than 1,000 years of history, and that of the past few hundred years has been well preserved.[17]

Old Quarter


The Old Quarter, near Hoàn Kiếm Lake, has the original street layout and architecture of old Hanoi. At the beginning of the 20th century the city consisted of only about 36 streets, most of which are now part of the old quarter. Each street then had merchants and households specialised in a particular trade, such as silk traders, jewellery, etc. The street names nowadays still reflect these specializations, although few of them remain exclusively in their original commerce.[18] The area is famous for its small artisans and merchants, including many silk shops. Local cuisine specialties as well as several clubs and bars can be found here also. A night market (near Đồng Xuân Market) in the heart of the district opens for business every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening with a variety of clothing, souvenirs and food.

Some others prominent places are: The Temple of Literature (Văn Miếu), site of the oldest university in Vietnam 1010; One Pillar Pagoda (Chùa Một Cột); Flag Tower of Hanoi (Cột cờ Hà Nội). In 2004, a massive part of the 900 year old Hanoi Citadel was discovered in central Hanoi, near the site of Ba Đình Square.[19]

Lakes

A city between the rivers, built from lowland, Hanoi has many scenic lakes and it is sometimes called "city of lakes". Among its lakes, the most famous are Hoàn Kiếm Lake, West Lake, Halais Lake (Hồ Thiền Quang in Vietnamese), and Bay Mau Lake. Hoan Kiem Lake, also known as Sword Lake, is the historical and cultural center of Hanoi, and is linked to the legend of the magic sword. West Lake (Hồ Tây) is a popular place for people to spend time. It is the largest lake in Hanoi and there are many temples in the area. There are swanboats for hire. The lakeside road in Quang An area is perfect for bicycling, jogging and viewing the cityscape especially in the sunset or enjoying lotus ponds in the summer

Colonial Hanoi


Under French rule, as an administrative centre for the French colony of Indochina, the French colonial architecture style became dominant, many examples remain today: the tree-lined boulevards (e.g. Phan Dinh Phung street) and its many villas and mansions, Grand Opera House, State Bank of Vietnam (formerly The Bank of Indochina), Presidential Palace (formerly Palace of the Governor-General of French Indochina), St. Joseph's Cathedral, and the historic Hotel Metropole. Many of the colonial structures are an eclectic mixture of French and traditional Vietnamese architectural styles, such as the National Museum of Vietnamese History, the Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts and the old Indochina Medical College.

Museums

Hanoi is also home to a number of museums:

Tourism

According to TripIndex by TripAdvisor, for period June 1 to August 31, 2012 Hanoi will be the cheapest city in the world for two of a one-night stay in a four-star hotel, cocktails, a two-course dinner with a bottle of wine, and a taxi transport (two return journeys of about 3.2 km (2.0 mi) each). It will cost of $141.12 or about 27 percent of the most expensive city, London with cost of $518.01.[20]

In 2013, Hanoi ranks 14 in Tripadvisor's list of top 25 destinations Asia by travellers' choice

Entertainment

A variety of options for entertainment in Hanoi can be found throughout the city. Modern and traditional theaters, cinemas, karaoke bars, dance clubs, bowling alleys, and an abundance of opportunities for shopping provide leisure activity for both locals and tourists. Hanoi has been named as one of the top 10 cities for shopping in Asia by Smart Travel Asia.[21] The number of art galleries exhibiting Vietnamese art has dramatically increased in recent years, including galleries such as "Nhat Huy" of Huynh Thong Nhat.

A popular traditional form of entertainment is water puppetry, which is shown for example at the Thăng Long Water Puppet Theatre.

Shopping

With its rapid growth and extremely high population density, several modern shopping centers have been built in Hanoi. Major malls include:

Cuisine

Hanoi has rich food traditions and many of Vietnam's most famous dishes, such as phở, chả cá, bánh cuốn and cốm are thought to come from Hanoi. Perhaps most widely known is Phở, a simple rice noodle soup often eaten as a breakfast dish in the home or at streetside cafes, but also served in restaurants as a meal. Two varieties dominate the Hanoi scene: Phở Bò, containing beef, and Phở Gà, containing chicken.

Hanoi has been selected as one of the top 10 cities for food in the world by Shermans Travel.[22] Vietnam's national dish Phở has been also named as one of the Top5 streetfood in the world by globalpost.[23]

Hanoi has a number of restaurants whose menus specifically offer dishes containing dog, snake[24][25] and various species of insects. Insect inspired menus can be found at a number of restaurants in Khuong Thuong village, Hanoi.[26] The signature dishes at these restaurant are those containing processed ant-eggs, often in the culinary styles of Thai people or Vietnam's Muong and Tay ethnic people.[27]

Population

Hanoi's population is constantly growing (about 3.5% per year),[28] a reflection of the fact that the city is both a major metropolitan area of Northern Vietnam, and also the country's political centre. This population growth also puts a lot of pressure onto the infrastructure, some of which is antiquated and dates back from the early 20th century.

The number of Hanoians who settled down for more than three generations is likely to be very small as compared to the overall population of the city. Even in the Old Quarter, where commerce started hundreds years ago and was mostly a family business, many of the street-front stores nowadays are owned by merchants and retailers from other provinces. The original owner family may have either rented out the store and moved to live further inside the house, or just moved out of the neighbourhood altogether. The pace of change has especially escalated after the abandonment of central-planning economic policies, and relaxing of the district-based household registrar system.

Hanoi's telephone numbers have been increased to 8 digits to cope with demand (October 2008). Subscribers telephone numbers have been changed in a haphazard way; however, mobile phones and SIM cards are readily available in Vietnam, with pre-paid mobile phone credit available in all areas of Hanoi.

Transport

Hanoi is served by Noi Bai International Airport, located in the Soc Son District, approximately 40 km (25 mi) north of Hanoi. Noi Bai is the only international airport for the northern regions of Vietnam.

Hanoi will have additionally another international airport, which will cost $8 billion, being the highest foreign investment so far in the history of Vietnam.[29] The construction will be carried out in three stages,the first phase started in 2011 and will continue until 2015.

There are two main highways linking the airport and city. The route to the city via Thăng Long Bridge is more direct than Highway 1, which runs along the outskirts of the city. The main highways are shared by cars, motor scooters, with separate lanes by the side for bicycles. Taxis are plentiful and usually have trip meters, although it is also common to agree on the trip price before taking a taxi from airport to the city centre. Tourists also sometimes tour the city on cyclos especially in the Old Quarter.

Hanoi is also the origin departure point for many Vietnam Railways train routes in the country. The Reunification Express (tàu Thống Nhất) runs from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City from Hanoi station (formerly Hang Co station), with stops at cities and provinces along the line. Trains also depart Hanoi frequently for Hai Phong and other northern cities.The Reunification Express line was established during French colonial rule, and was completed over a period of nearly forty years, from 1899 to 1936.[30] The Reunification Express between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City covers a distance of 1,726 km (1,072 mi) and takes approximately 33 hours.[31] As of 2005, there were 278 stations on the Vietnamese railway network, of which 191 were located along the North-South line.

The main means of transport within Hanoi city are motorbikes, buses, taxis, and bicycles. Over the preceding decades, motorbikes have overtaken bicycles as the main form of transportation. The increased number of motorcycles can cause gridlocks. To reduce them and the negative consequences for environment and health the local government tries to increase public transportation.[32] Public buses run on many routes and fare can be purchased on the bus, with very cheap prices (20 cents for a journey where a taxi might cost $10.)

Persons on their own or traveling in a pair who wish to make a fast trip around Hanoi, to avoid traffic jams or to travel at an irregular time or by way of an irregular route, often use "xe ôm" (literally, "hug vehicle") motorbikes, which are unofficial, unregulated motorcycle taxis that involve the passenger sitting on the rear of a motorbike. Idle xe ôm riders often yell "xe ôm" at paedestrians that pass by, and signs saying "xe ôm" adorn many a tree, pole or post around the city (as with all Vietnamese cities, towns and villages,etc.) to advertise that a xe ôm vehicle and rider is often parked there. It is customary to negotiate the price of a xe ôm trip with xe ôm riders. Motorbikes can also be rented from agents within the Old Quarter of Hanoi.[33]

Economy

Hanoi has the highest Human Development Index among the cities in Vietnam. According to a recent ranking by PricewaterhouseCoopers, Hanoi will be the fastest growing city in the world in term of GDP growth from 2008 to 2025.[34]

Industrial production in the city has experienced a rapid boom since the 1990s, with average annual growth of 19.1 percent from 1991–95, 15.9 percent from 1996–2000, and 20.9 percent during 2001–2003. In addition to eight existing industrial parks, Hanoi is building five new large-scale industrial parks and 16 small- and medium-sized industrial clusters. The non-state economic sector is expanding fast, with more than 48,000 businesses currently operating under the Enterprise Law (as of 3/2007).[35]

Trade is another strong sector of the city. In 2003, Hanoi had 2,000 businesses engaged in foreign trade, having established ties with 161 countries and territories. The city's export value grew by an average 11.6 percent each year from 1996–2000 and 9.1 percent during 2001–2003. The economic structure also underwent important shifts, with tourism, finance, and banking now playing an increasingly important role. Hanoi's business districts are traditionally Hoan Kiem and the neighborhood; and a newly developing Cau Giay and Tu Liem in the western part.

Similar to Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi enjoys a rapidly developing real estate market.[36] The current most notable new urban areas are central Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh, My Dinh, the luxurious zones of The Manor and Ciputra.

Agriculture, previously a pillar in Hanoi's economy, has striven to reform itself, introducing new high-yield plant varieties and livestock, and applying modern farming techniques.

Together with economic growth, Hanoi's appearance has also changed significantly, especially in recent years. Infrastructure is constantly being upgraded, with new roads and an improved public transportation system.

On February 2013 Dubai-based property developer Global Sphere announced a mega-project to build about 70 residential towers in Hanoi in an area dubbed the Hanoi Wall Street. .[37] The first phase, valued at $10 billion, is expected to be finished by 2020.

Sport centers

There are several gymnasiums and stadiums throughout the city of Hanoi. The biggest ones are My Dinh National Stadium (Lê Đức Thọ Boulevard), Quan Ngua Sporting Palace (Văn Cao Avenue), Hanoi Aquatics Sports Complex and My Dinh Indoor Athletics Gymnasium. The others include Hà Nội Stadium (as known as Hàng Đẫy stadium). The third Asian Indoor Games was held at Hanoi in 2009. The others are Hai Bà Trưng Gymnasium, Trịnh Hoài Đức Gymnasium, Vạn Bảo Sports Complex.

Health care and other facilities

Some medical facilities in Hanoi:

Districts

Hanoi is divided into 10 inner districts, 1 town and 18 outer districts.[38] ( Hà Đông has been transform to an inner district, and Sơn Tây has been degraded to a town)

Subdivisions of Hanoi
Provincial Cities/Districts[38] Wards[38] Area (km2)[38] Population[38]
1 town
Sơn Tây 15 113.474 181,831
10 urban districts (Quận)
Ba Đình District 14 9.224 228,352
Cầu Giấy District 8 12.04 147,000
Đống Đa District 21 9.96 352,000
Hai Bà Trưng 20 14.6 378,000
Hà Ðông District 17 47.917 198,687
Hoàn Kiếm District 18 5.29 178,073
Hoàng Mai District 14 41.04 216,277
Long Biên District 14 60.38 170,706
Tây Hồ District (West Lake) 8 24 115,163
Thanh Xuân District 11 9.11 185,000
Subtotal 145 233.56 2,178,258
18 rural districts (Huyện)
Ba Vì District 31 + 1 town 428.0 242,600 (1999)
Chương Mỹ District 30 + 2 towns 232.9 261,000 (1999)
Đan Phượng District 15 + 1 town 76.8 124,900
Đông Anh District 23 + 1 town 182.3 276,750
Gia Lâm District 20 + 2 towns 114.0 205,275
Hoài Đức District 19 + 1 town 95.3 188,800
Mê Linh District 16 + 2 towns 141.26 187,536 (2008)
Mỹ Đức District 21 + 1 town 230.0 167,700 (1999)
Phú Xuyên District 26 + 2 towns 171.1 181,500
Phúc Thọ District 25 + 1 town 113.2 154,800 (2001)
Quốc Oai District 20 + 1 town 136.0 (2001) 146,700 (2001)
Sóc Sơn District 25 + 1 town 306.51 254,000
Thạch Thất District 22 + 1 town 128.1 149,000 (2003)
Thanh Oai District 20 + 1 town 129.6 142,600 (1999)
Thanh Trì District (Green Ponds) 15 + 1 town 98.22 241,000
Thường Tín District 28 + 1 town 127.7 208,000
Từ Liêm District 15 + 1 town 75.32 240,000
Ứng Hòa District 28 + 1 town 183.72 193,731 (2005)
Subtotal 399 + 22 towns 3,266.186 3,872,851
Total 559 + 22 towns 3,344.47 6,232,940

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Hanoi is twinned with:

Gallery

See also

Vietnam portal

References

  • Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David: Vietnam Past and Present: The North (History and culture of Hanoi and Tonkin). Chiang Mai. Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006DCCM9Q.

External links

  • Official Site of Hanoi Government
  • about Hanoi

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