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Title: Hoxd10  
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Subject: Homeobox, Transcription factors, NeuroD, EMX homeogene, HOXC8
Collection: Transcription Factors
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Homeobox D10
Symbols  ; HOX4; HOX4D; HOX4E; Hox-4.4
External IDs GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Homeobox D10, also known as HOXD10, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HOXD10 gene.[1]


  • Function 1
  • Clinical significance 2
  • Regulation 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7


This gene is a member of the Abd-B homeobox family and encodes a protein with a homeobox DNA-binding domain. It is included in a cluster of homeobox D genes located on chromosome 2. The encoded nuclear protein functions as a sequence-specific transcription factor that is expressed in the developing limb buds and is involved in differentiation and limb development.

Clinical significance

Mutations in this gene have been associated with Wilms' tumor and congenital vertical talus (also known as "rocker-bottom foot" deformity or congenital convex pes valgus) and/or a foot deformity resembling that seen in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.[1]


The HOXD10 gene is repressed by the microRNAs miR-10a and miR-10b.[2][3][4]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: HOXD10 homeobox D10". 
  2. ^ Lund AH (2010). "miR-10 in development and cancer.". Cell Death Differ 17 (2): 209–14.  
  3. ^ Ma L, Teruya-Feldstein J, Weinberg RA (2007). "Tumour invasion and metastasis initiated by microRNA-10b in breast cancer.". Nature 449 (7163): 682–8.  
  4. ^ Han L, Witmer PD, Casey E, Valle D, Sukumar S (2007). "DNA methylation regulates MicroRNA expression.". Cancer Biol Ther 6 (8): 1284–8.  

Further reading

  • Ma L, Teruya-Feldstein J, Weinberg RA (October 2007). "Tumour invasion and metastasis initiated by microRNA-10b in breast cancer". Nature 449 (7163): 682–8.  
  • Tabin CJ (1993). "Why we have (only) five fingers per hand: hox genes and the evolution of paired limbs.". Development 116 (2): 289–96.  
  • Goodman FR (2003). "Limb malformations and the human HOX genes.". Am. J. Med. Genet. 112 (3): 256–65.  
  • Redline RW, Williams AJ, Patterson P, Collins T (1992). "Human HOX4E: a gene strongly expressed in the adult male and female urogenital tracts.". Genomics 13 (2): 425–30.  
  • Scott MP (1992). "Vertebrate homeobox gene nomenclature.". Cell 71 (4): 551–3.  
  • Zappavigna V, Renucci A, Izpisúa-Belmonte JC, et al. (1992). "HOX4 genes encode transcription factors with potential auto- and cross-regulatory capacities.". EMBO J. 10 (13): 4177–87.  
  • McAlpine PJ, Shows TB (1990). "Nomenclature for human homeobox genes.". Genomics 7 (3): 460.  
  • Peverali FA, D'Esposito M, Acampora D, et al. (1991). "Expression of HOX homeogenes in human neuroblastoma cell culture lines.". Differentiation 45 (1): 61–9.  
  • Acampora D, D'Esposito M, Faiella A, et al. (1990). "The human HOX gene family.". Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (24): 10385–402.  
  • Boncinelli E, Acampora D, Pannese M, et al. (1990). "Organization of human class I homeobox genes.". Genome 31 (2): 745–56.  
  • Guazzi S, Lonigro R, Pintonello L, et al. (1994). "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins.". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339–47.  
  • Redline RW, Hudock P, MacFee M, Patterson P (1994). "Expression of AbdB-type homeobox genes in human tumors.". Lab. Invest. 71 (5): 663–70.  
  • Wulfsberg EA, Mirkinson LJ, Meister SJ (1993). "Autosomal dominant tetramelic postaxial oligodactyly.". Am. J. Med. Genet. 46 (5): 579–83.  
  • Osborne J, Hu C, Hawley C, et al. (1998). "Expression of HOXD10 gene in normal endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinoma.". J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. 5 (5): 277–80.  
  • Del Campo M, Jones MC, Veraksa AN, et al. (1999). "Monodactylous limbs and abnormal genitalia are associated with hemizygosity for the human 2q31 region that includes the HOXD cluster.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65 (1): 104–10.  
  • Shanmugam K, Green NC, Rambaldi I, et al. (1999). "PBX and MEIS as non-DNA-binding partners in trimeric complexes with HOX proteins.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (11): 7577–88.  
  • Limongi MZ, Pelliccia F, Gaddini L, Rocchi A (2000). "Clustering of two fragile sites and seven homeobox genes in human chromosome region 2q31→q32.1.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 90 (1-2): 151–3.  
  • Shen WF, Krishnan K, Lawrence HJ, Largman C (2001). "The HOX homeodomain proteins block CBP histone acetyltransferase activity.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (21): 7509–22.  
  • Goodman FR, Majewski F, Collins AL, Scambler PJ (2002). "A 117-kb microdeletion removing HOXD9-HOXD13 and EVX2 causes synpolydactyly.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70 (2): 547–55.  
  • Kosaki K, Kosaki R, Suzuki T, et al. (2002). "Complete mutation analysis panel of the 39 human HOX genes.". Teratology 65 (2): 50–62.  

External links

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