World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Gumelnița–Karanovo culture

Article Id: WHEBN0022148471
Reproduction Date:

Title: Gumelnița–Karanovo culture  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 5th millennium BC, Archaeology of Bulgaria, Neolithic Europe, Körös culture, Tiszapolgár culture
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Gumelnița–Karanovo culture

The Gumelniţa–Karanovo VI culture was a Chalcolithic (5th millennium BC) culture named after the Gumelniţa site on the left—Romanian—bank of the Danube.

Area of the Gumelniţa–Karanovo culture


At his full extent the culture was extending along the Black Sea coast to central Bulgaria and into Thrace. The aggregate "Kodjadermen-Gumelnita-Karanovo VI" evolves out of the earlier Boian, Marita and Karanovo V cultures. It is supplanted by Cernavodă I in the early 4th millennium.

The enthroned "Lady of Pazardžik" of the Karanovo VI culture (c. 4500 B.C.)
Videle goddess


One of the most flourishing civilizations from the last half of the 5th millenium [sic] BC is (next to the Ariuşd Cucuteni – Tripolie complex) Gumelniţa Culture... ...absolute chronology, still under discussion, according to the latest calibrated data, assigns this culture (as mentioned above) to the limits of the last half of the 5th millenium [sic] BC and maybe to early 4th millenium [sic] BC.

—Gumelniţa Culture by Silvia Marinescu-Bîlcu

Antropomorphic Figure

The first Periodization of Gumelnita culture was suggested by VI. Dumitrescu who split the civilization of Gumelniţa into two phases: A and B. Later on, Dinu V. Rosetti divided the civilization into Al, A2 and B1, B2.[1]

Gumelniţa A

With a centric evolution from geographic point of view, the intensity of the cultural trends decreased from the center towards peripheral area. Having a strong Boian background at the origins, mixed with Maritza elements, the Gumelnita culture has been lasted short of a millennium from the beginning of Charcolitic to the start of the fifth millennium.[2]

Gumelniţa A1

4700-4350[3] Gumelnita-Karanovo VI-Kodjadermen is also aggregated with Varna culture, still are debates along historians considering the distinctive character of Varna culture.

Gumelniţa A2

4500-3950[3] The regional characteristics of A1 phase are diminished, and a more uniform characteristics is identified in discovered artifacts.

Gumelniţa B

Gumelniţa B1

Gumelniţa B2


Gumelnita Culture [4] Adiacent Culture 1 Adiacent Culture 2 Adiacent Culture 3
Gumelniţa A1 Precucuteni 3 Cucuteni A1 – A2 Varna 1
Gumelniţa A2 Cucuteni A3 the beginning of the Cernavoda 1 culture

The evolution of the Gumelniţa-Kodjadermen-Karanovo VI is ended on the north bank of the Danube after the arrival of Cernavoda cultures population.

The layers at Karanovo are employed as a chronological system for Balkans prehistory.


Modern reproduction of Gumelnitza ceramics

The Gumelniţa is remarkable by the richness of its anthropomorphic and zoomorphic representations. Some consider the achievements of prehistoric craftsmen to be true masterpieces. The representation from Gumelnița art differ by other cultures by the following:

  • statuettes morphology characterised by expressivity, gesture and attitude.
  • modelling technique
  • arms pozitions on the belly, stretched laterally, in the position of the “thinker”
  • sex representation
  • decoration pattern

As evidence from archaeology, thousands of artifacts from Neolithic Europe have been discovered, mostly in the form of female figurines. As a result a goddess theory has occurred. The leading historian was Marija Gimbutas, still this interpretation is a subject of great controversy in archaeology due to her many inferences about the symbols on artifacts.[5]

The analysis of the finds uncovered by archaeological excavations revealed a few characteristics of the Gumelniţa objects of art, likely to lead to a few main trends of the spiritual life investigation.
Thus, the prevalence of a female character is clear, as it represents 34% of all the anthropomorphic representations. That might represent a deity, the term having a general significance, of worship, without being able to specify under the current stage of the researches which is the nature and status of this deity. The male representations are very few, about 1%, while about 10% are the asexual representations, therefore with no sign (breasts, sexual triangle) which might point to the sex of the statuette.'' —Gumelniţa Anthropomorphic and Zoomorphic Objects of Art by Radian Romus Andreescu[6]



Ritual and religion

Technological developments

Gumelniţa culture has some sign of work specialisation:

...we do not have enough data on the internal organization of the community, but next to the dwellings themselves, arranged or not in a certain order, we encounter workshop-dwellings for processing lithic material, bones, horns, ornaments, statuettes, etc.). —Gumelniţa Culture by Silvia Marinescu-Bîlcu

Danube Script

During the Middle Copper Age, the Danube script appears in three horizons: The Karanovo VI–Gumelniţa–Kodžadermen cultural complex (mainly in Bulgaria, but also in Romania), the Cucuteni A3-A4–Trypillya B (in Ukraine), and Coțofeni I (in Serbia). The first, rates 68.6% of the frequencies; the second, rates 24.2%; and the third, rates 7.6%.


Decline and end

See also


  2. ^ Gumelniţa Culture by Silvia Marinescu-Bîlcu
  3. ^ a b UDK 903.4(4-014)"631/634" Documenta Praehistorica XXXV(2008) Cultural Landscapes in the lower Danube area. Experimenting tell settlements. Dragos Gheorghiu Centre of Research, National University of Arts -Bucharest Romania
  4. ^ Gumelniţa Culture in the North-East of the Romanian Plain. Short History by Stănică Pandrea
  5. ^ Collins, Gloria. "Will the "Great Goddess" resurface?: Reflections in Neolithic Europe". Austen, Texas: University of Texas at Austen. Retrieved 1 December 2009This site was a student brief done for a class assignment. 
  6. ^ Gumelniţa Anthropomorphic and Zoomorphic Objects of Art by Radian Romus Andreescu


  • Stefan Hiller, Vassil Nikolov (eds.), Karanovo III. Beiträge zum Neolithikum in Südosteuropa Österreichisch-Bulgarische Ausgrabungen und Forschungen in Karanovo, Band III, Vienna (2000), ISBN 3-901232-19-2.
Piatra Neamt Museum

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.