World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Government Museum, Chennai

Government Museum, Chennai
Established 1851
Location Egmore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Public transit access Chennai Egmore (Suburban)
Website Official site

Egmore Museum, established in 1851, is located in Egmore, Chennai. Known as the Madras Museum, the museum is the second oldest museum in India, the first being the Indian Museum at Kolkata, started in 1814. It is also one of the largest museums in South Asia. It is particularly rich in archaeological and numismatic collections. It has the largest collection of Roman antiquities outside Europe. Many of the buildings within the Museum campus are over 100 years old. Among them, the colossal Museum Theatre is one of the most impressive.[1] The National Art Gallery is also present in the museum premises. Built in Indo-Saracenic style, it houses rare works of artists like Raja Ravi Varma.[2][3]


  • Location 1
  • History 2
    • List of superintendents/directors/commissioners 2.1
  • The museum complex 3
  • Visitors 4
  • The future 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8


The museum is located in what is known as the Pantheon complex, or "public assembly rooms." It is located on the Pantheon Road in Egmore. The road on which the museum is located too takes its name from the complex.


The Museum complex by Willie Burke, c. 1905

In August 1778, the governor of Madras granted 43 acres for an estate to a civil servant, who, subsequently in 1793, assigned the grounds to a committee of 24 which then regulated the public amusements in the city. In 1821, the committee sold the main house and central garden space to E. S. Moorat, an Armenian merchant who, in turn, sold it back to the government in 1830. The government first used the buildings and the grounds as the collector's "Cutcherry" and later for the "Central Museum."[4] The museum was originally established in a building on College Road in Nungambakkam in the year 1851 and was shifted to the present site in 1854.

Many additions to the original building were constructed between 1864 and 1890. The core of the old museum building includes the only surviving remnants of the Pantheon, identified from the broad steps leading into it when viewed from the north. Amongst the additions is the Connemara Public Library, built with stained glass windows, ornate woodwork and elaborate stucco decorations, formally opened in 1896 and named after its progenitor. The building was built by Namberumal Chetty and was designed by Henry Irwin, with the interiors resembling those of Bank of Madras (SBI). The design included a huge reading room with a wooden ceiling between two curved rows of stained glass, supported by ornate pillars and arches embellished with sculpted acanthus leaves. It was supplemented with teakwood furniture, marbled floor, and decorative windows. All of these were restored in 2004-2007. The building now houses the Old Collection (pre-1930), which is used for reference purpose only.[4]

Gallery inside the museum

Both the museum and the library benefited greatly from the effects of the Madras Literary Society, the Oriental Manuscripts Library and the Records Office. The museum houses a 19th-century theatre, with the "pit" meant for those who can afford more and seating for the rest of the audience in tiered-seats arranged in a semi-circle around the pit. Restoration to mark the 150th anniversary of the museum replaced 25 fans with air-conditioning.

The museum's collections had its origin from a gift of a collection of 1,100 geological specimens by the Madras Literary Society to the Government in 1851. The museum, the first government-sponsored one in the country, opened the same year on the first floor of the College of

  • Official website

External links

  1. ^ Suresh, S. (21 May 2011). "Times Property Section". The Times of India (Chennai: The Times Group). p. 2. 
  2. ^ J.Jeyaraj, George. "Indo Saracenic Architecture in Chennai". CMDA. Retrieved 7-6-2012. 
  3. ^ "heritage buildings".  
  4. ^ a b c d "Museum, Library and Theatre". Madras Musings XX (3). 16–31 May 2010. Retrieved 1 Jul 2012. 
  5. ^ "Manuscript Conservation Centres". National Mission for Manuscripts. Retrieved 1 Jul 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c Lakshmi, K. (19 February 2013). "Coming up: 3D theatre at govt. museum". The Hindu (Chennai: The Hindu). Retrieved 22 Feb 2013. 


See also

An air-conditioned 3D theatre, the first of its kind facility in a state museum, is under construction at the children's museum in the museum complex at a cost of INR 4 million. Equipments are to be provided by the National Council of Science Museums, Kolkata. The theatre will screen science-oriented films. It screen a 20-minute long film and will play five shows a day. The project is expected to be completed by April 2013. There are also plans to upgrade the 3D treatre to a 5D one.[6]

The future

As of 2013, the children's museum is visited by 1,000 people a day, and the number of visitors increases during weekends.[6]


The museum for children in the complex houses several static exhibits such as galleries of dolls adorned with costumes of various nations and civilisations and also exhibits pertaining to science, transportation, and technology.[6]

Since August 2004, the museum is also a designated "Manuscript Conservation Centre" (MCC) under the National Mission for Manuscripts established in 2003. The museum has taken preventive care of about 19,007 manuscripts and given curative conservation treatment to about 7,402 manuscripts.[5]

During the British era, the theatre was mainly used for staging English plays preferred by the British elite of the city. Now, the museum has been using the theatre for its own cultural and academic programs such as art workshops, lectures and conferences. It also rents the hall for various cultural performances, mainly dramas. The hall has witnessed several plays including those of Shakespeare.

The huge main hall was initially designed for staging theatrical performances. It has around 600 seats and a commodious stage and the actors' dressing rooms adjoin this stage.

Located close to the main museum entrance gates on Pantheon Road, the museum theatre is a rare specimen of the Italianate style of architecture, inspired by Classical architecture and developed in 1802 at Britain by John Nash. However, the theatre was built by the British in the late 19th century when this style was no longer popular in England. The structure has a high plinth and is accessed through a tall flight of stairs. It is primarily a semicircular structure with a rectangular wing at the rear. The latter wing now houses some of the galleries of the museum. The main hall is accessed through a verandah with a row of columns linked by semicircular arches. The walls and columns are embellished with floral and geometric designs.

The museum complex consisting of six buildings and 46 galleries covers an area of around 16.25 acres (66,000 m²) of land. The objects displayed in the museum cover a variety of artifacts and objects covering diverse fields including archeology, numismatics, zoology, natural history, sculptures, palm-leaf manuscripts and Amravati paintings.

Canons at the museum complex

The museum complex

S.No. Name Designation Tenure
1 Surgeon E. Balfour First officer in charge 1851–1859
2 Captain J. Mitchell Superintendent 1859–1872
3 Surgeon G. Bidie Superintendent 1872–1884
4 Edgar Thurston Superintendent 1885–1908
5 J. R. Henderson Superintendent 1908–1919
6 F. H. Gravely Superintendent 1920–1940
7 A. Aiyappan Superintendent 1940–1975
8 S. T. Satyamurthi Superintendent 1961–1978
9 N. Harinarayana Director 1978–1989
10 G. Kesavaram Director 1989–1991
11 M. Raman Commissioner 1991–1993
12 T. R. Ramasamy Director 1993
13 M. Ramu Commissioner 1993–1995
14 Naresh Gupta Commissioner 1995–1996
15 K. Dheenadayalan Commissioner 1996–1997
16 S. Rangamani Principal commissioner 1997–1999
17 R. Kannan Commissioner 1999–2004
18 M. A. Siddique Director 2004–2006
19 R. Kannan Special commissioner and commissioner of museums 2006–2007
20 Sitharam Gurumurthi Principal commissioner (additional charge) 2007
21 Shanthini Kapoor Principal secretary/Commissioner of museums 2007–2008
22 T. S. Sridhar Principal secretary/Commissioner of museums 2008–2011
23 S. S. Jawahar Commissioner of museums 2011
The entrance sign at the museum
The National Art Gallery, one of the museum buildings

List of superintendents/directors/commissioners

An official website for the museum was launched on 25 October 2001 after the government sanctioned INR 0.5 million in 2000-2001.

The museum grounds also housed the first zoo of Madras in 1855, which was also established by Balfour. A year later, it had over 300 animals, including mammals, birds and reptiles. The zoo was later made a separate institution and was shifted to the People's Park in 1863 where it remained, not growing very much, till it was moved to its present location at Vandalur in 1985.[4]


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.