World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Gibbeting

 

Gibbeting

See also Halifax gibbet, a kind of guillotine.
The reconstructed gallows-style gibbet at Caxton Gibbet, in Cambridgeshire, England

A gibbet is any instrument of public execution (including guillotine, executioner's block, impalement stake, hanging gallows, or related scaffold), but gibbeting refers to the use of a gallows-type structure from which the dead or dying bodies of executed criminals were hanged on public display to deter other existing or potential criminals. In earlier times, up to the late 17th century, live gibbeting also took place, in which the condemned was placed alive in a metal cage and left to die of thirst. As well as referring to the gibbet as a device, the term gibbet may also be used to refer to the practice of placing a criminal on display within one.[1] This practice is also called "hanging in chains".[2]

Contents

  • Display 1
    • Variants 1.1
  • Historical examples 2
    • Antiquity 2.1
    • England 2.2
    • United States 2.3
    • Canada 2.4
    • Iran 2.5
    • Germany 2.6
    • Bermuda 2.7
  • Last recorded gibbetings 3
    • Afghanistan 3.1
    • Australia 3.2
    • United Kingdom 3.3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Display

Captain Kidd, who was tried and executed for piracy, hanging in chains
A gibbet with a dummy inside

Gibbeting was a common law punishment, which a judge could impose in addition to execution. This practice was regularised in England by the Murder Act 1751, which empowered judges to impose this for murder. It was most often used for traitors, murderers, highwaymen, pirates, and sheep stealers and was intended to discourage others from committing similar offences. The structures were therefore often placed next to public highways (frequently at crossroads) and waterways.

Exhibiting a body could backfire against a monarch, especially if the monarch was unpopular. Henry of Montfort and Henry of Wylynton, enemies of Edward II and rebels, were drawn and hanged before being exhibited on a gibbet near Bristol. However, the people made relics of these bloody and mutilated remains and surrounded them with respect in violent protest. Even miracles were reported at the spot where the bodies were hanging.[3]

Although the intention was deterrence, the public response was complex. Samuel Pepys expressed disgust at the practice. There was Christian objection that prosecution of criminals should end with their death. The sight and smell of decaying corpses was offensive and regarded as "pestilential", so it was seen as a threat to public health.

Pirates were sometimes executed by hanging on a gibbet erected close to the low-water mark by the sea or a tidal section of a river. Their bodies would be left dangling until they had been submerged by the tide three times. In London, Execution Dock is located on the north bank of the River Thames in Wapping; after tidal immersion, particularly notorious criminals' bodies could be hung in cages a little farther downstream at either Cuckold's Point or Blackwall Point, as a warning to other waterborne criminals of the possible consequences of their actions (such a fate befell Captain William Kidd in May 1701). There were objections that these displays offended foreign visitors and did not uphold the reputation of the law, though the scenes even became gruesome tourist attractions.[4]

Variants

In some cases, the bodies would be left until their clothes rotted or even until the bodies were almost completely decomposed, after which the bones would be scattered.

In cases of drawing and quartering, the body of the criminal was cut into four or five portions, with each part often gibbeted in different places.

Hanging cage at the main gate to Corciano, Province of Perugia, Italy

So that the public display might be prolonged, bodies were sometimes coated in tar or bound in chains. Sometimes, body-shaped iron cages were used to contain the decomposing corpses. For example, in March 1743 in the town of Rye, East Sussex, Allen Grebell was murdered by John Breads. Breads was imprisoned in the Ypres Tower and then hanged, after which his body was left to rot for more than 20 years in an iron cage on Gibbet Marsh. The cage and Breads' skull are still kept in the town hall.[5]

Another example of the cage variation is the gibbet iron, on display at the Atwater Kent Museum in Philadelphia, U.S. The cage, created in 1781, was intended to be used to display the body of convicted pirate Thomas Wilkinson, so that sailors on passing ships might be warned of the consequences of piracy. Because Wilkinson's planned execution never took place, the gibbet was never used.[6]

An example of an iron cage used to string up bodies on a gibbet can still be seen in the Westgate Museum at Winchester.[7]

Historical examples

Antiquity

Public crucifixion with prolonged display of the body after death can be seen as a form of gibbeting. See Seneca the Younger, Dialogue, Ad Marciam, De consolatione, 6.20.3

Old Testament (Torah) law forbids gibbeting beyond sundown of the day that the body is hanged on the tree. (See Deuteronomy 21:22-23.)

Gibbeting was one of the methods said by Tacitus and Cassius Dio to have been used by Boudica's army in the massacre of Roman settlers in the destruction of Camulodunum (Colchester), Londinium (London) and Verulamium (St. Albans) in AD 60–61.

England

Hanging of Cromwell, Bradshaw and Ireton.

The body of Oliver Cromwell was gibbeted after his death, after monarchists disinterred it during the restoration of the monarchy.[8]

United States

Bird Island and Nix's Mate island in Boston Harbor were used for gibbeting pirates and sailors executed for crimes in Massachusetts during the colonial era. Their bodies were left hanging as a warning to sailors coming into the harbor and approaching Boston.[9] About 1755 a slave "Mark" was hanged and gibbeted in Charlestown, Massachusetts; twenty years later Paul Revere passed the remains of "Mark" on his famous ride.

Canada

gibbet
The gibbet in which Corriveau was exhibited after her execution, the "cage" of Corriveau

Marie-Josephte Corriveau (1733–1763), better known as "La Corriveau", is one of the most popular figures in Québécois folklore. She lived in New France, was sentenced to death by a British court martial for the murder of her second husband, and was hanged for it, and her body was hung in chains. Her story has become legendary in Quebec, and she is the subject of numerous books and plays.

Iran

In 838, Babak Khorramdin had his hands and feet cut off and was then gibbeted alive while sewn into a cow's skin with the horns at ear level to crush his head gradually as it dried out.[10]

Germany

The leaders of the Anabaptist movement in Münster were executed in 1536, and their dead bodies were gibbeted in iron cages hanging from the steeple of St. Lambert's Church. The cages are still on display there today.

Following his execution by hanging in 1738, the corpse of Jewish financier Joseph Süß Oppenheimer was gibbeted in a human-sized bird cage that hung outside of Stuttgart on the so-called Pragsattel (the public execution place at the time) for six years, until the inauguration of Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg, who permitted the hasty burial of his corpse at an unknown location.

Bermuda

Being a seafaring nation in the 17th and 18th centuries, Bermuda inherited many of the same customs as England, including the gibbet. Located in Smith's Parish at the entrance to Flatt's Inlet is Gibbet Island, which was used to hang the bodies of escaped slaves as a deterrent to others. The small island was used for this purpose because it was not on the mainland and therefore satisfied the superstitious beliefs of locals who did not want gibbets near their homes.

Last recorded gibbetings

Afghanistan

The January 1921 issue of National Geographic Magazine contains a photograph of a gibbet cage in use in Afghanistan. Commentary included with the photograph indicates that the gibbet was a practice still in active use. Persons sentenced to death were placed alive in the cage and remained there until some undefined time weeks or months after their death.

Australia

In 1837, five years after the practice had ceased in England, the body of John McKay was gibbeted near the spot where he had murdered Joseph Wilson near Perth, Tasmania.[11] There was great outcry, but the body was not removed until an acquaintance of Wilson passed the spot and, horrified by the spectacle of McKay's rotting corpse, pleaded with the authorities to remove it. The place where this occurred was just to the right (when traveling towards Launceston, not to be confused with the private road with the same name) on the Midlands Highway on the northern side of Perth. It is the last case of gibbetting in a British colony.

United Kingdom

Combe Gibbet, a replica gibbet in Berkshire

The Murder Act 1751 stipulated that "in no case whatsoever shall the body of any murderer be suffered to be buried";[12] the cadaver was either to be publicly dissected or left "hanging in chains".[12]

The last two men gibbeted in England were William Jobling and James Cook, both in 1832. Their cases are good examples of the changing attitudes toward the practice.

William Jobling was a miner hanged and gibbeted for the murder of Nicholas Fairles, a colliery owner and local magistrate, near Jarrow, Durham. After being hanged, the body was taken off the rope and loaded into a cart and taken on a tour of the area before arriving at Jarrow Slake, where the crime had been committed. Here, the body was placed into an iron gibbet cage. The cage and the scene were described thus:

The gibbet was a foot in diameter with strong bars of iron up each side. The post was fixed into a one-and-a-half-ton stone base sunk into the Slake.[13] The body was soon removed by fellow miners and given a decent burial.

James Cook was a bookbinder convicted of the murder of his creditor Paas, a manufacturer of brass instruments, in Leicester. He was executed on Friday, 10 August 1832, in front of Leicester prison. Afterwards:

His body was to be displayed on a purpose-built gallows 33 ft high in Saffron Lane near the Aylestone Tollgate. According to The Newgate Calendar:

In 1834, England outlawed gibbeting. However, in the British Raj of India in 1843, Charles James Napier threatened to have such structures built in parallel to any attempt to practice Sati, the ritualized burning of widows, to execute the perpetrators.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd Ed., Oxford University. Electronic CD edition.
  2. ^ Gallagher, Rob. "Gibbeting". Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2009. 
  3. ^ Jusserland, J. J. (1891). English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. London: T. Fisher Unwin. pp. 342–343. 
  4. ^ Hanging in Chains By Albert Hartshorne, pp. 73–75, ISBN 0-554-81481-1, ISBN 978-0-554-81481-0
  5. ^ Rye Area and Tourist Information
  6. ^ Sellin, T. (1955). The Philadelphia Gibbet Iron. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 46(11), 11–25.
  7. ^ Southern Life(Uk)
  8. ^ "Bits and Pieces". 
  9. ^ Every Day Life in the Massachusetts Bay Colony by George Francis Dow
  10. ^ The golden age of Islam by Maurice Lombard, p. 152, ISBN 1-55876-322-8, ISBN 978-1-55876-322-7
  11. ^ http://www.law.mq.edu.au/sctas/html/1837cases/RvMcKay,1837.htm Archived at the Wayback Machine (archived 21 August 2011)
  12. ^ a b Dr D. R. Johnson, Introductory Anatomy, Centre for Human Biology, (now renamed Faculty of Biological Sciences, Leeds University), Retrieved 17 November 2008
  13. ^ "Durham prison". Capitalpunishmentuk.org. Retrieved 2013-04-12. 
  14. ^ The Newgate Calendar - JAMES COOK
  15. ^ Napier, William. (1851) History Of General Sir Charles Napier's Administration Of Scinde. (p. 35). London: Chapman and Hall [2] at books.google.com, accessed 10 July 2011
  • Gatrell, V. A. C. (1996). The hanging tree: execution and the English people, 1770–1868. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp.  266–269.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.