World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Forestry in Pakistan


Forestry in Pakistan

View of 'Fairy Meadow' at Nanga Parbat showing conifer forest of Picea smithiana and Pinus wallichiana.

The forestry sector of Pakistan is a main source of lumber, paper, fuelwood, latex, medicine as well as food and provide ecotourism and wildlife conservation purposes. Less than 4% of land in Pakistan is covered with forests.[1]


  • Statistics 1
  • Distribution 2
  • Types 3
  • Uses 4
  • Deforestation 5
  • Conservation 6
  • Organizations 7
    • Research institutions 7.1
    • Botanical gardens 7.2
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • Further reading 10
  • External links 11


Total forest area coverage (source)
Parameter Pakistan Asia World
Total forest area in 2000 (000 ha) 2,361 504,180 3,869,455
Natural forest area in 2000 (000 ha) 1,381 375,824 3,682,722
Plantations area in 2000 (000 ha) 980 110,953 186,733
Total dryland area in 1981 (000 ha) 72,524 1,078,121 5,059,984
Percentage of forests ~3% ~20% ~29%



  • The tropical thorn forests are dominated by xerophytic scrubs. They are most widespread in the Punjab plains but also occupy small areas in southern Sindh and western Balochistan. They are mainly used for grazing purposes, watershed protection and fuelwood. Common species are vann (Salvadora oleoides), khejri (Prosopis cineraria), kair (Capparis aphylla), etc.
Ecosystems area by type in 1993 (source)
Ecosystem type Pakistan Asia World
Shrublands, woodlands and grasslands 36% 37% 37%
Sparse or barren vegetation; snow and ice 34% 10% 16%
Cropland and natural vegetation mosaic 28% 34% 20%
Wetlands and water bodies 1% 2% 3%


The forests of Pakistan are a main source of lumber, paper, fuelwood, latex, medicine as well as human and animal food. Other minor products include resin (a fluid in tissue of Chir pine plant that becomes solid on exposure to the air) and 'mazri' (used for making baskets). The forests also provide for ecotourism and wildlife conservation purposes. Forests have also been planted in some areas like Thal Desert to avoid soil erosion and further desertification. Riparian zone along the river Indus have been managed to avoid excess flooding.

Annual production, 1996-1998 (source)
Parameter Pakistan Asia World
Total production (000m³) 31,528 1,111,958 3,261,621
Fuelwood production (000m³) 29,312 863,316 1,739,504
Industrial roundwood production (000m³) 2,217 268,470 1,522,116
Paper (thousand metric tons) 619 88,859 313,206


The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued this sector at Rs.25,637 million in 2005 thus registering over 3% decline of forests in Pakistan since 2000.[2] The main reasons of deforestation are urbanization, farming, overgrazing, global warming, and tourism development. This has led to severe consequences desertification, flooding and endangering of wildlife.

As a consequence to deforestation and changing land use patterns, the most critically affected ecosystems of Pakistan are:

  • Juniper forests of northern Balochistan, have been heavily harvested for timber and fuelwood.
  • Indus River riparian zone is the other such area where ecological changes have drastically affected the 'Riverain Forests'. Large tracts have been cleared for agriculture.
  • The Himalayan temperate forests are also under severe pressure from logging for timber and firewood and making clearings for agriculture and the increasing population pressure.


The protected areas serve the purpose of conserving the forests and wildife of Pakistan. National Conservation Strategy of 1993 was a major landmark of start of conservation of natural resources and wildlife in Pakistan. Resource-managed man-made forests like Changa Manga, Kamalia plantation and Chichawatni plantation have also been planted to serve purpose and conserve forests. Through conservation, a large region of Thal desert has been afforested.

Natural protected forests
Artificial resource managed forests


Research institutions


Botanical gardens

See also


  1. ^ "Introduction to landscapes of Pakistan". Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  2. ^ "Federal Bureau of Statistics, National Accounts". Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  3. ^ "Birir Valley Coniferous Forests". WWF Pakistan. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  4. ^ "Remains of Jhangar scrub forest". Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  5. ^ "Jhangar Scrub Forest". WWF Pakistan. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  6. ^ "Sulaiman Chilgoza Pine Forest". WWF Pakistan. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  7. ^ "Zarghoon Juniper Forest". WWF Pakistan. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  8. ^ "Khipro Reserve Forest". Mahadev Dheerani. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  9. ^

Further reading

  • Jhangar, remains of the forest at
  • Forestry in Pakistan at

External links

  • Environment Protection Agency, Pakistan
  • Earth Trends - Forests of Pakistan
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.