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Fluvial

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Fluvial

Deep, eroding glaciofluvial deposits alongside the Matanuska River, Alaska

Fluvial is a term used in geography and geology to refer to the processes associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them. When the stream or rivers are associated with glaciers, ice sheets, or ice caps, the term glaciofluvial or fluvioglacial is used.[1][2]

Contents

  • Fluvial processes 1
  • See also 2
    • Fluvial processes 2.1
    • Fluvial channel patterns 2.2
    • Fluvial landforms 2.3
    • Related terms 2.4
  • References 3

Fluvial processes

Fluvial processes include the motion of sediment and erosion or deposition on the river bed.[3][4]

Erosion by moving water can happen in two ways. Firstly, the movement of water across the bed exerts a shear stress directly onto the bed. If the cohesive strength of the substrate is lower than the shear exerted, or the bed is composed of loose sediment which can be mobilized by such stresses, then the bed will be lowered purely by clearwater flow. However, if the river carries significant quantities of sediment, this material can act as tools to enhance wear of the bed (abrasion). At the same time the fragments themselves are ground down, becoming smaller and more rounded (attrition).

Sediment in rivers is transported as either bedload (the coarser fragments which move close to the bed) or suspended load (finer fragments carried in the water). There is also a component carried as dissolved material.

For each grain size there is a specific velocity at which the grains start to move, called entrainment velocity. However the grains will continue to be transported even if the velocity falls below the entrainment velocity due to the reduced (or removed) friction between the grains and the river bed. Eventually the velocity will fall low enough for the grains to be deposited. This is shown by the Hjulstrøm curve.

A river is continually picking up and dropping solid particles of rock and soil from its bed throughout its length. Where the river flow is fast, more particles are picked up than dropped. Where the river flow is slow, more particles are dropped than picked up. Areas where more particles are dropped are called alluvial or flood plains, and the dropped particles are called alluvium.

Even small streams make alluvial deposits, but it is in the flood plains and deltas of large rivers that large, geologically-significant alluvial deposits are found.

The amount of matter carried by a large river is enormous. The names of many rivers derive from the color that the transported matter gives the water. For example, the Huang He in China is literally translated "Yellow River", and the Mississippi River in the United States is also called "the Big Muddy." It has been estimated that the Mississippi River annually carries 406 million tons of sediment to the sea,[5] the Huang He 796 million tons, and the Po River in Italy 67 million tons.[6]

See also

Fluvial landforms

Related terms

  • lacustrine - of or relating to a lake
  • maritime - of or relating the sea
  • oceanic - of or relating to an ocean
  • palustrine - of or relating to a marsh

References

  1. ^ K.K.E. Neuendorf, J.P. Mehl, Jr., and J.A. Jackson, eds., 2005, Glossary of Geology. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, Virginia. 800 pp.
  2. ^ Wilson, W.E. & Moore, J.E. 2003. Glossary of Hydrology, American Geological Institute, Springer, 248pp.
  3. ^ Charlton, Ro (2008). Fundamentals of fluvial geomorphology. London: Rutledge. p. 234.  
  4. ^ Wohl, Ellen (2014). Rivers in the Landscape: Science and Management. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 330.  
  5. ^ Mathur, Anuradha; Dilip da Cunha (2001). Mississippi Floods: Designing a Shifting Landscape. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08430-7
  6. ^ Dill, William A. (1990). Inland fisheries of Europe. Rome, Italy: UN Food and Agriculture Organization. ISBN 92-5-102999-7. http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/t0377e/t0377e00.htm
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