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File (tool)

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File (tool)

Detail of a double-cut flat file

A file is a metalworking, woodworking and plastic working tool used to cut fine amounts of material from a work piece. It most commonly refers to the hand tool style, which takes the form of a steel bar with a case hardened surface and a series of sharp, parallel teeth. Most files have a narrow, pointed tang at one end to which a handle can be fitted.[1]

A similar tool is the rasp. This is an older form, with simpler teeth. As they have larger clearance between teeth, these are usually used on softer, non-metallic materials.

Related tools have been developed with abrasive surfaces, such as diamond abrasives or silicon carbide. Because of their similar form and function, these have also been termed 'files'.


  • History 1
  • Types 2
    • Diamond files 2.1
    • Needle files 2.2
    • Riffler files 2.3
    • Machine files 2.4
    • Escapement files 2.5
    • Dental files 2.6
  • Use 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
    • Bibliography 5.1


Early filing or rasping (the distinction is emic, not etic) has prehistoric roots and grew naturally out of the blending of the twin inspirations of cutting with stone cutting tools (such as hand axes) and abrading using natural abrasives, such as well-suited types of stone (for example, sandstone).[2] Relatedly, lapping is also quite ancient, with wood and beach sand offering a natural pair of lap and lapping compound. The Disston authors state, "To abrade, or file, ancient man used sand, grit, coral, bone, fish skin, and gritty woods,—also stone of varying hardness in connection with sand and water."[3]

The Bronze Age and the Iron Age had various kinds of files and rasps. Archaeologists have discovered rasps made from bronze in Egypt, dating back to the years 1200–1000 BC. Archaeologists have also discovered rasps made of iron used by the Assyrians, dating back to the 7th Century BC.

During the chisel (some of this action was just as much upsetting/swaging as it was cutting), and then the piece was hardened (by heating and then quenching), followed sometimes by tempering. Among the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci is a sketch of a machine tool for the cutting of files (the chisel would make one strike, swaging a tooth, then automatically advance into position for the next tooth, and strike again).

Prior to the industrialization of casting, and by primitive machining operations. These components were then individually hand-fit for assembly by careful and deliberate filing. The potential precision of such fitting is much higher than generally assumed, but the components of such hand-fit assemblies are decidedly not interchangeable with those from another assembly. Locks, clocks, and firearms (flintlocks and earlier) were manufactured in this way for centuries before the Industrial Revolution.

Machining in the mid-19th century was heavily dependent on filing, because milling practice was slowly evolving out of its infancy. As late as the early 20th century, manufacturing often involved filing parts to precise shape and size. In today's manufacturing environment, milling and grinding have generally replaced this type of work, and filing (when it occurs at all) usually tends to be for deburring only. Skillful filing to shape and size is still a part of diemaking, moldmaking, toolmaking, etc., but even in those fields, the goal is usually to avoid handwork when possible.


Relative tooth sizes for smooth, 2nd cut and bastard files

Files come in a wide variety of materials, sizes, shapes, cuts, and tooth configurations. The cross-section of a file can be flat, round, half-round, triangular, square, knife edge or of a more specialized shape. There is no unitary international standard for file nomenclature; however, there are many generally accepted names for certain kinds of files.

The cut of the file refers to how fine its teeth are. They are defined as (from roughest to smoothest): rough, middle, bastard, second cut, smooth, and dead smooth. A single-cut file has one set of parallel teeth while a cross-cut or double-cut file has a second set of cuts forming diamond teeth.[1] In Swiss-pattern files the teeth are cut at a shallower angle, and are graded by number, with a number 1 file being coarser than a number 2, etc. Most files have teeth on all faces, but some specialty flat files have teeth on only one face or one edge, so that the user can come right up to another edge without damaging the finish on it.

Some of the common shapes and their uses:

File Types and Uses
Name Image Description
Mill files Mill files are the most common shape; they are rectangular in cross section and taper slightly in both width and thickness from tang to end. They are all single-cut.[5]
Hand files Hand files are parallel in width and tapered in thickness; they are used for general work.
Joint round edge files Joint round edge files are parallel in width and thickness, with rounded edges. The flats are safe (no teeth) and cut on the rounded edges only. Used for making joints and hinges.
Half round ring files Half round ring files taper in width and thickness, coming to a point, and are narrower than a standard half round. Used for filing inside of rings.
Barrette files Barrette files are tapered in width and thickness, coming to a rounded point at the end. Only the flat side is cut, and the other sides are all safe. For doing flat work.
Checkering files Checkering files are parallel in width and gently tapered in thickness. They have teeth cut in a precise grid pattern, and are used for making serrations and doing checkering work, as on gunstocks.
Planemaker's float Floats are straight, single-cut files which taper used for cutting, flattening and smoothing wood, particularly in making wooden hand planes.
  • Crossing files are half round on two sides with one side having a larger radius than the other. Tapered in width and thickness. For filing interior curved surfaces. The double radius makes possible filing at the junction of two curved surfaces or a straight and curved surface.
  • Crochet files are tapered in width and gradually tapered in thickness, with two flats and radiused edges, cut all around. Used in filing junctions between flat and curved surface, and slots with rounded edges.
  • Knife files are tapered in width and thickness, but the knife edge has the same thickness the whole length, with the knife edge having an arc to it. Used for slotting or wedging operations.
  • Pippin files are tapered in width and thickness, generally of a teardrop cross section and having the edge of a knife file. Used for filing the junction of two curved surfaces and making V-shaped slots.
  • Square files are gradually tapered and cut on all four sides. Used for a wide variety of things.
  • Three square files, also called triangular files, have a triangular cross-section, which usually gradually tapers. Some files taper all the way to a point (especially small ones). Three square files are used for many cuts, such as cutting angles less than 90 degrees. They are often employed for sharpening the teeth of wood saws.[6]
  • Round files, also called rat-tail files, are gradually tapered and are used for many tasks that require a round tool, such as enlarging round holes or cutting a scalloped edge.
  • Round parallel files are similar to round files, except that they do not taper. Shaped like a toothed cylinder.
  • Equalling files are parallel in width and thickness. Used for filing slots and corners.
  • Slitting files are parallel in width with a diamond-shaped cross section. Thinner than knife files and use for filing slots.
  • Nut files are fine, precise files in sets of graduated thickness, used by luthiers for dressing the slots at the end of the neck which support the strings of guitars, violins etc., in the correct position.
  • Pillar files are parallel in width and tapered in thickness for perfectly flat filing. Double cut top and bottom with both sides safe, these are long, narrow files for precision work.
  • Warding files are parallel in thickness, tapered in width, and thin. Like a hand or flat file that comes to a point on the end. Used for flat work and slotting.
  • Dreadnought (curved teeth) and millenicut (straight teeth) files both have heavily undercut, sharp but coarse teeth. Both can be used for rapidly removing large quantities of material from thick aluminum alloy, copper or brass. Today, the millenicut and dreadnought have found a new use in removing plastic filler materials such as two-part epoxies or styrenes such as those commonly used in automobile body repairs.
  • Farrier Rasp files are tanged horse rasps used mainly by horseshoers and blacksmiths. They are flat with rasp cut on one side (upstanding teeth arranged in rows with curved cutting edges of generally pyramidal shape and have a cutting face with a positive rake or slope) and a double cut file on the reverse side.

Steel files are made from high carbon steel[7][8] (1.0 to 1.25% carbon) and may be through hardened[5] or case hardened.[9][10]

Diamond files

A selection of diamond impregnated files

Instead of having teeth cut into the file's working surface, diamond files have small particles of industrial diamond embedded in their surface (or into a softer material that is bonded to the underlying surface of the file). The use of diamonds in this manner allows the file to be used effectively against extremely hard materials, such as stone, glass or very hard metals such as hardened steel or carbide against which a standard steel file is ineffective. Diamond files are also the only type that may be used with a back-and-forth motion without damaging the file. These may also be called diamond laps, as the "teeth" are not regular projections, as in a file, but particles, usually shaped and located randomly and held in place by a softer (any other) material.

Needle files

A selection of small needle files

The image to the left shows a selection of needle files in an assortment of cross sectional shapes.

Needle files are small files that are used in applications where the surface finish takes priority over metal removal rates but they are most suited for smaller work pieces. They are often sold in sets, including different shapes.

Riffler files

A selection of riffler files

Riffler files are small to medium-sized files in an assortment of cross sectional shapes and profiles. The varying profiles and shapes enable them to be used in hard to reach, or unusually shaped areas. They are often used as an intermediate step in die making where the surface finish of a cavity die may need to be improved, e.g. in plastic injection moulding or die casting.

Machine files

A selection of machine files

The files pictured on the left are designed for use in a filing machine.

A filing machine is similar in appearance to a scroll saw or bandsaw in that the file is mounted vertically in the middle of a table. When in operation the file reciprocates vertically while the workpiece is presented to the file's face and manipulated around the table/file as the shape requires.

The cone point of the pictured, top two files allows the files to center themselves firmly in the bottom file holder. The pictured, lower two files are required to be inserted into the bottom file holder and physically restrained with set screws, an identical process as for the top holder.

Filing machines are useful tools as they reduce fatigue and improve product accuracy, and although not usually seen in modern production environments, they may be found in older toolrooms or diemaking shops as an aid in the manufacture of specialist tooling.

Escapement files

Escapement files, also known as watchmaker's files, are a classification of short, (very) thin files with bastard-cut or embedded diamond surfaces, similar to needle files in form and function but smaller. Typical dimensions are on the order of approximately 100-140 mm (4-512 in.) in length and 3-5 mm (18-316 in.) in width. Best used for fine, delicate work on small pieces or mechanisms (such as escapements), escapement files are commonly used by clock and watchmakers, as well as in crafting jewelry.

Dental files

During root canal therapy, round files ranging from .06mm diameter to 0.8 mm diameter files are used to smooth the narrow canals of the interior of the tooth and thus facilitate disinfection of the internal surface. Typically the files are made of stainless steel or nickel titanium (NiTi) and come in a variety of styles. Mechanized files, known as rotary files, are also commonly used. These files attach to the head of a specific oscillating or rotating drill. [11]


Files have forward-facing cutting teeth, and cut most effectively when pushed over the workpiece. Pulling a file directly backwards on a workpiece will cause the teeth to bend, permanently damaging the file (especially when an inexperienced user adopts a back-and-forth "sawing" motion). Draw filing involves laying the file sideways on the work, and carefully pushing or pulling it across the work. This catches the teeth of the file sideways instead of head on, and a very fine shaving action is produced. There are also varying strokes that produce a combination of the straight ahead stroke and the drawfiling stroke, and very fine work can be attained in this fashion. Using a combination of strokes, and progressively finer files, a skilled operator can attain a surface that is perfectly flat and near mirror finish.

Pinning refers to the clogging of the file teeth with pins, which are material shavings. These pins cause the file to lose its cutting ability and can scratch the workpiece. A file card, which is a brush with metal bristles, is used to clean the file. (The name, "card", is the same as used for the "raising cards" (spiked brushes) used in woolmaking.) Chalk can help prevent pinning.[12]

See also


  1. ^ a b .
  2. ^ Henry Disston & Sons, Inc 1920, pp. 5–15.
  3. ^ Henry Disston & Sons, Inc 1920, p. 5.
  4. ^ a b c d Henry Disston & Sons, Inc 1920, pp. 16–17.
  5. ^ a b Henry Disston & Sons, Inc 1920, p. 43.
  6. ^ It has been pointed out that there's no such thing as a "three square". Triangular files have 60 degree angles, whereas "square" is 90 degrees. Triangular files are nevertheless commonly called "three square". Natural language does not always follow the most apparent logic.
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Note that the reference actually states that they are hardened to 40 HRC, but the HRC scale is commonly incorrectly used on case hardened surfaces, so the value has been converted to the correct superficial Rockwell scale.
  10. ^
  11. ^ Walton, Richard E. Principles and Practice of Endodontics, 3rd Edition. Saunders Book Company, 012002. Page 212.
  12. ^ Lye 1993, p. 13.


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