World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000006997
Reproduction Date:

Title: Corporatocracy  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Occupy Canada, Corruption, Occupy Central (2011–12), Occupy movement, Commercial state
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Corporatocracy , is a term used as an economic and political system controlled by [2][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Economist Jeffrey Sachs described the United States as a corporatocracy in his book The Price of Civilization.[17] He suggested that it arose from four trends: weak national parties and strong political representation of individual districts, the large U.S. military establishment after World War II, big corporate money financing election campaigns, and globalization tilting the balance away from workers.[17]

This collective is what author C Wright Mills called the Power Elite, wealthy individuals who hold prominent positions in corporatocracies. They control the process of determining a society's economic and political policies.[18]

The concept has been used in explanations of bank bailouts, excessive pay for CEOs, as well as complaints such as the exploitation of national treasuries, people, and natural resources.[19] It has been used by critics of globalization,[20] sometimes in conjunction with criticism of the World Bank[21] or unfair lending practices,[19] as well as criticism of "free trade agreements".[20]


Edmund Phelps, published an analysis in 2010 theorizing that the cause of income inequality is not free market capitalism, but instead is the result of the rise of corporatism.[22] Corporatism, in his his view, is the antithesis of free market capitalism. It is characterized by semi-monopolistic organizations and banks, big employer confederations, often acting with complicit state institutions in ways that discourage (or block) the natural workings of a free economy. The primary effects of corporatism are the consolidation of economic power and wealth with end results being the attrition of entrepreneurial and free market dynamism.

His follow-up book, Mass Flourishing, further defines corporatism by the following attributes: power-sharing between government and large corporations (exemplified in the U.S. by widening government power in areas such as financial services, healthcare, and energy through regulation), an expansion of corporate lobbying and campaign support in exchange for government reciprocity, escalation in the growth and influence of financial and banking sectors, increased consolidation of the corporate landscape through merger and acquisition (with ensuing increases in corporate executive compensation), increased potential for corporate/government corruption and malfeasance, and a lack of entrepreneurial and small business development leading to lethargic and stagnant economic conditions.[23][24]

United States

Labor's share of GDP has declined 1970 to 2013, measured based on total compensation as well as salaries & wages. This implies capital's share is increasing.

In the United States, several of the characteristics described by Phelps are apparent. With regard to income inequality, the 2014 income analysis of University of California, Berkeley economist Emmanuel Saez confirms that relative growth of income and wealth is not occurring among small and mid-sized entrepreneurs and business owners (who generally populate the lower half of top one per-centers in income),[25] but instead only among the top .1 percent of income distribution ... whom Paul Krugman describes as "super-elites - corporate bigwigs and financial wheeler-dealers."[26][27]... who earn $2,000,000 or more every year.[28][29]

Share of income

For example, measured relative to GDP, total compensation and its component wages and salaries have been declining since 1970. This indicates a shift in income from labor (persons who derive income from hourly wages and salaries) to capital (persons who derive income via ownership of businesses, land and assets).[30] Wages and salaries have fallen from approximately 51% GDP in 1970 to 43% GDP in 2013. Total compensation has fallen from approximately 58% GDP in 1970 to 53% GDP in 2013.[31]

To put this in perspective, five percent of U.S. GDP was approximately $850 billion in 2013. This represents an additional $7,000 in compensation for each of the 120 million U.S. households. Larry Summers estimated in 2007 that the lower 80% of families were receiving $664 billion less income than they would be with a 1979 income distribution (a period of much greater equality), or approximately $7,000 per family.[32]

Not receiving this income may have led many families to increase their debt burden, a significant factor in the 2007-2009 subprime mortgage crisis, as highly leveraged homeowners suffered a much larger reduction in their net worth during the crisis. Further, since lower income families tend to spend relatively more of their income than higher income families, shifting more of the income to wealthier families may slow economic growth.[33]

Effective corporate tax rates

U.S. corporate effective tax rates have fallen significantly since the year 2000.

As another indication of U.S. corporate political influence, U.S. corporate effective tax rates have also fallen significantly, from 29% in 2000 to 17% in 2013. Corporate tax payments have not kept pace with profit growth.[34] Some of this untaxed profit was used to fund record stock buybacks, a form of dividend or income to capital. In the 12 months to March 31, 2014, S&P 500 companies increased their stock buyback payouts by 29% year on year, to $534.9 billion.[35]

Stock buybacks versus wage increases

One indication of increasing corporate power was the removal of restrictions on their ability to buy back stock, contributing to increased income inequality. Writing in the Harvard Business Review in September 2014, William Lazonick blamed record corporate stock buybacks for reduced investment in the economy and a corresponding impact on prosperity and income inequality. Between 2003 and 2012, the 449 companies in the S&P 500 used 54% of their earnings ($2.4 trillion) to buy back their own stock. An additional 37% was paid to stockholders as dividends. Together, these were 91% of profits. This left little for investment in productive capabilities or higher income for employees, shifting more income to capital rather than labor. He blamed executive compensation arrangements, which are heavily based on stock options, stock awards and bonuses for meeting earnings per share (EPS) targets (EPS increases as the number of outstanding shares decreases). Legal restrictions on buybacks were greatly eased in the early 1980’s. He advocates changing these incentives to limit buybacks.[36][37]

Industry concentration

In another example, The Economist propounds that a swelling corporate financial and banking sector has caused Gini Coefficients to rise in the U.S. since 1980: "Financial services' share of GDP in America doubled to 8% between 1980 and 2000; over the same period their profits rose from about 10% to 35% of total corporate profits, before collapsing in 2007-09. Bankers are being paid more, too. In America the compensation of workers in financial services was similar to average compensation until 1980. Now it is twice that average."[38] The summary argument, considering these findings, is that if corporatism is the consolidation and sharing of economic and political power between large corporations and the state ... then a corresponding concentration of income and wealth (with resulting income inequality) is an expected by-product of such a consolidation.

Historical corporatocracies

Protester holding Adbusters Corporate American Flag at Bush's 2nd inauguration, Washington DC.

Corporations have held the right to vote in some jurisdictions. For example, Livery Companies currently appoint most of the voters for the City of London Corporation, which is the municipal government for the area centered on the financial district.

Fictional corporatocracies

See also



  1. ^ "Corporatocracy". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved May 29, 2012. /ˌkôrpərəˈtäkrəsē/ .... a society or system that is governed or controlled by corporations: 
  2. ^ a b Jamie Reysen (October 4, 2011). "At Boston's Dewey Square, a protest of varied voices". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2012-01-04. ... Corporatocracy is the new Fascism ... 
  3. ^ Will Storey (October 6, 2011). "D.C. Occupied, More or Less". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-01-04. ... we’ve surrendered our nation to a corporatocracy ... 
  4. ^ Linda A. Mooney; David Knox; Caroline Schacht (2009). Understanding Social Problems. Cengage Learning. p. 256.  
  5. ^ Bruce E. Levine (March 16, 2011). "The Myth of U.S. Democracy and the Reality of U.S. Corporatocracy". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-01-10. Americans are ruled by a corporatocracy: a partnership of "too-big-to-fail" corporations, the extremely wealthy elite, and corporate-collaborator government officials. 
  6. ^ David Sirota (November 17, 2010). "The Most Honest -- and Disturbing -- Admission About the Corporatocracy I've Ever Seen". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  7. ^ Will Oremus (Oct 19, 2011). "OWS Protesters May Demand "Robin Hood" Tax: The magazine that sparked the protests calls for a 1-percent levy on financial transactions.". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  8. ^ Scott Manley (March 3, 2011). "Letters to the editor: Union busting". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  9. ^ Robert Koehler (December 18, 2011). "The language of empire: In official statements and in media reporting, continued war and ongoing American domination are a given". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2012-01-04. ... the corporatocracy and its subservient media. ... 
  10. ^ Carl Gibson (November 2, 2011). "The Corporatocracy Is the 1 Percent". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-01-04. Note: spokesman and organizer for US Uncut 
  11. ^ Andy Webster (November 10, 2011). "Yearning to Breathe Free on the Web". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  12. ^ GrrlScientist (3 November 2011). "GrrlScientist + Cancer". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  13. ^ Naomi Wolf (5 November 2011). "How to Occupy the moral and political high ground: The worldwide protest can be a critical force for change if it follows some simple rules". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-01-04. ... one per cent – a corporatocracy that, without transparency or accountability, ... 
  14. ^ Naomi Wolf (2011-11-01). "The people versus the police". China Daily. Retrieved 2012-01-04. ... Their enemy is a global "corporatocracy" that has purchased governments and legislatures ... 
  15. ^ Anita Simons (October 24, 2011). "Occupy Wall Street will go down in history". Maui News. Retrieved 2012-01-04. ... we all have different personal objectives, such as ending corporatocracy, ... 
  16. ^ Katy Steinmetz (November 9, 2011). "Wednesday Words: Herman’s ‘Cain-Wreck,’ Male Cleavage and More". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2012-01-04. ...Occupy vocab: corporatocracy. ... 
  17. ^ a b Sachs, Jeffrey (2011). The Price of Civilization. New York: Random House. pp. 105, 106, 107.  
  18. ^ Doob, Christopher (2013). Social Inequality and Social Stratification (1st ed. ed.). Boston: Pearson. p. 143. 
  19. ^ a b John Perkins (March 2, 2011). "Ecuador: Another Victory for the People". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  20. ^ a b Roman Haluszka (Nov 12, 2011). "Understanding Occupy’s message". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  21. ^ Andy Webster (August 14, 2008). "Thoughts on a ‘Corporatocracy’". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  22. ^ Capitalism vs Corporatism - Edmund Phelps Columbia University. January 11, 2010).
  23. ^ Phelps, Edmund (August 25, 2013). Mass Flourishing: How Grassroots Innovation Created Jobs, Challenge, and Change (1st Edition ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 392.  
  24. ^ Mass Flourishing Book Review, Edward Glaeser, Wall Street Journal, October 18, 2013.
  25. ^ The CFO Alliance Executive Compensation Survey 2013
  26. ^ We Are The 99.9%, Paul Krugman, New York Times, November 24, 2011.
  27. ^ How You, I, and Everyone Got The Top 1 Percent All Wrong, Derek Thompson, The Atlantic, March 30, 2014.
  28. ^ The Distribution of US Wealth, Capital Income and Returns since 1913, Emmanuel Saez, Gabriel Zucman, March 2014
  29. ^ Are You Rich Enough? The Terrible Tragedy of Income Inequality Among The 1%, Forbes, November 25, 2013
  30. ^ Vox-Goodheart and Erfurth-Monetary policy and long-term trends-November 2014
  31. ^ FRED Database-Income Measures vs GDP-Retrieved November 6, 2014
  32. ^ Lawrence Summers-Harness Market Forces to Share Prosperity-June 24, 2007
  33. ^ Mian, Atif and, Sufi, Amir (2014).  
  34. ^ FRED Database-Effective Corporate Tax Rates-Retrieved November 8, 2014
  35. ^ Financial Times-U.S. Share Buybacks and Dividends Hit Record-June 18, 2014
  36. ^ Harvard Business Review-William Lazonick-Profits without Prosperity-September 2014
  37. ^ Washington Post-Harold Meyerson-In Corporations, It's Winner Take All-August 2014
  38. ^ Unbottled Gini, The Economist, January 20, 2011.

External links

  • lecture on Corporatocracy John Perkins lecture on Corporatocracy
  • Teaching for Democracy in an Age of Corporatocracy by Christine E. Sleeter, Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Crimes of Globalization: The Impact of U.S. Corporatocracy in Third World Countries by John Flores-Hidones
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.