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Close central unrounded vowel

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Title: Close central unrounded vowel  
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Close central unrounded vowel

Close central unrounded vowel
ɨ
ï
IPA number 317
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɨ
Unicode (hex) U+0268
X-SAMPA 1
Kirshenbaum i"
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
Sound
 ·

The close central unrounded vowel, or high central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɨ, namely the lower-case letter i with a horizontal bar. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as barred i. In American tradition this symbol (and the name "barred i") denote a slightly different sound, that of the second syllable of roses when distinct from Rosa's;[1] see also near-close central unrounded vowel.

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •

Occurrence

/ɨ/ is uncommon as a phoneme in Indo-European languages, but does occur as an allophone in many Slavic languages. However, it is very common as a separate phoneme in the indigenous languages of the Americas and is often in phonemic contrast with other close vowels such as /i/ and /u/ both in modern living languages as well as reconstructed proto-languages (e.g. proto-Uto-Aztecan). Campbell, Kaufman & Smith-Stark (1986) identify the presence of this vowel phoneme as an areal feature of a Mesoamerican Sprachbund (although this is not a defining feature of the entire area).

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Acehnese tupeue [tupɨə] 'to know Asyik[2] and Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi[3] describe this sound as such while Durie[4] describes it as closer to [ɯ]
Angor hüfᵻ [xɨβə] 'hot'
Czech Some dialects był [bɨɫ] 'he was' Found in some eastern Moravian, Lach and Silesian dialects. See Czech phonology
Chinese Mandarin rì     'day' See Mandarin phonology
English Cockney[5][6] rude [ɹɨ̹ːd] 'rude' With little lip rounding. May be fully rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.
Southeastern English[7] [ɹɨːd] May be rounded [ʉː], or a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯] instead.
Guaraní yvy [ɨʋɨ] 'earth'
Irish Munster[8] caora [kɨ̟ːɾˠə] 'sheep' Somewhat fronted;[8] allophone of /i/ between broad consonants.[8] See Irish phonology
Kaingang fy [ɸɨ] 'seed'
Mapudungun trukür [ʈ͡ʂuˈkɨɻ] 'fog' See Mapudungun phonology
Mongolian[9] хүчир [xutʃʰɨɾɘ̆] 'difficult'
Muisca Hycha[10] hycha [hɨʂa] 'I'
Romanian înot [ɨˈn̪o̞t̪] 'I swim' See Romanian phonology
Russian[11] ты     'you' (singular) Occurs only after unpalatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Sahaptin[12] [kʼsɨt] 'cold' Epenthetic. No lengthened equivalent
Sirionó[13] [eˈsɨ] 'dry wood'
Swedish bi [bɨː] 'bee' Found in dialects in Närke and Bohuslän and in sociolects in Stockholm and Gothenburg. See Swedish phonology
Tupi yby [ɨβɨ] 'earth'
Udmurt[14] ургетэ, ыргетэ[15] [ɨrgete] 'it growls'
Vietnamese trưa [ʈɨə˧] 'noon' See Vietnamese phonology
Võro sysar [sɨsarʲ] 'sister'
Welsh Northern dialects[16] llun [ɬɨːn] 'picture' See Welsh phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[17] nɨ [nɨ] 'be sour'

Polish y is often transcribed as /ɨ/, but actually it is a close-mid advanced central unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed [ɘ̟].[18] Similarly, European Portuguese unstressed e, often represented as /ɨ/, is actually a near-close near-back unrounded vowel, more narrowly transcribed using ad hoc symbols such as [ɯ̽] (mid-centralized), [ɯ̟] (fronted) and [ʊ̜] (less rounded i.e. unrounded).[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ Flemming, E., Johnson, S. (2007), "Rosa’s roses: reduced vowels in American English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37/1, pp. 83–96.
  2. ^ Asyik, Abdul Gani (1982), "The agreement system in Acehnese" (PDF), Mon-Khmer Studies 11: 1–33, retrieved 9 November 2012 
  3. ^ Al-Ahmadi Al-Harbi, Awwad Ahmad (2003), "Acehnese coda condition: An optimality-theoretic account", Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational and Social Sciences and Humanities 15: 9–21 
  4. ^ Mid-vowels in Acehnese
  5. ^ Matthews (1938:78)
  6. ^ Wells (1982:306–307)
  7. ^ Lodge (2009:174)
  8. ^ a b c Ó Sé (2000)
  9. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  10. ^ González de Perez (2005:50)
  11. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:33)
  12. ^ Hargus & Beavert (2002)
  13. ^ Firestone (1965:?)
  14. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:64, 68)
  15. ^ ]Udmurt-Russian dictionaryургетыны [ (in Russian) 
  16. ^ Ball (1984:?)
  17. ^ Merrill (2008:109)
  18. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  19. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)

Bibliography

  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94,  
  • Ball, Martin J. (1984), "Phonetics for phonology", in Ball, Martin J.; Jones, G.E, Welsh Phonology, Cardiff: University of Wales Press,  
  • Campbell, Lyle; Kaufman, Terrence; Smith-Stark, Thomas C (1986), "Meso-America as a linguistic area", Language 62 (3): 530–570,  
  • Firestone, Homer L. (1965), "Description and classification of Sirionó: A Tupí-Guaraní language.", Janua linguarum, Series Practica (16), London: Mouton & Co 
  • Hargus, Sharon; Beavert, Virginia (2002), "Predictable versus Underlying Vocalism in Yakima Sahaptin", International Journal of American Linguistics 68 (3): 316–340,  
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71,  
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107,  
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics 
  • Matthews, William (1938), Cockney, Past and Present: a Short History of the Dialect of London, Detroit: Gale Research Company 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114,  
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Gaeilge), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann,  
  • Wells, J.C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
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