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Clark Street Tunnel

This article is about a rapid transit line. For the surface (bus, formerly streetcar) line along Broadway and Seventh Avenue, see Broadway Line (lower Manhattan surface).
IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line
Train services that use the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line have been colored red since 1979.
Overview
Type Rapid transit
System New York City Subway
Termini Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street
South Ferry
Borough Hall
Stations 44
Operation
Opening 1904-1919
Owner City of New York
Operator(s) New York City Transit Authority
Character Underground (Most of Manhattan)
Elevated (125th Street and North of Inwood)
Rolling stock R62
R62A
R142
Technical
No. of tracks 1–4
Track gauge
Electrification Direct Current traction

The IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line (also known as the Seventh Avenue Line or the West Side Line) is a New York City Subway line. It is one of several lines that serves the A Division (IRT), stretching from South Ferry in Lower Manhattan north to Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street in Riverdale, Bronx.[1][2] The Brooklyn Branch,[3] from the main line at Chambers Street southeast through the Clark Street Tunnel to Borough Hall in Downtown Brooklyn, is also part of the Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line.[4]

Description

The south end of the Brooklyn Branch is unclear. In a 1981 list of "most deteriorated subway stations", the MTA listed Borough Hall and Clark Street stations as part of the IRT New Lots Line.[5] However, as of 2007, emergency exit signs label Court Street as an IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line station, and the two parts of Borough Hall are signed as being along the Broadway – Seventh Avenue and IRT Lexington Avenue Lines. The chaining designations "K" (Clark Street Tunnel) and "M" (Joralemon Street Tunnel) join and become "E" (Eastern Parkway Line) at Borough Hall.

The line is also known as the IRT West Side Line, since it runs along the west side of Manhattan; the part north of 42nd Street was built as part of the first subway in New York. The line serves places such as Lincoln Center, Columbia University, and the City College of New York.

Train services that use the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line are colored Template:NYCS const on subway signage and literature. The line is served by the 1 2 3 trains, which operate together over much of the line. In the past, the 1 train operated as a skip-stop service in tandem with the 9, which was discontinued after May 27, 2005; from 1994 onward, this skip-stop separation existed only in Upper Manhattan during rush hours.

An unused third track along much of the line north of 96th Street has been used in the past for peak direction express service, at least between 96th Street and 137th Street.[6] Currently, this center track is used only during construction reroutes.

It is the only line to have elevated stations in Manhattan. Template:BS-map


Clark Street Tunnel

The Clark Street Tunnel carries the 2 3 trains under the East River between the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. It was opened for revenue service on Tuesday, April 15, 1919, relieving crowding on the Joralemon Street Tunnel and providing passengers with a direct route to travel between Brooklyn and the west side of Manhattan.[7] It is about 5,900 feet long, with about 3,100 feet underwater.

Construction of the tunnel began on October 12, 1914, using a tunneling shield in conjunction with compressed air. The tunnel was designed by civil engineer Clifford Milburn Holland, who would later serve as the first chief engineer of the Holland Tunnel.[8][9] The north tube was holed through on November 28, 1916.[10]

On December 28, 1990, an electrical fire in the Clark Street Tunnel trapped passengers on a subway train for over half an hour, killing two people and injuring 149 passengers.[11]


History

When the first subway opened between 1904 and 1908, one of the main service patterns was the West Side Branch, running from Lower Manhattan to Van Cortlandt Park via what is now the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, 42nd Street Shuttle, and IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line. Both local and express trains were operated, with express trains using the express tracks south of 96th Street. Express trains ran through to Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn during rush hours, while other express trains and all local trains turned around at City Hall or South Ferry.[12][13][14]

The first portion of the Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line south of Times Square – 42nd Street, a shuttle to 34th Street – Penn Station, opened on June 3, 1917.[15] This shuttle was extended south to South Ferry, with a shorter shuttle on the Brooklyn Branch between Chambers Street and Wall Street, on July 1, 1918.[16] Finally, the new "H" system was implemented on August 1, 1918, joining the two halves of the Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line and sending all West Side trains south from Times Square.[17]

The local tracks ran to South Ferry, while the express tracks used the Brooklyn Branch to Wall Street, extended into Brooklyn to Atlantic Avenue via the Clark Street Tunnel on April 15, 1919.[18] Extensions of the Eastern Parkway Line and the connecting Nostrand Avenue Line and New Lots Line opened in the next few years, with the end result being that West Side trains ran to Flatbush Avenue or New Lots Avenue.

On February 6, 1959, the 1 train became the West Side local. Previously, 1 trains ran express along the West Side and into Brooklyn, and the 3 was the local service to South Ferry. Since then, 1 train service has remained consistent.

On August 21, 1989, the 1/9 weekday skip-stop service was formed.[19] Skip-stop service operated north of 137th Street – City College.

In 1994, midday skip-stop service was discontinued.[20] By this time, 1 trains only skipped Marble Hill – 225th, 207th and 145th Streets and 9 trains only skipped 238th, 215th, Dyckman and 157th Streets.

After September 11, 2001, 1 trains had to be rerouted since the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line ran directly under the World Trade Center site and was heavily damaged in the collapse of the Twin Towers. It ran only between 242nd Street and 14th Street, running local north of and express south of 96th Street; the 9 train and skip-stop service were suspended at this time. On September 19, after a few switching delays at 96th Street, service was changed. 1 trains made all local stops from 242nd Street to New Lots Avenue via the Clark Street Tunnel and IRT Eastern Parkway Line, to replace 3 trains, which terminated at 14th Street, at all times except late nights, when it terminated at Chambers Street in Manhattan instead. On September 15, 2002, 1 trains returned to South Ferry and the 9 train and skip-stop service was restored.[21]

On May 27, 2005, the 9 train and skip-stop service was discontinued.[20]

On March 16, 2009, the 1 local via the South Ferry loop was discontinued and a new South Ferry terminal station opened.[22] This was the first new station to open since 1989 when the IND 63rd Street Line stations opened. Both loops at South Ferry remain in service to short-turn trains (such as the 5 train when it doesn't run to Brooklyn), but the platforms are now closed to passengers. The loop station reopened in April 2013 after the station that was built in 2009 was damaged by Hurricane Sandy.


Extent and service

The following services use part or all of the Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line:

Current service Section of line
1 Local Full line (to South Ferry)
2 Express (local late nights) 96th Street to Chambers Street, then Brooklyn Branch
3 Express 96th Street to Chambers Street, then Brooklyn Branch

Station listing

Station service legend
Stops all times
Stops all times except late nights
Stops late nights only
Stops weekdays only
Stops rush hours only
Stops rush hours in the peak direction only
Time period details
Neighborhood
(approximate)
Station Tracks Services Opened Transfers and notes
Riverdale Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street 1 all times August 1, 1908[23]
Center Express track begins (no regular service)
Connecting Tracks to 240th Street Yard
Kingsbridge and Riverdale 238th Street local 1 all times August 1, 1908
231st Street local 1 all times January 27, 1907
Marble Hill Marble Hill – 225th Street local 1 all times January 14, 1907[24] Connection to Metro-North Railroad (Hudson Line at Marble Hill)
Broadway Bridge
Inwood 215th Street local 1 all times March 12, 1906[25]
Connecting Track to 207th Street Yard
207th Street local 1 all times March 16, 1906 Bx12 Select Bus Service
Center Express track ends
Dyckman Street 1 all times March 12, 1906[25]
Washington Heights 191st Street 1 all times January 14, 1911[26]
181st Street 1 all times March 16, 1906
168th Street 1 all times April 14, 1906[27] IND Eighth Avenue Line (A all times C all except late nights)
157th Street 1 all times November 12, 1904[28]
Center Express track begins (No Regular Service)
Harlem 145th Street local 1 all times October 27, 1904[29]
137th Street Yard tracks surround Main Line
137th Street – City College local 1 all times October 27, 1904[29]
125th Street local 1 all times October 27, 1904[29]
Morningside Heights 116th Street – Columbia University local 1 all times October 27, 1904[29] M60 bus to LaGuardia Airport
Cathedral Parkway – 110th Street local 1 all times October 27, 1904[29] M60 bus to LaGuardia Airport
Upper West Side 103rd Street local 1 all times October 27, 1904[29]
Center Express track ends
IRT Lenox Avenue Line joins as the express tracks (2 all times 3 all times)
96th Street all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all times October 27, 1904[29]
91st Street local October 27, 1904[29] Closed February 2, 1959
86th Street local 1 all times 2 late nights October 27, 1904[29]
79th Street local 1 all times 2 late nights October 27, 1904[29]
72nd Street all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all times October 27, 1904[29]
66th Street – Lincoln Center local 1 all times 2 late nights October 27, 1904[29]
Midtown 59th Street – Columbus Circle local 1 all times 2 late nights October 27, 1904[29] IND Eighth Avenue Line (A all times B weekdays until 11:00 p.m. C all except late nights D all times)
50th Street local 1 all times 2 late nights October 27, 1904[29]
merge on northbound local track to IRT 42nd Street Shuttle (no regular service)
Times Square – 42nd Street all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all times June 3, 1917[30] IRT Flushing Line (Template:NYCS Flushing south)
IND Eighth Avenue Line (A all times C all except late nights E all times) at 42nd Street – Port Authority Bus Terminal
BMT Broadway Line (N all times Q all times R all except late nights)
42nd Street Shuttle (S all except late nights)
Port Authority Bus Terminal
34th Street – Penn Station all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all except late nights June 3, 1917[30] Connection to Amtrak, LIRR, and N.J. Transit at Pennsylvania Station
M34 / M34A Select Bus Service
Chelsea 28th Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
23rd Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
18th Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
14th Street all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all except late nights July 1, 1918 IND Sixth Avenue Line (F all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m.) at 14th Street
BMT Canarsie Line (L all times) at Sixth Avenue
Connection to PATH at 14th Street
Greenwich Village Christopher Street – Sheridan Square local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918 Connection to PATH at Christopher Street
Houston Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
TriBeCa Canal Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
Franklin Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
Financial District Chambers Street all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all except late nights July 1, 1918[31]
Express tracks split to Brooklyn Branch (2 all times 3 all except late nights); Local tracks continue as Main line (1 all times)
Cortlandt Street local July 1, 1918 Closed since September 11, 2001
Connection to PATH at World Trade Center
Rector Street local 1 all times July 1, 1918
Split between Main line and Outer loop at South Ferry loops
South Ferry loop outer loop only 1 all times July 1, 1918[31] Closed on March 16, 2009 with the opening of the new terminal
Reopened on April 4, 2013 as temporary station and terminal for the 1 train
South Ferry local March 16, 2009[22] Closed November 2012 due to damage caused by Hurricane Sandy; pending reconstruction
BMT Broadway Line (R weekdays except late nights)
M15 Select Bus Service
Staten Island Ferry at South Ferry
Main line terminates (1 all times)
 
Brooklyn Branch (2 all times 3 all except late nights)
Financial District Park Place express 2 all times 3 all except late nights August 1, 1918 IND Eighth Avenue Line (A all times C all except late nights) at Chambers Street
IND Eighth Avenue Line (E all times) at World Trade Center
Connection to PATH at World Trade Center
Fulton Street express 2 all times 3 all except late nights August 1, 1918 IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4 all times 5 all except late nights)
IND Eighth Avenue Line (A all times C all except late nights)
BMT Nassau Street Line (J weekdays only Z rush hours, peak direction)
Wall Street express 2 all times 3 all except late nights August 1, 1918
Clark Street Tunnel
Brooklyn Heights Clark Street express 2 all times 3 all except late nights April 15, 1919
Downtown Brooklyn Borough Hall express 2 all times 3 all except late nights April 15, 1919 IRT Eastern Parkway Line (4 all times 5 weekdays until 8:45 p.m.)
BMT Fourth Avenue Line (R weekdays except late nights) at Court Street
becomes the local tracks of the IRT Eastern Parkway Line (2 all times 3 all except late nights)

References

External links

  • nycsubway.org — IRT West Side Line
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