World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Christian J. Lambertsen

Christian James Lambertsen
Dr. Lambertsen, U.S. Army in 1942
Born (1917-05-15)May 15, 1917
Westfield, New Jersey
Died February 11, 2011(2011-02-11) (aged 93)
Newtown Square, Pennsylvania
Residence Newtown Square, Pennsylvania
Nationality United States of America
Fields Aerospace medicine, Undersea medicine, Diving medicine, Hyperbaric medicine, Physiology, and Engineering.
Institutions Institute for Environmental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Alma mater - Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey – B.S. (1939)
- University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – M.D. (1943)
Doctoral students J.M. Clark, J.N. Feld, R.E. Peterson, J.M. Collins, S. Kronheim, M.L Gernhardt, L.H. Fenton
Known for Research in tolerance and toxicity of respiratory gasses and development of diving procedures and equipment.
Notes above from the Dr. Lambertsen's CV dated May 2008.

Christian James Lambertsen (May 15, 1917 – February 11, 2011) was an American environmental medicine and diving medicine specialist who was principally responsible for developing the United States Navy frogmen's rebreathers in the early 1940s for underwater warfare. Lambertsen designed a series of rebreathers in 1940 (patent filing date: 16 Dec 1940) and in 1944 (patent issue date: 2 May 1944)[1] and first called his invention breathing apparatus. Later, after the war, he called it Laru (portmanteau for Lambertsen Amphibious Respiratory Unit) and finally, in 1952, he changed his invention's name again to SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus).[2] Although diving regulator technology was invented by Émile Gagnan and Jacques-Yves Cousteau in 1943 and wasn't originally related to rebreathers, the current use of the word SCUBA is largely attributed to Gagnan's and Cousteau's invention. The US Navy considers Lambertsen to be "the father of the Frogmen".[3][4]


  • Education 1
  • Army career 2
  • Civilian career 3
  • Contributions to environmental medicine 4
    • Predictive Studies Series 4.1
  • Awards 5
    • University and National Civilian Awards and Honors 5.1
    • Military Service and Related Awards 5.2
  • National Service Activities 6
  • Bibliography 7
    • Refereed journals 7.1
    • Patents 7.2
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10


Lambertsen was born in Westfield, New Jersey and attended Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, graduating in 1939 with a bachelor of science degree.[5] He graduated from medical school at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1943.

Lambertsen was awarded Honorary Doctor of Science Degree from Northwestern University in 1977.

Army career

Major Lambertsen served in the U.S. Army Medical Corps from 1944 to 1946. He invented the first Self-contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) and demonstrated it to the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) (after already being rejected by the U.S. Navy) in a pool at a hotel in Washington D.C.[6] OSS not only bought into the concept, they hired Major Labertsen to lead the program and build-up the dive element of their maritime unit.[6] He was vital in establishing the first cadres of U.S. military operational combat swimmers during late World War II. The OSS was also the predecessor of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the maritime element still exists inside their Special Activities Division.[7]

His responsibilities included training and developing methods of combining self-contained diving and swimmer delivery including the Lambertsen Amphibious Respiratory Unit for the OSS "Operational Swimmer Group".[3][4] Following World War II, he trained U.S. forces in methods for submerged operations, including composite fleet submarine / operational swimmers activity.

Civilian career

From 1946 to 1953 Lambertsen served as an instructor to Professor of Pharmacology with the Department of Pharmacology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine though he did spend a year as a Visiting Research Associate Professor from 1951 to 1952 for the Department of Physiology at University College London, England. Lambertsen spent the 1950s concentrating on national research needs in undersea medicine (see National Service Activities below). He again took an appointment as Professor of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1962. He was also named Professor of Medicine in 1972 and Professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine in 1976. Each of these appointments were held until 1987. In 1985, he became Emeritus Distinguished Professor of Environmental Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Lambertsen was the founder and director of The Environmental Biomedical Stress Data Center[8] at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The University of Pennsylvania's annual Christian J. Lambertsen Honorary Lecture is named for him. On May 31, 2007 the guest speaker was Professor Marc Feldmann, head of Imperial College's Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology who is recognised for his discovery of anti-TNF treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, which has led to a new therapy used by more than a million patients. Dr. Lambertsen was in attendance.

Contributions to environmental medicine

Predictive Studies Series

Dr. Lambertsen's "Predictive Studies Series", spanning from 1969 with TEKTITE I to 1997, researched many aspects of humans in extreme environments.[9]


University and National Civilian Awards and Honors

  • 1948–1953 John and Mary R. Markle Scholar in Medical Science
  • 1965 University of Pennsylvania Alumni Award of Merit
  • 1967 Lindback Award for Distinguished Teaching
  • 1969 NASA Commendation
  • 1970 Aerospace Medical Association Award
  • 1970 Undersea Medical Society Award
  • 1972 Marine Technology Society Award for Ocean Science and Engineering
  • 1973 Underwater Society of America Award for Science
  • 1974 New York Academy of Sciences Award for Research in Environmental Science
  • 1977 Member, National Academy of Engineering
  • 1977 Doctor of Science Honorary Degree, Northwestern University
  • 1977 Fellow, College of Physicians of Philadelphia
  • 1978 Distinguished Award for Individuals, Offshore Technology Conference
  • 1979 Award in Environmental Science, Aerospace Medical Association
  • 1979 Award for Naval Undersea Research Training, Undersea Medical Society
  • 1980 Association of Diving Contractors Award
  • 1984 Endowed Visiting Lectureship, Sterling Pharmaceutical Corporation
  • 1989 Distinguished Medical Graduate Award, University of Pennsylvania
  • 1992 Boerema Award, Hyperbaric Oxygen Research, Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society
  • 1995 UDT-SEAL Association Lifetime Achievement Award
  • 1995 Department of Defense Citation
  • 1997 UDT-SEAL Association: Honorary Lifetime Membership
  • 1999 Beneath the Sea: Lifetime Achievement Award
  • 2001 Pioneer Award – Navy Historical Society
  • 2001 CJL Oxygen Symposium X, Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society
  • 2007 American College of Physicians Fellowship Award 2007

Military Service and Related Awards

  • 1945 Legion of Merit, U.S. Army
  • 1945 Major General William J. Donovan, U.S.A., Director, Office of Strategic Services
  • 1945 Lt. Colonel H. Q. A. Reeves, British Army
  • 1945 Lt. Commander Derek A. Lee, R.N.V.R., Burma
  • 1945 Colonel Sylvester C. Missal, M.C., U.S.A., Chief Surgeon, Office of Strategic Services
  • 1945 Commander H. G. A. Wooley, D.S.C., R.N., Director, Maritime Unit, Office of Strategic Services
  • 1946 Presidential Unit Citation, O.S.S. Unit 101, Burma, Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • 1946 U.S. Army Commendation Ribbon, Citation from Major General Norman Kirk, M.C., Surgeon General, U.S. Army
  • 1946 Admiral J. F. Farley, Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard
  • 1946 Colonel H. W. Doan, M.C., Executive Officer, Surgeon General’s Office, U.S. Army
  • 1947 Colonel George W. Read, Jr., President, U.S. Army Ground Forces, Board No. 2
  • 1948 General Jacob L. Devers, U.S.A. Commanding General, U.S. Army Ground Forces
  • 1969 Meritorious Civilian Service Award, Secretary of the Navy
  • 1969 Military Oceanography Award, Secretary of the Navy
  • 1972 Department of Defense Distinguished Public Service Award
  • 1972 Secretary of the Navy Certificate of Commendation for Advisory Service, Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Academy of Sciences
  • 1976 Distinguished Public Service Award, United States Coast Guard
  • 1978 Certificate of Commendation for Outstanding Service on Secretary of the Navy Oceanographic Advisory Committee
  • 1995 British Embassy Citation
  • 1995 U.S. Army Special Forces Underwater Operations School Award: Lifetime Achievement
  • 1996 U.S. Special Forces Green Beret Award
  • 2001 U.S. Special Operations Command Medal
  • 2005 US Chief of Naval Operations Citation

National Service Activities

  • 1953–1960, 1962–1971 Committee on Naval Medical Research, National Research Council
  • 1953–1972 Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Research Council
  • 1953–1956 Chairman, Panel on Underwater Swimmers, Committee on Undersea Warfare, National Research Council
  • 1954–1960 Chairman, Panel on Shipboard and Submarine Medicine, Committee on Naval Medicine Research, National Research Council
  • 1954–1961 Advisory Panel on Medical Sciences, Office of Assistant Secretary of Defense, R and E
  • 1955–1959 Consultant, U.S. Army Chemical Corps
  • 1959–1961 Consultant, Scientific Advisory Board, U.S. Air Force
  • 1960–1962 Chairman, Committee on Man-in-Space, Space Science Board, National Academy of Sciences
  • 1960–1962 Member, Space Science Board, National Academy of Sciences
  • 1962–1980 Consultant, Space Science Board, National Academy of Sciences
  • 1967–1970 Member, President's Space Panel, PSAC
  • 1968–1977 Oceanographic Advisory Committee, Office of Secretary of the Navy
  • 1972 Consultant to the Diving Physiology and Technology Panel, U.S.-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources, U.S. Department of the Interior
  • 1972–1977 Biomedical Sciences Advisor, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Dept. of Commerce
  • 1973–1977 Member, The Marine Board, National Academy of Engineering
  • 1973 Member, Smithsonian Advisory Board
  • 1983 Chairman, Environmental Sciences Review Committee, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  • 1983–1986 National Undersea Research Center Advisory Board, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • 1983–1985 Space Medicine Advisory Panel, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • 1984–1986 Lunar Base Planning Group, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • 1989–1991 NASA Radiation and Environmental Health Working Group
  • 1991–1993 NASA Life Sciences Division Environmental Biomedical Sciences Working Group
  • 1992 NASA Life Sciences. Science and Technical Requirements Document for Space Station Freedom
  • 1993 NASA JSC Medical Advisory Board, Hubble Telescope Repair EVA
  • 1995 NASA JSC "In-Suit" Doppler Panel
  • 1998 Chairman, NASA Advisory Panel, Committee on ISS Decompression Risk Definition & Contigency Plan
  • 1998–1999 Chairman, NASA Life Sciences Decompression Research Peer Reviews


Refereed journals

  • Gelfand R, Lambertsen CJ, Clark JM (August 2006). "Ventilatory effects of prolonged hyperoxia at pressures of 1.5–3.0 ATA". Aviat Space Environ Med 77 (8): 801–10.  
  • Clark JM, Lambertsen CJ, Gelfand R, Troxel AB (March 2006). "Optimization of oxygen tolerance extension in rats by intermittent exposure". J. Appl. Physiol. 100 (3): 869–79.  
  • Lambertsen CJ (2004). "Oxygen 2002. Proceedings of the 10th Symposium on Underwater and Hyperbaric Physiology. La Jolla, California, USA, July 1–2, 2002. Symposium in honor of Dr. Christian J. Lambertsen". Undersea Hyperb Med 31 (1): 1–183.  
  • Floyd, T.F., J.M. Clark, R. Gelfand, J.A. Detre, S. Ratcliffe, D. Guvakov, C.J. Lambertsen, and R.G. Eckenhoff (December 2003). "Independent cerebral vasoconstrictive effects of hyperoxia and accompanying arterial hypocapnia at 1 ATA". J. Appl. Physiol. 95 (6): 2453–61.  
  • Branger AB, Lambertsen CJ, Eckmann DM (February 2001). "Cerebral gas embolism absorption during hyperbaric therapy: theory". J. Appl. Physiol. 90 (2): 593–600.  
  • Clark, J. M., C. J. Lambertsen, R. Gelfand, N. D. Flores, J. B. Pisarello, M. D. Rossman, and J. A. Elias. (January 1999). "Effects of prolonged oxygen exposure at 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 ATA on pulmonary function in men (predictive studies V)". J. Appl. Physiol. 86 (1): 243–59.  
  • Gelfand R, Lambertsen CJ, Clark JM, Hopkin E (January 1998). "Hypoxic ventilatory sensitivity in men is not reduced by prolonged hyperoxia (Predictive Studies V and VI)". J. Appl. Physiol. 84 (1): 292–302.  
  • Lambertsen CJ (August 1998). """Invited editorial on "Fast and slow components of cerebral blood flow response to step decreases in end-tidal PCO2 in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 85 (2): 386–7.  
  • Clark, J. M., B. E. Skolnick, R. Gelfand, R. E. Farber, M. Stierheim, W. C. Stevens, G. Beck, Jr., and C. J. Lambertsen. (November 1996). "Relationship of 133Xe cerebral blood flow to middle cerebral arterial flow velocity in men at rest". J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16 (6): 1255–62.  
  • Clark JM, Gelfand R, Lambertsen CJ, Stevens WC, Beck G, Fisher DG (April 1995). "Human tolerance and physiological responses to exercise while breathing oxygen at 2.0 ATA". Aviat Space Environ Med 66 (4): 336–45.  
  • Clark JM, Jackson RM, Lambertsen CJ, Gelfand R, Hiller WD, Unger M (September 1991). "Pulmonary function in men after oxygen breathing at 3.0 ATA for 3.5 h". J. Appl. Physiol. 71 (3): 878–85.  
  • Lambertsen, C. J. Physiologic factors in human organ oxygen tolerance extension. SPUMS 20(2): 109–120, April–May 1990.
  • Lambertsen CJ (1988). "Extension of oxygen tolerance in man: philosophy and significance". Exp. Lung Res. 14 Suppl: 1035–58.  
  • Dise CA, Clark JM, Lambertsen CJ, Goodman DB (February 1987). "Hyperbaric hyperoxia reversibly inhibits erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid turnover". J. Appl. Physiol. 62 (2): 533–8.  
  • Torbati D, Greenberg JH, Lambertsen CJ (April 1986). "Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate during thirty minutes hypoxia of 7% oxygen in adult conscious rats". Neurosci. Lett. 65 (3): 253–8.  
  • Marsh RR, Lambertsen CJ, Schwartz DM, Clark JM, Wetmore RF (June 1985). "Auditory and vestibular function in hyperbaric oxygen". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 93 (3): 390–3.  
  • Torbati D, Lambertsen CJ (September 1985). "The relationship between cortical electrical activity and regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in rats exposed to 3 atmospheres absolute oxygen". Brain Res. 344 (1): 186–90.  
  • Torbati D, Lambertsen CJ, Greenberg J (April 1984). "Regional cerebral glucose utilization rates in rats during asymptomatic period of exposure to 1, 2 and 3 atmospheres absolute of oxygen". Neuroscience 11 (4): 947–50.  
  • Torbati D, Lo P, Lambertsen CJ (September 1984). "Local cerebral glucose utilization rate following intermittent exposures to 2 atmosphere absolute oxygen". Neurosci. Lett. 50 (1–3): 79–84.  
  • Gelfand R, Lambertsen CJ, Strauss R, Clark JM, Puglia CD (January 1983). "Human respiration at rest in rapid compression and at high pressures and gas densities". J Appl Physiol 54 (1): 290–303.  
  • Torbati D, Greenberg J, Lambertsen CJ (March 1983). "Correlation of brain glucose utilization and cortical electrical activity during development of brain oxygen toxicity". Brain Res. 262 (2): 267–73.  
  • Torbati D, Lambertsen CJ (November 1983). "Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose during hyperbaric oxygen-induced convulsions". Brain Res. 279 (1–2): 382–6.  
  • Bove AA, Clark JM, Simon AJ, Lambertsen CJ (March 1982). "Successful therapy of cerebral air embolism with hyperbaric oxygen at 2.8 ATA". Undersea Biomed Res 9 (1): 75–80.  
  • Greene KM, Lambertsen CJ (June 1980). "Nature and treatment of decompression sickness occurring after deep excursion dives". Undersea Biomed Res 7 (2): 127–39.  
  • Rothman HB, Gelfand R, Hollien H, Lambertsen CJ (December 1980). "Speech intelligibility at high helium-oxygen pressures". Undersea Biomed Res 7 (4): 265–75.  
  • Gelfand R, Lambertsen CJ, Peterson RE (March 1980). "Human respiratory control at high ambient pressures and inspired gas densities". J Appl Physiol 48 (3): 528–39.  
  • Ranade A, Lambertsen CJ, Noordergraaf A (1980). "Inert gas exchange in the middle ear". Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 371: 1–23.  
  • Cowley JR, Allegra C, Lambertsen CJ (July 1979). "Subcutaneous tissue gas space pressure during superficial isobaric counterdiffusion". J Appl Physiol 47 (1): 224–7.  
  • Cowley JR, Lambertsen CJ (July 1979). "Isobaric gas counterdiffusion in rabbit eye". J Appl Physiol 47 (1): 220–3.  
  • Dueker CW, Lambertsen CJ, Rosowski JJ, Saunders JC (December 1979). "Middle ear gas exchange in isobaric counterdiffusion". J Appl Physiol 47 (6): 1239–44.  
  • Spencer J, Findling A,  
  • Takano N, Lever MJ, Lambertsen CJ (February 1979). "Acid-base curve nomogram for chimpanzee blood and comparison with human blood characteristics". J Appl Physiol 46 (2): 381–6.  
  • Gelfand, R., C.J. Lambertsen, J.M. Clark, N. Egawa and C.D. Puglia. Ventilatory and cardiac adjustments during rapid compressions to pressure equivalents of 400-800-1200-1600 feet of sea water. Med. Aeronaut. Spatiale Med. Subaquat. Hyperbare. 17(65): 114–116, 1978.
  • Lambertsen, C.J., J.P.W. Cunnington and J.R.M. Cowley. The dynamics and composition of spontaneous, continuous gas embolism in the pig during isobaric gas counterdiffusion. Fed. Proc. 34: 452, 1975.
  • Lambertsen, C.J., R. Gelfand, R.E. Peterson, R. Strauss, W.B. Wright, J.G. Dickson, Jr., C. Puglia, and R.W. Hamilton, Jr. (September 1977). "Human tolerance to He, Ne, and N2 at respiratory gas densities equivalent to He-O2 breathing at depths to 1200, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5,000 feet (1,500 m) of sea water (predictive studies III)". Aviat Space Environ Med 48 (9): 843–53.  
  • Karreman G, Lambertsen CJ (1977). "Kinetics of isobaric counterdiffusion" (PDF). Bull. Math. Biol. 39 (5): 587–95.  
  • Gelfand R, Lambertsen CJ, Peterson RE, Slater A (July 1976). "Pneumotachograph for flow and volume measurement in normal and dense atmospheres". J Appl Physiol 41 (1): 120–4.  
  • Lambertsen CJ, Idicula J (September 1975). """A new gas lesion syndrome in man, induced by "isobaric gas counterdiffusion. J Appl Physiol 39 (3): 434–43.  
  • Gelfand R, Lambertsen CJ (December 1973). "Dynamic respiratory response to abrupt change of inspired CO2 at normal and high PO2". J Appl Physiol 35 (6): 903–13.  
  • Alexander WC, Leach CS, Fischer CL, Lambertsen CJ, Johnson PC (July 1973). "Hematological, biochemical, and immunological studies during a 14-day continuous exposure to 5.2 per cent O 2 in N 2 at pressure equivalent to 100 FSW (4 ATA)". Aerosp Med 44 (7): 850–4.  
  • Graves DJ, Idicula J, Lambertsen CJ, Quinn JA (February 1973). "Bubble formation in physical and biological systems: a manifestation of counterdiffusion in composite media". Science 179 (4073): 582–4.  
  • Graves DJ, Idicula J, Lambertsen CJ, Quinn JA (March 1973). "Bubble formation resulting from counterdiffusion supersaturation: a possible explanation for isobaric inert gas 'urticaria' and vertigo". Phys Med Biol 18 (2): 256–64.  
  • Johnson PC, Driscoll TB, Alexander WC, Lambertsen CJ (July 1973). "Body fluid volume changes during a 14-day continuous exposure to 5.2 per cent O 2 in N 2 at pressure equivalent to 100 FSW (4 ATA)". Aerosp Med 44 (7): 860–3.  
  • Lambertsen CJ, Wright WB (July 1973). "Multiday exposure to 5.2 per cent O 2 at 4 ATA. Scope of program". Aerosp Med 44 (7): 828–33.  
  • Lambertsen CJ, Wright WB (July 1973). "Multiday exposure of men to high nitrogen pressure and increased airway resistance at natural expired oxygen tension: a 14-day continuous exposure to 5.2 per cent O 2 in N 2 at 4.0 atmospheres absolute pressure". Aerosp Med 44 (7): 826–7.  
  • Lambertsen CJ, Bardin H (July 1973). "Decompression from acute and chronic exposure to high nitrogen pressure". Aerosp Med 44 (7): 834–6.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J., R. Gelfand, M.J. Lever, G. Bodammer, N. Takano, T.A. Reed, J.G. Dickson and P.T. Watson. (July 1973). "Respiration and gas exchange during a 14-day continuous exposure to 5.2 per cent O2 in N2 at pressure equivalent to 100 FSW (4 ATA)". Aerosp Med 44 (7): 844–9.  
  • Leach CS, Alexander WC, Fischer CL, Lambertsen CJ, Johnson PC (July 1973). "Endocrine studies during a 14-day continuous exposure to 5.2 per cent O 2 in N 2 at pressure equivalent to 100 FSW (4 ATA)". Aerosp Med 44 (7): 855–9.  
  • Wright WB, Fisher AB, Hendricks PL, Brody JS, Lambertsen CJ (July 1973). "Pulmonary function studies during a 14-day continuous exposure to 5.2 per cent O2 in N2 at pressure equivalent to 100 FSW (4 ATA)". Aerosp Med 44 (7): 837–43.  
  • Lambertsen CJ (September 1972). "Oxygen in the therapy of gas gangrene". J Trauma 12 (9): 825–7.  
  • Nichols CW, Yanoff M, Hall DA, Lambertsen CJ (April 1972). "Histologic alterations produced in the eye by oxygen at high pressure". Arch. Ophthalmol. 87 (4): 417–21.  
  • Clark JM, Lambertsen CJ (May 1971). "Rate of development of pulmonary O2 toxicity in man during O2 breathing at 2.0 Ata". J Appl Physiol 30 (5): 739–52.  
  • Clark JM, Lambertsen CJ (May 1971). "Alveolar-arterial O2 differences in man at 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.5 Ata inspired PO2". J Appl Physiol 30 (5): 753–63.  
  • Clark JM, Lambertsen CJ (June 1971). "Pulmonary oxygen toxicity: a review". Pharmacol. Rev. 23 (2): 37–133.  
  • Fisher AB, DuBois AB, Hyde RW, Knight CJ, Lambertsen CJ (January 1970). "Effect of 2 months' undersea exposure to N2-O2 at 2.2 Ata on lung function". J Appl Physiol 28 (1): 70–4.  
  • Lambertsen CJ, Bullard RW (November 1970). "Introduction—the scope of the symposium". Aerosp Med 41 (11): 1265.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J., and R.W. Bullard (eds.). Temperature limitations in manned undersea and aerospace operations. Aerospace Med. 41: 1263–1288, 1970.
  • Nichols CW, Lambertsen CJ, Clark JM (April 1969). "Transient unilateral loss of vision associated with oxygen at high pressure". Arch. Ophthalmol. 81 (4): 548–52.  
  • Nichols CW, Lambertsen C (July 1969). "Effects of high oxygen pressures on the eye". N. Engl. J. Med. 281 (1): 25–30.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J. (ed.). Modern aspects of treatment of decompression sickness. Aerospace Med. 39: 1055–1093, 1968.
  • Lambertsen CJ (October 1968). "Concepts for advances in the therapy of bends in undersea and aerospace activity". Aerosp Med 39 (10): 1086–93.  
  • Puy RJ, Hyde RW, Fisher AB, Clark JM, Dickson J, Lambertsen CJ (April 1968). "Alterations in the pulmonary capillary bed during early O2 toxicity in man". J Appl Physiol 24 (4): 537–43.  
  • Fisher AB, Hyde RW, Puy RJ, Clark JM, Lambertsen CJ (April 1968). "Effect of oxygen at 2 atmospheres on the pulmonary mechanics of normal man". J Appl Physiol 24 (4): 529–36.  
  • Lambertsen CJ (1968). "Limitations and breakthroughs in manned undersea activity". Triangle 8 (5): 167–77.  
  • Reivich M, Dickson J, Clark J, Hedden M, Lambertsen CJ (1968). "Role of hypoxia in cerebral circulatory and metabolic changes during hypocarbia in man: studies in hyperbaric milieu". Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. Suppl. 102: IV:B.  
  • Downes JJ, Kemp RA, Lambertsen CJ (December 1967). "The magnitude and duration of respiratory depression due to fentanyl and meperidine in man". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 158 (3): 416–20.  
  • MacInnis J, Dickson JG, Lambertsen CJ (April 1967). "Exposure of mice to a helium-oxygen atmosphere at pressure to 122 atmospheres". J Appl Physiol 22 (4): 694–8.  
  • Downes JJ, Lambertsen CJ (March 1966). "Dynamic characteristics of ventilatory depression in man on abrupt administration of O". J Appl Physiol 21 (2): 447–53.  
  • Lambertsen CJ (1966). "Drugs and respiration". Annu Rev Pharmacol 6: 327–78.  
  • Lambertsen CJ, Gelfand R (January 1966). "Breath-by-breath measurement of respiratory functions: instrumentation and applications". J Appl Physiol 21 (1): 282–90.  
  • Nairn JR, Power GG, Hyde RW, Forster RE, Lambertsen CJ, Dickson J (October 1965). "Diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood flow at hyperbaric pressures". J. Clin. Invest. 44 (10): 1591–9.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J. (July 1965). "Medical implications of high oxygen pressures". Trans Stud Coll Physicians Phila 33: 1–18.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J. (January 1965). "Hyperbaric oxygenation. Oxygen. Introductory remarks". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 117 (2 Hyperbaric Oy): 727–9.  
  • Schmidt, C.F. and C.J. Lambertsen (1965). "Pharmacology in space medicine". Annu Rev Pharmacol 10: 383–404.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J. (April 1963). "The philosophy of extremes for the gaseous environment of manned, closed ecological systems". Aerosp Med 34: 291–9.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J. (1963). "Physiological interactions and gaseous environment in manned exploration of space". Fed. Proc. 22: 1046–50.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J., P. Hall, H. Wollman and M.W. Goodman (June 1963). "Quantitative interactions of increased Po2 and Pco2 upon respiration in man". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 109 (2): 731–42.  
  • Alexander, S.C., R.D. Workman and C.J. Lambertsen (June 1962). "Hyperthermia, lactic acid infusion, and the composition of arterial blood and cerebrospinal fluid". Am. J. Physiol. 202: 1049–54.  
  • Pierce, E.C., Jr., C.J. Lambertsen, S. Deutsch, P.E. Chase, H.W. Linde, R.D. Dripps and H.L. Price (August 1962). "CEREBRAL CIRCULATION AND METABOLISM DURING THIOPENTAL ANESTHESIA AND HYPERVENTILATION IN MAN". J. Clin. Invest. 41 (8): 1664–71.  
  • Pierce, E.C., Jr., C.J. Lambertsen, M.J. Strong, S.C. Alexander and D. Steele (November 1962). "Blood P-CO2 and brain oxygenation at reduced ambient pressure". J Appl Physiol 17: 899–908.  
  • Alexander, S.C., R. Gelfand and C.J. Lambertsen (February 1961). "The pK' of carbonic acid in cerebrospinal fluid". J. Biol. Chem. 236: 592–6.  
  • Toole, J. F., L.J. Barrows, C.J. Lambertsen, and B. Roberts. (March 1961). "Cerebral ischemia and infarction". Am Pract Dig Treat 12: 147–54.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J., S.J.G. Semple, M.G. Smyth and R. Gelfand (May 1961). "H and pCO2 as chemical factors in respiratory and cerebral circulatory control". J Appl Physiol 16: 473–84.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J., H. Wendel and J.B. Longenhagen (March 1961). "The separate and combined respiratory effects of chlorpromazine and meperidine in normal men controlled at 46 mm Hg alveolar pCO2". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 131: 381–93.  
  • Marshall, J.R., and C.J. Lambertsen (January 1961). "Interactions of increased pO2 and pCO2 effects in producing convulsions and death in mice". J Appl Physiol 16: 1–7.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J. (1960). "Carbon dioxide and respiration in acid-base homeostasis". Anesthesiology 21 (6): 642–51.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J. and S.G. Owen (1960). "Continuous, constant-rate sampling modification of nitrous oxide method for cerebral blood flow in man". Methods Med Res 8: 262–9.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J. and H. Wendel (January 1960). "An alveolar carbon dioxide tension control system: its use to magnify respiratory depression by meperidine". J Appl Physiol 15: 43–8.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J., and J.M. Benjamin, Jr. (September 1959). "Breath-by-breath sampling of end-expiratory gas". J Appl Physiol 14: 711–6.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J., S.G. Owen, H. Wendel, M.W. Stroud, A.A. Luria, W. Lochner and G.F. Clark. (November 1959). "Respiratory and cerebral circulatory control during exercise at .21 and 2.0 atmospheres inspired p02". J Appl Physiol 14: 966–82.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J. (July 1958). "From submarines to satellites". Circ. Res. 6 (4): 405–9.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J., J.H. Ewing, R.H. Kough, R.A. Gould and M.W. Stroud, 3rd. (November 1955). "Oxygen toxicity; arterial and internal jugular blood gas composition in man during inhalation of air, 100% O2 and 2% CO2 in O2 at 3.5 atmospheres ambient pressure". J Appl Physiol 8 (3): 255–63.  
  • Stroud, M.W. 3rd, C.J. Lambertsen, J.H. Ewing, R.H. Kough, R.A. Gould and C.F. Schmidt (August 1955). "The effects of aminophylline and meperidine alone and in combination on the respiratory response to carbon dioxide inhalation". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 114 (4): 461–9.  
  • Daly, M.deB., C.J. Lambertsen and A. Schweitzer (July 1954). "Observations on the volume of blood flow and oxygen utilization of the carotid body in the cat". J. Physiol. (Lond.) 125 (1): 67–89.  
  • Daly, M.deB., C.J. Lambertsen and A. Schweitzer (August 1953). "Some observations on the carotid body blood flow in the cat". Am. J. Med. Sci. 226 (2): 230.  
  • Daly, M. deB., C.J. Lambertsen and A. Schweitzer. The effects upon the bronchial musculature of altering the oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions of the blood perfusing the brain. J. Physiol. 119(2&3): 292–314, 1953.
  • Lambertsen, C.J., R.H. Kough, D.Y. Cooper, G.L. Emmel, H.H. Loeschcke and C.F. Schmidt. (March 1953). "Oxygen toxicity; effects in man of oxygen inhalation at 1 and 3.5 atmospheres upon blood gas transport, cerebral circulation and cerebral metabolism". J Appl Physiol 5 (9): 471–86.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J.; Kough, R.H.; Cooper, D.Y.; Emmel, G.L.; Loeschcke, H.H.; Schmidt, C.F. (1953). "Comparison of relationship of respiratory minute volume to PCO2 and pH of arterial and internal jugular blood in normal man during hyperventilation produced by low concentrations of CO2 at 1 atmosphere and by O2 at 3.0 atmospheres". J. Appl. Physiol 5 (12): 803–813. 
  • Lambertsen, C.J., M.W. Stroud, 3rd, J.H. Ewing and C. Mack (December 1953). "Oxygen toxicity; effects of oxygen breathing at increased ambient pressure upon pCO2 of subcutaneous gas depots in men, dogs, rabbits and cats". J Appl Physiol 6 (6): 358–68.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J., M.W. Stroud, 3rd, R.A. Gould, R.H. Kough, J.H. Ewing and C.F. Schmidt. (March 1953). "Oxygen toxicity; respiratory responses of normal men to inhalation of 6 and 100 per cent oxygen under 3.5 atmospheres pressure". J Appl Physiol 5 (9): 487–93.  
  • Loeschcke, H.H., A. Sweel, R.H. Kough and C.J. Lambertsen. (July 1953). "The effect of morphine and of meperidine (dolantin, demerol) upon the respiratory response of normal men to low concentrations of inspired carbon dioxide". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 108 (3): 376–83.  
  • De Daly MB, Lambertsen CJ, Schweitzer A (August 1952). "Bronchomotor responses to altering the gaseous composition of the blood perfusing the brain" (PDF). J. Physiol. (Lond.) 117 (4): 60P–61P.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J., P.L. Bunce, D.L. Drabkin and C.F. Schmidt. (June 1952). "Relationship of oxygen tension to hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the arterial blood of normal men". J Appl Physiol 4 (12): 873–85.  
  • Lambertsen CJ, Clark JK (December 1949). "The pulmonary oxygen diffusion coefficient". Am. J. Med. Sci. 218 (6): 715.  
  • Lambertsen, C.J. Problems of shallow water diving. Report based on experiences of operational swimmers of the Office of Strategic Services. Occup. Med. 3: 230–245, 1947.
  • Lambertsen, C.J., and L. Godfrey. A small efficient hood for oxygen therapy. J.A.M.A. 125: 492–493, 1944.
  • Lambertsen, C.J. A diving apparatus for life saving work. J.A.M.A. 116: 1387–1389, 1941.
  • Atkinson, W.J., Jr., J.L. Dean, E.H. Kennerdell and C.J. Lambertsen. A multiple anomaly of the human heart and pulmonary veins. Anat. Record 78(3): 383–388, 1940.


  • 1944 US 2348074  "Breathing Apparatus." for Use Under Water
  • 1944 US 2362643  "Breathing Apparatus." for Use Under Water
  • 1947 US 2418473  "Hood for Oxygen Therapy."
  • 1948 US 2456130  "Breathing Apparatus." for Use Under Water
  • 1952 US 2586670  "Selective Gas Absorber." for Breathing Apparatus
  • 1957 US 2781043  "Oxygen Admission Valve." for Oxygen Rebreathing Apparatus
  • 1959 US 2871854  "Breathing Apparatus." for use Under Water
  • 1974 US 3794021  "Dual Mode Mixed Gas Breathing Apparatus."
  • 1974 US 3851487  "Buoyant Underwater Structures." for Underwater Work and Oil Trapping
  • 1989 US 4807706  "Breathable Fire Extinguishing Gas Mixtures."

See also


  1. ^ Google PatentsLambertsen's patent in
  2. ^ websitePassedaway.comSee Lambertsen's homage by the
  3. ^ a b Vann RD (2004). "Lambertsen and O2: beginnings of operational physiology". Undersea Hyperb Med 31 (1): 21–31.  
  4. ^ a b Butler FK (2004). "Closed-circuit oxygen diving in the U.S. Navy". Undersea Hyperb Med 31 (1): 3–20.  
  5. ^ Hevesi, Dennis. "Christian Lambertsen, Inventor of Scuba Precursor, Dies at 93", The New York Times, February 25, 2011. Accessed March 5, 2011. "Christian James Lambertsen was born in Westfield, N.J., on May 17, 1917, one of four children of Chris and Ellen Lambertsen."
  6. ^ a b Shapiro, T. Rees (February 19, 2011). "Christian J. Lambertsen, OSS officer who created early scuba device, dies at 93". The Washington Post. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ The Environmental Biomedical Stress Data Center. "The Environmental Biomedical Stress Data Center". Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  9. ^ Clark JM (2004). "The Predictive Studies Series: Correlation of physiologic responses to extreme environmental stresses". Undersea Hyperb Med 31 (1): 33–51.  

External links

  • Lambertsen Publications
  • National Academy of Engineering listing
  • The Environmental Biomedical Stress Data Center Brochure
  • A long biography about him, and about the rebreather that he designed
  • Images of his rebreather
  • New York Times Obituary
  • Christian J. Lambertsen Papers at Duke University Medical Center Archives
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.