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Birkenhead

Birkenhead and Tranmere

The former Birkenhead Town Hall and Wirral Museum, now council offices, committee rooms, and Registry Office, in Hamilton Square
Birkenhead and Tranmere is located in Merseyside
Birkenhead and Tranmere
Birkenhead and Tranmere
 Birkenhead and Tranmere shown within Merseyside
Population 88,822 (2011 Census)
OS grid reference
Metropolitan borough Wirral
Metropolitan county Merseyside
Region North West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town BIRKENHEAD
Postcode district CH41,CH42,CH43,CH49
Dialling code 0151
Police Merseyside
Fire Merseyside
Ambulance North West
EU Parliament North West England
UK Parliament Birkenhead
List of places
UK
England
Merseyside

Birkenhead is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England. Historically in Cheshire, it is on the Wirral Peninsula, along the west bank of the River Mersey, opposite the city of Liverpool. At the 2001 Census, the town had a population of 83,729.[1] By the time of the 2011 census Birkenhead had become an electoral ward of the Local Authority called Birkenhead and Tranmere. The total population of this ward taken at the 2011 Census was 15,879[2] Birkenhead is perhaps best known as a centre for ship building, as a seaport and its related industries.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Toponymy 1.1
    • Early history 1.2
    • 19th century 1.3
    • 20th century 1.4
  • Governance 2
  • Geography 3
  • Economy 4
    • Shipbuilding 4.1
    • Commerce 4.2
    • Economic statistics 4.3
  • Landmarks 5
  • Transport 6
    • Trams 6.1
    • Buses 6.2
      • Birkenhead Bus Station 6.2.1
    • Railways 6.3
    • Roads 6.4
    • Maritime 6.5
    • Airport 6.6
  • Education 7
    • Schools 7.1
    • Colleges 7.2
  • Healthcare 8
  • Arts and leisure 9
    • Arts 9.1
    • Media 9.2
    • Leisure 9.3
    • Sport 9.4
  • Cultural references 10
  • Notable people 11
  • International relations 12
    • Twin towns 12.1
    • Twin towns – Sister cities 12.2
  • Future 13
  • See also 14
  • References 15
  • Bibliography 16
  • External links 17

History

Toponymy

The name Birkenhead probably means "headland overgrown with birch", from the Old English bircen meaning birch tree,[3] of which many once grew on the headland which jutted into the river at Woodside. The name may also be related to the Birket, a stream which enters the Mersey between Birkenhead and Seacombe.

Early history

The Woodside terminal for the Mersey Ferry in Birkenhead
British troops of Western Command clearing up bomb damage in Birkenhead, 15 March 1941.

The earliest records state that the Mersey ferry began operating from Birkenhead in 1150, when Benedictine monks under the leadership of Hamon de Mascy built a priory there.[4][5]

19th century

Distanced from the Industrial Revolution in Liverpool by the physical barrier of the River Mersey, Birkenhead retained its agricultural status until the advent of steam ferry services. In 1817 a steam ferry service started from Liverpool to Tranmere and in 1822 the paddle steamer, Royal Mail, began operation between Liverpool and Woodside.[6]

Shipbuilding started in 1829.[7] An iron works was initially established by William Laird in 1824 and was joined by his son John Laird in 1828. The business eventually became Cammell Laird. Notable naval vessels built at Birkenhead include HMS Achilles, HMS Affray, CSS Alabama, HMS Ark Royal, HMS Birkenhead, HMS Caroline, Huáscar, the pioneer submarine Resurgam, HMS Thetis (which sank on trials in Liverpool Bay during sea trials, and was refloated and commissioned as HMS Thunderbolt, only to be lost to enemy action with the loss of the entire crew), HMS Conqueror and HMS Prince of Wales. Merchant vessels were also built such as RMS Mauretania and RMS Windsor Castle.

The Mersey Railway tunnel opened in 1886, providing direct railway access to Liverpool.

20th century

In September 1932 thousands of unemployed people protested in a series of demonstrations organised by the local branch of the National Unemployed Workers Movement. After three days of rioting, police were brought in from elsewhere to help quell the rioters.[8]

In addition to the ferries and the railway, the Queensway road tunnel opened in 1934 and gave rapid access to Liverpool. This opened up the Wirral Peninsula for development, and prompted further growth of Birkenhead as an industrial centre. The town's population had grown from 110 in 1801 to 110,912 one hundred years later and stood at 142,501 by 1951.[9]

Governance

Formerly a township in Bidston Parish of the Wirral Hundred, Birkenhead was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1877, and became a county borough with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888. The borough included the parish of Birkenhead St. Mary and the townships of Bidston, Claughton with Grange, Oxton, Tranmere and part of Bebington, later known as Rock Ferry.[9] The townships of Landican, Prenton and Thingwall were added in 1928, followed by Noctorum, Upton and Woodchurch in 1933.[10]

Prior to 1 April 1974, Birkenhead and the rest of the Wirral Peninsula were part of the county of Cheshire. The implementation of the Local Government Act 1972 caused Birkenhead to lose its county borough status. The town has since been administered as part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, in the metropolitan county of Merseyside. The current Member of Parliament is Frank Field.

Geography

The Birkenhead Urban Area, as defined by the Office for National Statistics,[11] includes Birkenhead, Wallasey, Bebington, Ellesmere Port and the contiguous built-up areas which link those towns along the eastern side of the Wirral. In the 2011 Census, the area so defined had a total population of 325,264,[12] making it the 19th largest conurbation in England and Wales.

Economy

Shipbuilding

Shipbuilding and ship repair has featured prominently in the local economy since the 19th century. Cammell Laird entered receivership in 2001. The shipyard was sold and became 'Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders', which grew into a successful business specialising in ship repair and conversion, including maintenance contracts for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. In September 2007 NS&S acquired the rights to use the Cammell Laird name. The company was renamed 'Cammell Laird Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders' on 17 November 2008,[13] seeing the famous name return to Birkenhead after a seven-year hiatus. In 2010, Cammell Laird secured a £50 million contract to construct the flight deck for the HMS Queen Elizabeth,[14] the first of two Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers.

Commerce

Birkenhead Market was first established on what is now the site of Birkenhead Town Hall, between Chester Street and Hamilton Street, on 10 July 1835.[15][16] An increase in the town's population by 1841 led to the opening on 11 July 1845[16] of a much expanded market on a larger site nearby. Michael Marks, of Marks & Spencer, opened one of his first seven 'Penny Bazaar' stalls here during the 1880s.[17]

During the 1970s, the commercial centre of the town was redeveloped around the principal shopping area of Grange Road. Following two fires at the expanded Birkenhead Market in 1969 and 1974, it was later moved to new premises adjoining the Grange Shopping Precinct development. Commercial expansion continued in the early 1990s when the Pyramids Shopping Centre was opened. The original market site has been redeveloped with the construction of two office buildings, primarily to house Land Registry and Department for Work and Pensions offices.

Economic statistics

In February 2010, the town had an overall unemployment rate of 8.2% (males 12.4%, female 4.1%) as against a national average of 4.4%.[18]

Landmarks

Birkenhead Park
Edward VII Memorial Clock Tower, designed by Edmund Kirby.

Birkenhead Park is acknowledged to be the first publicly funded park in Britain.[19] The park was the forerunner of the Parks Movement and its influence was far reaching both in Britain and abroad – most notably on Frederick Law Olmsted's design for Central Park.[20] Designed by Joseph Paxton (later Sir Joseph Paxton) in 1843 and officially opened in 1847, it was an immediate social success. The park's Grand Entrance, modelled on the Temple of Illysus in Athens, and its 'Roman Boathouse' are notable features. There are sandstone lodges at the three entrances, each with a different style of architecture, Gothic, Norman and Italianate. There are also two lakes and an ornate 'Swiss Bridge'.

William Laird, a Scot, and his son John, were influential in the design of the town. Parts were laid out in a grid-iron pattern like Edinburgh New Town with similar architecture. The chief architect was James Gillespie Graham from Edinburgh. This grid pattern was centred around Hamilton Square which was started in 1826 and, apart from Trafalgar Square in London, contains the most Grade I listed buildings in one place in England.[21] including Birkenhead Town Hall. A short distance from Hamilton Square are two other notable landmarks: the Queensway Tunnel Main Entrance and the Woodside Ferry Terminal. The film Chariots of Fire had scenes shot at Woodside. These scenes were as a representation of Dover in the 1920s.[22]

Religious landmarks include Birkenhead Priory & St. Mary's Tower, St. James' Church and St. Werburgh's Roman Catholic Church. Other notable landmarks include Bidston Windmill on a ridge behind the town, Flaybrick Watertower and Flaybrick Memorial Gardens.

Transport

Trams

Birkenhead had the first street tramway in Britain. Opened on 29 August 1860 the first line ran from

External links

Bibliography

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  3. ^ E. Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, 3rd edn., p.43
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  30. ^ a b
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  45. ^ Foldi, N.S. (1978). Poole, Daniel (1882–1959)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 11, Melbourne University Press, p. 255. Retrieved on 9 August 2009.
  46. ^
  47. ^

References

See also

The major redevelopment project under consideration is Peel Holdings' "Wirral Waters". This would allow for £4.5 billion of investment in the regeneration of the dockland area. This equates with an investment of over £14,000 for each of the 320,000 residents of the Wirral. At the East Float and Vittoria Dock, the development would include several 50-storey skyscrapers, 5,000,000 square feet (465,000 m2) of new office space and 11,000,000 square feet (1,000,000 m2) for new residential flats. A retail and leisure quarter at the former Bidston Dock site would encompass another 571,000 square feet (53,000 m2) of space. The whole project would create more than 27,000 permanent new jobs, aside from the employment required for construction and other peripheral employment. The development would be expected to take up to thirty years.[47]

Future

Birkenhead also has a Sister City Agreement with:

Twin towns – Sister cities

Birkenhead is twinned, as a part of Wirral, with:

Twin towns

International relations

Alan Rouse, a mountaineer who died in the 1986 K2 disaster, was educated in Birkenhead.

Daniel Poole, a recipient of the Distinguished Conduct Medal during World War I.[45]

Andreas Whittam Smith, founder editor of The Independent, grew up in Birkenhead, where his father was an Anglican clergyman.[44]

Liverpool Philharmonic Hall was born and spent his early years living in Birkenhead.

There are several musicians linked to the area. Freddie Marks from Rod, Jane and Freddie was born in Birkenhead. Indie band Half Man Half Biscuit hail from Birkenhead, as did boogie-rock band Engine, Paul Heaton, lead singer of the Housemartins and the Beautiful South, singer/songwriter Charlie Landsborough and Desmond Briscoe co-founder and original manager of the pioneering BBC Radiophonic Workshop. Elvis Costello moved to Birkenhead in 1971 with his mother,[43] who was from Liverpool, although Elvis's father was himself from Birkenhead. Elvis lived there briefly and formed his first band, a folk duo named Rusty. Tony Friel (bassist from the Fall and the Passage), synthpop musician David Hughes (of Dalek I Love You, Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark and Godot) and Malcolm Holmes (drummer with pop group Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark) were born there. David Balfe (music manager, and member of Dalek I Love You, Big in Japan, the Teardrop Explodes) attended primary and secondary school there.

Birkenhead has also produced notable sportsmen such as Matt Dawson, the rugby union player; 'Dixie' Dean (Everton F.C.), record-breaking footballer, who was born at 313 Laird Street; and several other footballers including Peter Davenport, Jason McAteer, David Thompson. The football manager Nigel Adkins also hails from the town.

The town has produced some notable artists such as Philip Wilson Steer, Robert Talbot Kelly, Tom Palin, Bessie Bamber, Annie R. Merrylees Arnold, the workers at the Della Robbia Pottery and two cartoonists: Norman Thelwell and Bill Tidy.

In the arts, Birkenhead has produced several actors and performers including Lionel Gamlin, Glenda Jackson, Lewis Collins, Megs Jenkins, Patricia Routledge, Paul O'Grady (also known as Lily Savage) and soprano Valerie Masterson. It has also produced poets and authors such as A.S.J. Tessimond, Adrian Henri and Michael Z. Williamson. The World War I poet Wilfred Owen, though born in Oswestry, lived in Birkenhead from the age of 4 and was educated at the Birkenhead Institute High School (now demolished).

Notable people

Birkenhead is indirectly referenced by "the Birken'ead drill" in Rudyard Kipling's poem "Soldier an' Sailor Too": To take your chance in the thick of a rush, with firing all about, / Is nothing so bad when you've cover to 'and, an' leave an' likin' to shout; / But to stand an' be still to the Birken'ead drill is a damn tough bullet to chew, / An' they done it, the Jollies – 'Er Majesty's Jollies – soldier an' sailor too!, as it refers to heroism by Royal Marines during the sinking of HMS Birkenhead, itself named after the town in which it was built. Other authors have done this as well.

A fairly detailed description of the town is given in Paul O'Grady's memoirs, At My Mother's Knee ... and Other Low Joints: The Autobiography.

The town is also referred to in the song "Everything Is Sorrow" on the Boo Radleys' C'mon Kids album: I worked in Birkenhead for you/It brings me tears even now.

Birkenhead is mentioned in the song "What She Said" on the album Meat Is Murder by the Smiths: What she read/All heady books/She'd sit and prophesise/(It took a tattooed boy from Birkenhead/To really really open her eyes).

Cultural references

Located in the town are the Birkenhead North End & Victoria Cycling Clubs. Olympic riders from the clubs include Chris Boardman, Mark Bell, Steve Cummings and Rachel Heal.[41][42]

The Birkenhead Park Football Club was founded in 1871, the same year as the Rugby Football Union. The club originally played in the Lower Park but moved to their current home in the Upper Park in 1885.[39] Birkenhead Park also has its own cricket club.[40]

The first known football club on the Wirral was Birkenhead F.C. which was founded in 1879 by Robert E. Lythgoe, a former Druids F.C. player. Other clubs included Belmont Football Club, founded in 1884. They adopted the name Tranmere Rovers F.C. the following year, and are a professional team who play at Prenton Park near the Tranmere area of the town. They were a founder member of Division Three North in 1921, and were a member of The Football League until 2015, when they were relegated to the Conference, the fifth tier of English football. (An unrelated, disbanded side had played under the name "Tranmere Rovers Cricket Club (Association football section)" in 1881–82.) Cammell Laird F.C. is the town's semi-professional football club who play at Kirklands in Rock Ferry. They are in Northern Premier League Division One North.

Sport

The first two Boy Scout groups in the world were founded as the 1st and 2nd Birkenhead groups at the YMCA on the same night in 1908. The 2nd Birkenhead Scout Group is still operating and therefore is the longest running scout group in the world.

As well as Birkenhead Park, other recreational open spaces in Birkenhead include Mersey Park and Victoria Park. Arrowe Park is a large area of parkland at the western edge of the town. In 1929, the 3rd World Scout Jamboree was held there.

Leisure

Birkenhead is situated within the television regions of BBC North West and ITV's Granada Television.

The local radio station Heart Wirral is based in offices at the Pacific Road Arts Centre. In addition, there are five other local radio stations that transmit to Birkenhead: BBC Radio Merseyside, Radio City 96.7, Magic 1548, Juice 107.6 and CityTalk.

Birkenhead is served by the Liverpool Echo local daily newspaper. The free local weekly newspapers are the Wirral Globe and the Birkenhead News (part of the Wirral News group).

Media

The Argyle Theatre was a major theatre and music hall which opened in 1868 and became notable for the calibre of artistes who appeared there. Later in its life, it was also used as a cinema. The theatre was destroyed by bombing in 1940.[38] The Little Theatre was established in 1958 from a converted former Presbyterian church, whilst more recently, the Pacific Road Arts Centre in Woodside opened in 1999.

[37] also took place at the Birkenhead Eisteddfod.Celtic Congress The first meeting of the international [36], in Welsh) hosted Wales' Penbedw Despite being in England, Birkenhead (known as

In 1856, Birkenhead Library was opened as the country's first public library in an King George V in 1934.

The Laird School of Art was the first public school of art outside London and was given to the town by John Laird. It opened on 27 September 1871. The Williamson Art Gallery was opened in 1928 and houses a fine collection of paintings, porcelain and pottery.

Arts

Arts and leisure

Birkenhead has one of the highest mortality rates among men over 65 in the UK.[31] Birkenhead is served by Wirral University Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (through its Arrowe Park Hospital, St. Catherine's Hospital and Clatterbridge Hospital sites) and Wirral Primary Care Trust. Formerly, Birkenhead was served by Birkenhead General Hospital on Park Road North and St. James' Hospital in Claughton, now demolished and redeveloped for housing; and St Catherine's Hospital in Tranmere.

Healthcare

Other colleges include the Birkenhead Sixth Form College, located in the Claughton area of Birkenhead, formerly the site of Corpus Christi Catholic High School.

Birkenhead's technical college in Woodside (previously in Borough Road), now called Wirral Metropolitan College, had a theatre named after one of its most famous former students and Birkonian (born 1936), Glenda Jackson, the Oscar-winning actress and Member of Parliament. The Borough Road campus and the Glenda Jackson Theatre were demolished in late 2005, to make way for flats, although Wirral Metropolitan College flourishes on other sites across the Wirral. The theatre secretly housed an emergency command centre for the region in its basement, accessible via the college.[30] Politicians and officials would have retreated to this secure bunker in the event of nuclear war to co-ordinate the recovery effort. By the 1990s, after the end of the Cold War, the bunker had been decommissioned and the surrounding complex of rooms was used by the college as a rehearsal space and recording studio.[30]

Colleges

Birkenhead High School Academy, formerly Birkenhead Girls High School, is an all-ability state funded girls' Academy. It was founded in 1885 and caters for girls aged 3–19. Its sponsor was the Girls' Day School Trust, but is now publicly funded. Its alumnae include the actress Patricia Routledge. Birkenhead Girls High School decided to become a state-funded Academy school in 2009, increasing the availability of its education.[29] Like the change to co-education at Birkenhead School, this decision was largely driven by falling pupil numbers; however to this date, it remains a single sex school.

Birkenhead also has two independently run schools. The oldest is Birkenhead School.[27] It was exclusively a boys' school from its founding in 1860 until 2000, when its sixth form became co-educational. It became fully co-educational for pupils aged 3–18 in 2008.[28] "Old Birkonians" (as former pupils are known) include the lawyer F.E. Smith (Lord Birkenhead); Andreas Whittam Smith (chairman of the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) and founder of The Independent newspaper); Andrew Irvine, and Philip Toosey, hero at the Bridge on the River Kwai; and Tony Hall, Director-General of the BBC.

Birkenhead has a number of maintained schools, including University Academy (formed after the merger of Rock Ferry High School and Park High School) and the only all-boys Catholic grammar school in the area St. Anselm's College.

Schools

Education

The nearest airport is Liverpool John Lennon Airport (formerly known as Speke Airport) located about 8 miles (13 km) from Birkenhead.

Airport

During winter months, the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company operates a service from Birkenhead to Douglas using the MS Ben-my-Chree. Due to weather conditions, this service temporarily replaces the route that normally operates from the Liverpool landing stage using fast craft.

Birkenhead's dock system is part of the Port of Liverpool, operated by the Mersey Docks and Harbour Company. The Twelve Quays ferry terminal allows a direct freight and passenger vehicle service to Dublin, Ireland and Belfast, Northern Ireland. The Mersey Ferry at Woodside operates a passenger service to Liverpool and chartered cruising.

Maritime

Junctions 1 and 3 of the M53 motorway allow access to the national motorway network. The A41 trunk road connects Woodside with Marble Arch in London. Two road tunnels, the Queensway road tunnel from Birkenhead, and the Kingsway road tunnel from Wallasey, run underneath the River Mersey and connect the town to Liverpool.

Roads

The town has one operational railway depot, Birkenhead North TMD, one disused, Birkenhead Central TMD, and two demolished, Birkenhead Mollington Street TMD and a further depot adjacent to Birkenhead Park station. The remains of the Birkenhead Dock Branch are still extant in a cutting through the centre of the town, which was used primarily for freight services. Much of the peripheral railway infrastructure, around the docks, has been removed since the 1980s.

From 1878, until its closure in 1967, Birkenhead Woodside railway station was the town's mainline railway terminus. Originally located close to Woodside Ferry Terminal, the site had been redeveloped as part of Cammell Lairds ship builders. Latterly the adjacent dry dock at Cammell Lairds was filled in and the whole area redeveloped to provide flats, a bus depot and offices for HM Land Registry and Child Support Agency (CSA).

The Wirral Line from Birkenhead travels south to Chester and Ellesmere Port, north to New Brighton and westwards, across the Wirral Peninsula, to West Kirby. The Borderlands Line leaves Bidston station, in the north of Birkenhead and travels through the rural centre of Wirral, ultimately leaving England near Shotton and terminating in Wrexham, Wales.

The major underground station in Birkenhead is Hamilton Square, the nearest station to the ferry terminal. Hamilton Square station is linked to the "Liverpool Loop" of the Wirral Line, which includes James Street, Moorfields, Liverpool Lime Street and Liverpool Central stations, all of which are underground. Other stations located in Birkenhead include Birkenhead Central which is open but below ground level, Green Lane which is below ground level, Rock Ferry, Conway Park which is below ground level, Birkenhead Park, Birkenhead North and Bidston.

In 1886 Birkenhead and Liverpool were linked by an underground railway system, which today is part of the Merseyrail network.

Railways

Bus services using the bus station operate around the town of Birkenhead, throughout the Wirral, and to the nearby city of Liverpool via the Queensway Tunnel. The station also has frequent services to as far away as Chester.

It has a total of eleven stands and incorporates a travel centre. The main bus operators at the station include Arriva North West, Avon Buses and Stagecoach North West

Birkenhead Bus Station serves the town of Birkenhead. It is adjacent to The Grange Shopping Centre and Birkenhead Market.

Birkenhead bus station

Birkenhead Bus Station

National Express provides long-distance coach services to other UK cities, with direct routes including London, Glasgow, Bangor and Newcastle.[26]

Present-day services are run by operators including Arriva, Stagecoach and Avon Buses, and coordinated by Mersey travel. Birkenhead bus station opened in 1996.

Horse-drawn buses began operating in Birkenhead in 1848, to be replaced with motor vehicles after the First World War.[25]

Buses

The system was later electrified and operated from 1901 as Birkenhead Corporation Tramways. Two replica trams, imported from Hong Kong, have been brought into service as part of a heritage tramway between Woodside and Wirral Transport Museum, and Birkenhead Corporation Tramways Car No.20 is preserved on this line.

A preserved tram was on display in the Woodside ferry terminal booking hall. [24][23]

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